Eritrea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Erythrea" redirects here. For other uses, see Eritrea (disambiguation) and Erythrean Sea.
Not to be confused with Eretria.
State of Eritrea
  • ሃገረ ኤርትራ  Hagere Ertra
  • دولة إرتريا  Dawlat Iritriyá
Flag Emblem
Anthem: Ertra, Ertra, Ertra
Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea
Capital
and largest city
Asmara
15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333°N 38.917°E / 15.333; 38.917
Official languages [1] English
Ethnic groups (2012[3])
Demonym Eritrean
Government Single-party presidential republic
 -  President Isaias Afwerki
Legislature National Assembly
Formation
 -  Dʿmt c. 980 BC 
 -  Kingdom of Aksum c. 100 BC 
 -  Italian Eritrea 1890 
 -  Eritrean Federation 15 September 1952 
 -  De facto State of Eritrea 24 May 1991 
 -  De jure State of Eritrea 24 May 1993 
Area
 -  Total 117,600 km2 (101st)
45,405 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.14%
Population
 -  2014 estimate 6,536,000 (107th)
 -  2008 census 5,291,370
 -  Density 51.8/km2 (154th)
111.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $4.647 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $710[4]
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $3.881 billion[5]
 -  Per capita $593[5]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.381[6]
low · 182nd
Currency Nakfa (ERN)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +291
ISO 3166 code ER
Internet TLD .er

Eritrea (/ˌɛrɨˈtr.ə/ or /ˌɛrɨˈtrə/;[7] Tigrinya: ኤርትራ? ʾErtrā ; Arabic: إرترياIritriyā), officially the State of Eritrea,[8] is a country in the Horn of Africa. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan to the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea, across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its name Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.

Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups. It has a population of around six million inhabitants. Most residents speak Afroasiatic languages, either of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigray-Tigrinya people make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.[1]

The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, rose somewhere around the first or second centuries[9][10] and adopted Christianity around the time Islam had spread through Egypt and the Levant.[11] In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri Kingdom, with a smaller region being part of the Hamasien Republic. The creation of modern day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent Kingdoms and various vassal states of the Ethiopian empire and the Ottoman Empire, eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Subsequent annexation into Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence following a referendum in April 1993. Hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia persisted, leading to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000 and further skirmishes with both Djibouti and Ethiopia.

Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations and IGAD, and is an observer in the Arab League.

Name[edit]

During the Middle Ages, the Eritrea region was known as Medri Bahri ("sea-land"). The name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa, based on the adjective ἐρυθρός erythros "red"). It was first formally adopted in 1890, with the formation of Italian Eritrea (Colonia Eritrea).[12] The territory became the Eritrea Governorate within Italian East Africa in 1936. Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia in 1953 (nominally within a federation until 1962) and an Eritrean Liberation Front formed in 1960. Eritrea gained independence following the 1993 referendum, and the name of the new state was defined as State of Eritrea in the 1997 constitution.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Eritrea

Prehistory[edit]

At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind and provides a link between hominids and the earliest anatomically modern humans.[13] It is believed that the section of the Danakil Depression in Eritrea was also a major player in terms of human evolution, and may contain other traces of evolution from Homo erectus hominids to anatomically modern humans.[14]

During the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans.[15] It is believed that the area was on the route out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World.[16] In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, Canadian, American, Dutch and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral. The tools are believed to have been used by early humans to harvest marine resources like clams and oysters.[17]

According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley,[18] or the Near East.[19] Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there.[20]

Antiquity[edit]

Punt[edit]

Main article: Land of Punt
Queen Ati, wife of King Perahu of the Land of Punt, as depicted on Pharaoh Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri.

Together with Djibouti, Ethiopia, northern Somalia, and the Red Sea coast of Sudan,[21] Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt, whose first mention dates to the 25th century BC.[22] The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut.

In 2010, a genetic study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back as gifts from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. Led by a research team from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California, the scientists used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies that had been preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the other's oxygen isotope values were compared to those of present-day baboon specimens from regions of interest. The researchers found that the mummies most closely matched modern baboon specimens in Eritrea and Ethiopia, which they suggested implied that Punt was likely a narrow region that included eastern Ethiopia, Somalia, and all of Eritrea.[23]

Ona Culture[edit]

Excavation of archaeological site outside of Sembel.

Excavations at Sembel found evidence of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization in greater Asmara. This Ona urban culture is believed to have been among the earliest pastoral and agricultural communities in the Horn region. Artefacts at the site have been dated to between 800 BC and 400 BC, contemporaneous with other pre-Aksumite settlements in the Eritrean and Ethiopian highlands during the mid-first millennium BC.[24]

Additionally, the Ona culture may have had connections with the ancient Land of Punt. In a tomb in Thebes dated to the reign of Pharaoh Amenophis II (Amenhotep II), long-necked pots similar to those made by the Ona people are depicted as part of the cargo in a ship from Punt.[25]

Gash Group[edit]

Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito.

Excavations in and near Agordat in central Eritrea yielded the remains of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization known as the Gash Group.[26] Ceramics were discovered that were related to those of the C-Group (Temehu) pastoral culture, which inhabited the Nile Valley between 2500-1500 BC.[27] Sherds akin to those of the Kerma culture, another community that flourished in the Nile Valley around the same period, were also found at other local archaeological sites in the Barka valley belonging to the Gash Group.[26] According to Peter Behrens (1981) and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst (2000), linguistic evidence indicates that the C-Group and Kerma peoples spoke Afro-Asiatic languages of the Berber and Cushitic branches, respectively.[28][29]

Kingdom of D'mt[edit]

Main article: Dʿmt
Map of the Kingdom of D'mt in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, circa 400 BC.

D'mt was a kingdom that encompassed most of Eritrea and the northern fringes of Ethiopia, it existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Given the presence of a massive temple complex, its capital was most likely Yeha. Qohaito, often identified as the town Koloe in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea,[30] as well as Matara were important ancient D'mt kingdom cities in southern Eritrea.

The realm developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms until the rise of one of these polities during the first century, the Kingdom of Aksum, which was able to reunite the area.[31]

Kingdom of Aksum[edit]

Main article: Kingdom of Aksum
The Kingdom of Aksum's realm.

The Kingdom of Aksum was a trading empire centered in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia.[32] It existed from approximately 100–940 AD, growing from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD.

According to the medieval Liber Axumae (Book of Aksum), Aksum's first capital, Mazaber, was built by Itiyopis, son of Cush.[33] The capital was later moved to Aksum in northern Ethiopia. The Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century.[9][34]

The Aksumites erected a number of large stelae, which served a religious purpose in pre-Christian times. One of these granite columns is the largest such structure in the world, standing at 90 feet.[35] Under Ezana (fl. 320–360), Aksum later adopted Christianity.[36] In the 7th century, early Muslims from Mecca also sought refuge from Quraysh persecution by travelling to the kingdom, a journey known in Islamic history as the First Hijra. It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the purported home of the Queen of Sheba.[37]

The kingdom is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world. Aksum was at the time ruled by Zoskales, who also governed the port of Adulis.[38] The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own Aksumite currency. The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom.

Medri Bahri and Aussa Sultanate[edit]

Massawa's Sheikh Hanafi Mosque, built in the 15th century.

After the decline of Aksum, the highlands were under the domain of Bahr Negash ruled by the Bahr Negus. The area was then known as Ma'ikele Bahr ("between the seas/rivers," i.e. the land between the Red Sea and the Mereb river).[39] It was later renamed under Emperor Zara Yaqob as the domain of the Bahr Negash, the Medri Bahri ("Sea land" in Tingrinya, although it included some areas like Shire on the other side of the Mereb, today in Ethiopia).[40] With its capital at Debarwa,[41] the state's main provinces were Hamasien, Serae and Akele Guzai.

The Ottoman Empire made multiple advances further inland conquering Medri Bahri in the 16th century.[42] The Ottoman state maintained only tenuous control over much of the territory over the following centuries until it was re-conquered under the Muhammad Ali dynasty in the 19th century.

In southern Eritrea, the Aussa Sultanate (Afar Sultanate) succeeded the earlier Imamate of Aussa. The latter polity had come into existence in 1577, when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa (Asaita) with the split of the Adal Sultanate into Aussa and the Sultanate of Harar. At some point after 1672, Aussa declined in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam's recorded ascension to the throne.[43] In 1734, the Afar leader Kedafu, head of the Mudaito clan, seized power and established the Mudaito Dynasty.[44][45] This marked the start of a new and more sophisticated polity that would last into the colonial period.[45]

Italian Eritrea[edit]

Main article: Italian Eritrea
1922 map of Italian Eritrea.

The boundaries of the present-day Eritrea nation state were established during the Scramble for Africa. In 1869[46] or ’70, the then ruling Sultan of Raheita sold lands surrounding the Bay of Assab to the Rubattino Shipping Company.[47] The area served as a coaling station along the shipping lanes introduced by the recently completed Suez Canal. It had long been part of the Ottoman Habesh Eyalet centered in Egypt.[48] The first Italian settlers arrived in 1880.[47]

In the vacuum that followed the 1889 death of Emperor Yohannes II, Gen. Oreste Baratieri occupied the highlands along the Eritrean coast and Italy proclaimed the establishment of the new colony of Italian Eritrea, a colony of the Kingdom of Italy. In the Treaty of Wuchale (It. Uccialli) signed the same year, King Menelik of Shewa, a southern Ethiopian kingdom, recognized the Italian occupation of his rivals' lands of Bogos, Hamasien, Akkele Guzay, and Serae in exchange for guarantees of financial assistance and continuing access to European arms and ammunition. His subsequent victory over his rival kings and enthronement as Emperor Menelek II (r. 1889–1913) made the treaty formally binding upon the entire territory.[49]

The Fiat Tagliero Building in Asmara, built in 1938.

In 1888, the Italian administration launched its first development projects in the new colony. The Eritrean Railway was completed to Saati in 1888,[50] and reached Asmara in the highlands in 1911.[51] The Asmara–Massawa Cableway was the longest line in the world during its time, but was later dismantled by the British in World War II. Besides major infrastructural projects, the colonial authorities invested significantly in the agricultural sector. It also oversaw the provision of urban amenities in Asmara and Massawa, and employed many Eritreans in public service, particularly in the police and public works departments.[52] Thousands of Eritreans were concurrently enlisted in the army, serving during the Italo-Turkish War in Libya as well as the First and second Italo-Abyssinian Wars.

Additionally, the Italian Eritrea administration opened a number of new factories, which produced buttons, cooking oil, pasta, construction materials, packing meat, tobacco, hide and other household commodities. In 1939, there were around 2,198 factories and most of the employees were Eritrean citizens. The establishment of industries also made an increase in the number of both Italians and Eritreans residing in the cities. The number of Italians residing in the territory increased from 4,600 to 75,000 in five years; and with the involvement of Eritreans in the industries, trade and fruit plantation was expanded across the nation, while some of the plantations were owned by Eritreans.[53]

In 1922, Benito Mussolini's rise to power in Italy brought profound changes to the colonial government in Italian Eritrea. After il Duce declared the birth of the Italian Empire in May 1936, Italian Eritrea (enlarged with northern Ethiopia's regions) and Italian Somaliland were merged with the just conquered Ethiopia in the new Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) administrative territory. This Fascist period was characterized by imperial expansion in the name of a "new Roman Empire". Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of Italian East Africa.[54]

British administration[edit]

An Asmara station on the Eritrean Railway (1938).

Through the 1941 Battle of Keren, the British expelled the Italians,[55] and took over the administration of the country.

The British placed Eritrea under British military administration until Allied forces could determine its fate. The first thing the British did was to dismantle and confiscate the Eritrean industries as war compensation, including parts of the Eritrean Railway system.[56]

In the absence of agreement amongst the Allies concerning the status of Eritrea, British administration continued for the remainder of World War II and until 1950. During the immediate postwar years, the British proposed that Eritrea be divided along religious lines and annexed to Sudan and Ethiopia. The Soviet Union, anticipating a communist victory in the Italian polls, initially supported returning Eritrea to Italy under trusteeship or as a colony. Arab states, seeing Eritrea as an extension of the Arab world, sought the establishment of an independent state.

Federation with Ethiopia[edit]

Flag of Eritrea (1952-1961)

In the 1950s, the Ethiopian feudal administration under Emperor Haile Selassie sought to annex Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. He laid claim to both territories in a letter to Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Paris Peace Conference and at the First Session of the United Nations.[57] In the United Nations, the debate over the fate of the former Italian colonies continued. The British and Americans preferred to cede all of Eritrea except the Western province to the Ethiopians as a reward for their support during World War II.[58] The Independence Bloc of Eritrean parties consistently requested from the UN General Assembly that a referendum be held immediately to settle the Eritrean question of sovereignty.

Following the adoption of UN Resolution 390A(V) in December 1950, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia under the prompting of the United States.[59] The resolution called for Eritrea and Ethiopia to be linked through a loose federal structure under the sovereignty of the Emperor. Eritrea was to have its own administrative and judicial structure, its own flag, and control over its domestic affairs, including police, local administration, and taxation.[57] The federal government, which for all intents and purposes was the existing imperial government, was to control foreign affairs (including commerce), defense, finance, and transportation. The resolution ignored the wishes of Eritreans for independence, but guaranteed the population democratic rights and a measure of autonomy.

Independence[edit]

The Independence Square in Massawa.

In 1958, a group of Eritreans based in Cairo founded the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM). The organization mainly consisted of Eritrean students, professionals and intellectuals. Under the leadership of Hamid Idris Awate, it engaged in clandestine political activities intended to cultivate resistance to the centralizing policies of the imperial Ethiopian state.[60] However, by 1962, the ELM had been discovered and destroyed by imperial authorities.

When Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean parliament and illegally annexed the country in 1962, the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) waged an armed struggle for independence. The ensuing Eritrean War for Independence went on for 30 years against successive Ethiopian governments until 1991, when the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), a successor of the ELF, defeated the Ethiopian forces in Eritrea and helped a coalition of Ethiopian rebel forces take control of the Ethiopian Capital Addis Ababa.

Following a UN-supervised referendum in Eritrea (dubbed UNOVER) in which the Eritrean people overwhelmingly voted for independence, Eritrea declared its independence and gained international recognition in 1993.[61]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Eritrea
Eritrea is on the Red Sea ans includes the Dahlak Archipelago.

Location and habitat[edit]

Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered to the northeast and east by the Red Sea, Sudan to the west, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the east. Eritrea lies between latitudes 12° and 18°N, and longitudes 36° and 44°E.

The country is virtually bisected by a branch of the East African Rift. It has fertile lands to the west, descending to desert in the east. Eritrea, at the southern end of the Red Sea, is the home of the fork in the rift. The Dahlak Archipelago and its fishing grounds are situated off the sandy and arid coastline.

Eritrea can be split into three basic ecoregions. To the east of the highlands are the hot, arid coastal plains stretching down to the southeast of the country. The cooler, more fertile highlands, reaching up to 3000m has different habitat. Habitats here vary from the sub-tropical rainforest at Filfil Solomona to the precipitous cliffs and canyons of the southern highlands.[62]

Mountains near Asmara.

The strategically important Bab-el-Mandeb strait connects the coasts of Eritrea and Yemen. The Afar Triangle or Danakil Depression of Eritrea is the probable location of a triple junction where three tectonic plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate, and the two parts of the African Plate (the Nubian and the Somali plate) splitting along the East African Rift Zone (USGS). The highest point of the country, Emba Soira, is located in the center of Eritrea, at 3,018 meters (9,902 ft) above sea level.

The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, the northern town of Keren, and the central town Mendefera.

In 2006, Eritrea announced it would become the first country in the world to turn its entire coast into an environmentally protected zone. The 1,347 km (837 mi) coastline, along with another 1,946 km (1,209 mi) of coast around its more than 350 islands, will come under governmental protection.

Wildlife[edit]

Main article: Wildlife of Eritrea

See also: List of mammals in Eritrea and List of birds of Eritrea Eritrea has several of mammals and a rich avifauna of 560 species of birds.[63]

A Precis pelarga specimen from Eritrea.

Eritrea is home to an abundant amount of big game species. Enforced regulations have helped in steadily increasing their numbers throughout Eritrea.[64] Mammals commonly seen today include the Abyssinian hare, African wild cat, Black-backed jackal, golden jackal, Genet, Ground squirrel, pale fox, Soemmering’s gazelle, warthog. Dorcas gazelle are common on the coastal plains and in Gash Barka.

Lions and Torah arte-beests are said to inhabit the mountains of the Gash-Barka Region. There is also a small population of elephants that roam in some parts of the country. Dik-diks can also be found in many areas. The endangered African wild ass can be seen in Denakalia Region. Other local wildlife include bushbucks, duikers, greater kudus, klipspringers, leopards, oryxs and crocodiles.,[65][66] The spotted hyena is widespread and fairly common. Between 1955 and 2001 there were no reported sightings of elephant herds, and they are thought to have fallen victim to the war of independence. In December 2001 a herd of about 30, including 10 juveniles, was observed in the vicinity of the Gash River. The elephants seemed to have formed a symbiotic relationship with olive baboons, with the baboons using the water holes dug by the elephants, while the elephants use the tree-top baboons as an early warning system.

It is estimated that there are around 100 elephants left in Eritrea, the most northerly of East Africa's elephants.[67] The endangered painted hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) was previously found in Eritrea, but is now deemed extirpated from the entire country.[68] In Gash Barka, deadly snakes like saw-scaled viper are common. Puff adder and red spitting cobra are widespread and can be found even in the highlands.In the coastal areas marine species that are common include dolphin, dugong, whale shark, turtles, marlin/swordfish, and manta ray.[66]

Government and politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Eritrea

The People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) is the ruling party in Eritrea.[69] Other political groups are not allowed to organize, although the unimplemented Constitution of 1997 provides for the existence of multi-party politics. The National Assembly has 150 seats, of which 75 are occupied by the PFDJ. National elections have been periodically scheduled and cancelled; none have ever been held in the country.[1] The president, Isaias Afwerki, has been in office since independence in 1993.

Independent local sources of political information on Eritrean domestic politics are scarce; in September 2001 the government closed down all of the nation's privately owned print media, and outspoken critics of the government have been arrested and held without trial, according to various international observers, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International.[70][71][72] In 2004 the U.S. State Department declared Eritrea a Country of Particular Concern (CPC) for its record of religious persecution.[73]

National elections[edit]

Building of regional administration in Asmara.

Eritrean National elections were set for 2001 but was then decided that because 20% of Eritrea's land was under occupation, elections would be postponed until the resolution of the conflict with Ethiopia. However, local elections have continued in Eritrea. The most recent round of local government elections were held in 2010 and 2011. On further elections, the President's Chief of Staff, Yemane Gebremeskel said,[74]

As yet, no national elections have been held since independence.[1]

Regions and districts[edit]

Regions of Eritrea.
Map of Eritrea.

Eritrea is divided into six administrative regions (zoba). These are further subdivided into subregions (sub-zoba). The geographical extent of the regions is based on their respective hydrological properties. This is a dual intent on the part of the Eritrean government: to provide each administrative region with sufficient control over its agricultural capacity, and to eliminate historical intra-regional conflicts.
The administrative regions followed by the sub-region are:

No. Region (ዞባ) Sub-region (ንኡስ ዞባ)
1 Maekel
(ዞባ ማእከል)
Berikh በሪኽ, Ghala-Nefhi ጋላ ነፍሒ, Semienawi Mibraq Asmara ሰሜናዊ ምብራቕ አስመራ, Serejeka ሰረጀቓ, Debubawi Mibraq Asmara ደቡባዊ ምብራቕ አስመራ, Semienawi Mi'erab Asmara ሰሜናዊ ምዕራብ አስመራ, Debubawi Mi'erab Asmara ደቡባዊ ምዕራብ አስመራ
2 Anseba
(ዞባ ዓንሰባ)
Adi Tekelezan ዓዲ ተከሌዛን, Asmat አስማጥ, Elabered ዒላበርዕድ, Geleb ገለብ, Hagaz ሓጋዝ, Halhal ሓልሓል, Habero ሃበሮ, Keren ከረን, Kerkebet ከርከበት, Sel'a ሰልዓ.
3 Gash-Barka
(ዞባ ጋሽ ባርካ)
Agordat አቑርደት, Barentu ባረንቱ, Dghe ድገ Forto ፎርቶ, Gogne ጎኘ, Gluj ጎልጅ, Haykota ሃይኮታ, La'elay Gash ላዕላይ ጋሽ, Logo-Anseba ሎጎ ዓንሰባ, Mensura መንሱራ, Mogolo ሞጎሎ, Molki ሞልቂ, Om Hajer ኦምሓጀር, Shambuko ሻምብቆ, Tesseney ተሰነይ.
4 Debub
(ዞባ ደቡብ)
Adi Keyh ዓዲቐይሕ, Adi Quala ዓዲዃላ, Areza ዓረዛ, Debarwa ድባርዋ, Dekemhare ደቀምሓረ, Mai-Ayni(knafna) ማይዓይኒ, Mai-Mne ማይምነ, Mendefera መንደፈራ, Segeneiti ሰገነይቲ, Senafe ሰንዓፈ, Tsorona ጾሮና.
5 Northern Red Sea
(ዞባ ሰሜናዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ)
Afabet አፍዓበት, Dahlak ደሴታት ዳህላክ, Ghela'elo ገላዕሎ, Foro ፎሮ, Ghinda ጊንዳዕ, Karora ቃሮራ, Massawa ምጽዋዕ(ባጽዕ), Nakfa ናቕፋ, She'eb ሽዕብ.
6 Southern Red Sea
(ዞባ ደቡባዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ)
Are'eta አራዕታ, Ma'ekel Dankalia ማእከል ደንካልያ, Debub Dankalia ደቡብ ደንካልያ, Assab ዓሰብ

Military[edit]

The Eritrean Defence Forces are the official armed forces of the State of Eritrea.

Human rights[edit]

President of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki

Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed.[75] According to Human Rights Watch, the government's human rights record is considered among the worst in the world.[76] Some Western countries, particularly the United States, have in particular accused the Eritrean authorities of arbitrary arrest and detentions, and of detaining an unknown number of people without charge for their political activism. However, the Eritrean government has continuously dismissed the accusations as politically motivated.[77]

Since Eritrea's conflict with Ethiopia in 1998–2001, the nation's human rights record has come under criticism at the United Nations.[78] Human rights violations are allegedly frequently committed by the government or on behalf of the government. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association are limited. Those that practice "unregistered" religions, try to flee the nation, or escape military duty are arrested and put into prison.[78]

All Eritreans between the ages of 18-40 must complete a mandatory national service, which includes military service. This national service was implemented after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia, as a precautionary means to be protected against any threats on Eritrea’s sovereignty, to instill national pride, and to improve the country's small economy. Eritrea’s national service requires lengthy conscription periods and or lifetimes in national service.[79]

As an attempt at reform, Eritrean government officials and NGO representatives have participated in numerous public meetings and dialogues. In these sessions they have answered questions as fundamental as, "What are human rights?", "Who determines what are human rights?", and "What should take precedence, human or communal rights?"[80] In 2007, the Eritrean government also banned female genital mutilation.[81] In Regional Assemblies and religious circles, Eritreans themselves speak out continuously against the use of female circumcision. They cite health concerns and individual freedom as being of primary concern when they say this. Furthermore they implore rural peoples to cast away this ancient cultural practice.[82][83] Additionally, new movement called Citizens for Democratic Rights in Eritrea aimed at bringing about dialogue between the government and opposition was formed in early 2009. The group consists of ordinary citizens and some people close to the government.[84]

Media freedom[edit]

In its 2014 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked the media environment in Eritrea at the very bottom of a list of 178 countries, just below totalitarian North Korea.[85] According to the BBC, "Eritrea is the only African country to have no privately owned news media",[86] and Reporters Without Borders said of the public media, "[they] do nothing but relay the regime's belligerent and ultra-nationalist discourse. ... Not a single [foreign correspondent] now lives in Asmara."[87] The state-owned news agency censors news about external events.[88] Independent media have been banned since 2001.[88]

Foreign relations[edit]

General[edit]

Eritrea's embassy in Washington, D.C.

Eritrea is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, and is an observing member of the Arab League. The nation holds a seat on the United Nations' Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ). Eritrea also holds memberships in the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Finance Corporation, International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), Non-Aligned Movement, Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the World Customs Organization.

The Eritrean government previously withdrew its representative to the African Union to protest the AU's alleged lack of leadership in facilitating the implementation of a binding border decision demarcating the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia. The Eritrean government has since January 2011 appointed an envoy, Tesfa-Alem Tekle, to the AU.[89]

Eritrea maintains diplomatic ties with a number of other countries, including China, Denmark, Djibouti, Israel, the United States and Yemen. Its relations with Djibouti and Yemen are tense due to territorial disputes over the Doumeira Islands and Hanish Islands, respectively.

Relations with Ethiopia[edit]

The undemarcated border with Ethiopia is the primary external issue currently facing Eritrea. Eritrea's relations with Ethiopia turned from that of cautious mutual tolerance, following the 30-year war for Eritrean independence, to a deadly rivalry that led to the outbreak of hostilities from May 1998 to June 2000 which claimed approximately 70,000 casualties from both sides.[90] The border conflict cost hundreds of millions of dollars.[91]

Disagreements following the war have resulted in stalemate punctuated by periods of elevated tension and renewed threats of war.[92][93][94] The stalemate led the President of Eritrea to urge the UN to take action on Ethiopia with the Eleven Letters penned by the President to the United Nations Security Council. The situation has been further escalated by the continued efforts of the Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders in supporting opposition in one another's countries.[citation needed] In 2011, Ethiopia accused Eritrea of planting bombs at an African Union summit in Addis Ababa, which was later supported by a UN report. Eritrea denied the claims.[95]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Eritrea
Eritrea's main export distribution.

The economy of Eritrea has experienced considerable growth in recent years, indicated by an improvement in gross domestic product (GDP) in October 2012 of 7.5 percent over 2011.[96] A big reason for the recent growth of the Eritrean economy is the commencement of full operations in the gold and silver Bisha mine and the production of cement from the cement factory in Massawa.[97]

The real GDP (2009 est.): $4.4 billion, and the annual growth rate (2011 est.):14%.[98][99]

However, worker remittances from abroad are estimated to account for 32 percent of gross domestic product.[7] Eritrea has an extensive amount of resources such as copper, gold, granite, marble, and potash. The Eritrean economy has undergone extreme changes due to the War of Independence. In 2011, Eritrea's GDP grew by 8.7 percent making it one of the fastest growing economies in the world.[100] The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) expects it to maintain a high growth rate of 8.5 percent in 2013.

The Eritrean–Ethiopian War severely hurt Eritrea's economy. GDP growth in 1999 fell to less than 1%, and GDP decreased by 8.2% in 2000. In May 2000, the war resulted in some $600 million in property damage and loss, including losses of $225 million in livestock and 55,000 homes.

Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure by asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges as a part of the Warsay Yika'alo Program. The most significant of these projects was the construction of a coastal highway of more than 500 km connecting Massawa with Asseb, as well as the rehabilitation of the Eritrean Railway. The rail line has been restored between the port of Massawa and the capital Asmara, although services are sporadic. Steam locomotives are sometimes used for groups of enthusiasts.

In theory, the country has a national carrier, Eritrean Airlines, but services are intermittent.

Demographics[edit]

Eritrean women performing a traditional Tigrinya dance.

There are nine recognized ethnic groups according to the government of Eritrea.[101][102] Eritrean society is ethnically heterogeneous. An independent census has yet to be conducted, but the Tigrinya people make up about 55% and Tigre people make up about 30% of the population. These form the bulk of the country's predominantly Semitic-speaking population. Most of the rest of the population belong to other Afroasiatic-speaking communities of the Cushitic branch, such as the Saho, Hedareb, Afar and Bilen.

Other Afroasiatic groups include the Rashaida, who represent about 2% of Eritrea's population.[3] They reside in the northern coastal lowlands of Eritrea as well as the eastern coasts of Sudan. The Rashaida first came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Hejaz region.[103] More recently, Hadhrami migrants have also settled in the country.

There are also a number of Nilotic ethnic minorities, who are represented in Eritrea by the Kunama and Nara. Each ethnicity speaks a different native tongue but, typically, many of the minorities speak more than one language.

In addition, there exist Italian Eritrean (concentrated in Asmara) and Ethiopian Tigrayan communities. Neither is generally given citizenship unless through marriage or, more rarely, by having it conferred upon them by the State.

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Eritrea
Saho women in traditional attire.

Eritrea is a multilingual country. The nation has no official language, as the Constitution establishes the "equality of all Eritrean languages".[104] However, Tigrinya serve as de facto language of national identity. With 2,540,000 total speakers of a population of 5,254,000 in 2006, Tigrinya is the most widely spoken language; particularly in the southern and central parts of Eritrea. Modern Standard Arabic serves as de facto national language. English also serves as a de facto national working language, and there are a few monolinguals of Italian.[105]

Most of the languages spoken in Eritrea stem from the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.[106] Among these are Tigre, Tigrinya, the newly recognized Dahlik, and Arabic (the Hejazi and Hadhrami dialects spoken by the Rashaida and Hadhrami, respectively). Other Afroasiatic languages belonging to the Cushitic branch are also widely spoken in the country.[106] The latter include Afar, Beja, Blin and Saho.

In addition, Nilo-Saharan languages (Kunama and Nara) are also spoken as a native language by the Nilotic Kunama and Nara ethnic minority groups that live in the northern and northwestern part of the country.[106]

Italian and English are also spoken as working languages, and are used in secondary and university education.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Eritrea
Eritrea religious groups
U.S Department of State 2011[107] Pew Research 2012[108]
Religion Percent
Christianity
  
50%
Islam
  
48%
Others
  
2%
Religion Percent
Christianity
  
62.9%
Islam
  
36.2%
Others
  
0.9%

According to recent estimates, 50% of the population adheres to Christianity, Islam 48%, while 2% of the population follows other religions including traditional African religion and animism.[107] According to a study made by Pew Research Center, 62.9% adheres to Christianity and 36.2% adheres to Islam.[108] Since May 2002, the government of Eritrea has officially recognized the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Sunni Islam, Catholicism, and the Evangelical Lutheran church. All other faiths and denominations are required to undergo a registration process.[109] Among other things, the government's registration system requires religious groups to submit personal information on their membership to be allowed to worship.[109]

St. Joseph's Cathedral church in the capital Asmara
The 15th century Sheikh Hanafi Mosque in Massawa

The Eritrean government is against reformed or radical versions of its established religions. Therefore, radical forms of Islam and Christianity (viz, Salafism), Jehovah's Witnesses, the Bahá'í Faith (though the Bahá'í Faith is neither Islamic nor Christian), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and numerous other non-Protestant Evangelical denominations are not registered and cannot worship freely. Three named Jehovah's Witnesses are known to have been imprisoned since 1994.[110][111] Additionally, on 28 June 2009, police raided a private home where Jehovah's Witnesses were meeting. 23 were arrested including children as young as two years old. Some of the women and children were later released. None have been charged officially or given access to the judicial process. By 25 July 2014, 73 Jehovah's Witnesses had been imprisoned in Eritrea for conducting secret religious gatherings, engaging in religious activity, and for refusing to undertake national service.[112]

As of 2006, there was only one native adherent of Judaism, Sami Cohen, remaining in Eritrea.[113]

In its 2006 religious freedom report, the U.S. State Department named Eritrea a "Country of Particular Concern" (CPC) for the third year in a row.[114]

Health[edit]

Main article: Health in Eritrea

Eritrea has achieved significant improvements in health care and is one of the few countries to be on target to meet its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets in health, in particular child health.[115] Life expectancy at birth has increased from 39.1 in 1960 to 59.5 years in 2008, maternal and child mortality rates have dropped dramatically and the health infrastructure has been expanded.[115] Due to Eritrea's relative isolation, information and resources are extremely limited and according the World Health Organisation (WHO) found in 2008 average life expectancy to be slightly less than 63 years. Immunisation and child nutrition has been tackled by working closely with schools in a multi-sectoral approach; the number of children vaccinated against measles almost doubled in seven years, from 40.7% to 78.5% and the underweight prevalence among children decreased by 12% in 1995–2002 (severe underweight prevalence by 28%).[115] The National Malaria Protection Unit of the Ministry of Health has registered tremendous improvements in reducing malarial mortality by as much as 85% and the number of cases by 92% between 1998 and 2006.[115] The Eritrean government has banned female genital mutilation (FGM), saying the practice was painful and put women at risk of life-threatening health problems.[116]

However, Eritrea still faces many challenges. Despite number of physicians increasing from only 0.2 in 1993 to 0.5 in 2004 per 1000 population, this is still very low.[115] Malaria and tuberculosis are common in Eritrea.[117] HIV prevalence among the 15–49 group exceeds 2%.[117] The fertility rate is at about 5 births per woman.[117] Maternal mortality dropped by more than half from 1995 to 2002, although the figure is still high.[115] Similarly, between 1995 and 2002, the number of births attended by skilled health personnel has doubled but still is only 28.3%.[115] A major cause of death in neonates is by severe infection.[117] Per capita expenditure on health is low in Eritrea.[117]

Largest cities[edit]

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Eritrea

There are five levels of education in Eritrea: pre-primary, primary, middle, secondary, and post-secondary. There are nearly 238,000 students in the primary, middle, and secondary levels of education. There are approximately 824 schools[118] in Eritrea and two universities (the University of Asmara and the Eritrea Institute of Technology) as well as several smaller colleges and technical schools.

Education in Eritrea is officially compulsory between seven and 13 years of age. However, the education infrastructure is inadequate to meet current needs. Statistics vary at the elementary level, suggesting that between 65 and 70% of school-aged children attend primary school; Approximately 61% attend secondary school. Student-teacher ratios are high: 45 to 1 at the elementary level and 54 to 1 at the secondary level. There are an average 63 students per classroom at the elementary level and 97 per classroom at the secondary level. Learning hours at school are often less than six hours per day. Skill shortages are present at all levels of the education system, and funding for and access to education vary significantly by gender and location. Illiteracy estimates for Eritrea range from around 40% to as high as 70%.[119]

Barriers to education in Eritrea include traditional taboos, school fees (for registration and materials), and the opportunity costs of low-income households.[120]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Eritrea
An Eritrean woman pouring traditionally brewed coffee into finjal from a jebena.

The culture of Eritrea has been largely shaped by the country's location on the Red Sea coast. One of the most recognizable parts of Eritrean culture is the coffee ceremony.[121] Coffee (Ge'ez ቡን būn) is offered when visiting friends, during festivities, or as a daily staple of life. If it is politely declined, then most likely tea ("shai" ሻሂ shahee) will instead be served.

Traditional Eritrean attire is quite varied among the different ethnic groups of Eritrea. In the big cities most of the people in the larger cities, dress casually clothes, with jeans, shirts, typically western. In offices both men and women often dress in suits. Traditional clothing for the Christian Tigrinya-speaking highlanders consits of bright white gowns called zurias, and the men wear long white shirts accompanied by white pants. Of the Muslim communities in the Eritrean lowland the women traditionally dress in brightly colored clothes. only Rashaida women maintain a tradition of covering half of their faces, but they do not cover their hair.

Besides convergent culinary tastes, Eritreans share an appreciation for similar music and lyrics, jewelry and fragrances, and tapestry and fabrics as other populations in the Horn region.[122]

Cuisine[edit]

A typical Eritrean dish consists of injera accompanied by a spicy stew, which frequently includes beef, kid, lamb or fish. [123] Overall, Eritrean cuisine strongly resembles those of neighboring Ethiopia and Somalia,[123][124] except for the fact that Eritrean and Somali cooking tend to feature more seafood than Ethiopian cuisine on account of their coastal locations.[123] Eritrean dishes are also frequently "lighter" in texture than Ethiopian meals. They likewise tend to employ less seasoned butter and spices and more tomatoes, as in the tsebhi dorho delicacy. Additionally, owing to its colonial history, cuisine in Eritrea features more Ottoman and Italian influences than are present in Ethiopian cooking, including more pasta and greater use of curry powders and cumin.[125] Alongside sowa, people in Eritrea also tend to drink coffee, whereas sweetened tea is preferred in Somalia.[123] Mies is another popular local alcoholic beverage, made out of honey.[126]

Music[edit]

Eritrean artist Helen Meles

Eritrea's various ethnic groups each have their own different styles of music and accompanying dances. Amongst the Tigrinya, the best known traditional musical genre is the guaila. Traditional instruments of Eritrean folk music include the stringed kraar, kebero, lyre, kobar and the wata (a distant/rudimentary cousin of the violin). The most popular Eritrean artist is the Tigrinya singer Helen Meles, who is noted for her powerful voice and wide singing range.[127] Other prominent local musicians include the Kunama singer Dehab Faytinga, Ruth Abraha, Bereket Mengisteab, Yemane Baria, and the late Abraham Afewerki.

Sport[edit]

Cyclists competing in the Tour of Eritrea in Asmara.

Football and cycling are the most popular sports in Eritrea. In recent years, Eritrean athletes have also seen increasing success in the international arena. Zersenay Tadese, an Eritrean athlete, currently holds the world record in half marathon distance running.[128] The Tour of Eritrea, a multi-stage international cycling event, is held annually throughout the country. The Eritrea national cycling team has experienced a lot of success, winning the continental cycling championship several years in a row. Six Eritrean riders have been signed to international cycling teams, including Natnael Berhane and Daniel Teklehaimanot. Berhane was the first Eritrean to compete in the Tour de France, and his performances earned him African Sportsman of the Year honors in 2013, while Teklehaimanot became the first Eritrean to ride the Vuelta a España in 2012.[129]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Eritrea entry at The World Factbook
  2. ^ a b Hailemariam, Chefena; Kroon, Sjaak; Walters, Joel (1999). "Multilingualism and Nation Building: Language and Education in Eritrea". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 20 (6): 474–493. doi:10.1080/01434639908666385. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b CIA – Eritrea – Ethnic groups. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 25 June 2012.
  4. ^ a b "Eritrea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Eritrea". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Merriam-Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 25 April 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  8. ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-13 International Organization for Standardization
  9. ^ a b Munro-Hay, Stuart (1991) Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, p. 57 ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
  10. ^ Henze, Paul B. (2005) Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, ISBN 1-85065-522-7.
  11. ^ Aksumite Ethiopia. Workmall.com (24 March 2007). Retrieved on 3 March 2012.
  12. ^ http://books.google.se/books?id=SYsgpIc3mrsC&pg=PA7&dq=eritrea+colony&hl=sv&sa=X&ei=OGV6U_2DPIjgygPR-oCQCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=eritrea%20colony&f=false
  13. ^ McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (9th ed.). The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. 2002. ISBN 0-07-913665-6. 
  14. ^ "Pleistocene Park". 1999-09-08. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  15. ^ Walter RC, Buffler RT, Bruggemann JH, et al. (2000). "Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial". Nature 405 (6782): 65–9. doi:10.1038/35011048. PMID 10811218. 
  16. ^ Walter, Robert C.; Buffler, RT; Bruggemann, JH; Guillaume, MM; Berhe, SM; Negassi, B; Libsekal, Y; Cheng, H et al. (2000-05-04). "Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the lastinterglacial". Nature 405 (6782): 65–69. doi:10.1038/35011048. PMID 10811218. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  17. ^ "Out of Africa". 1999-09-10. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  18. ^ Zarins, Juris (1990), "Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia", (Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research)
  19. ^ Diamond J, Bellwood P (2003) Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions SCIENCE 300, doi:10.1126/science.1078208
  20. ^ Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman Altamira. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0759104662. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  21. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=CzlEAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA21&dq=eritrea+name&hl=sv&sa=X&ei=h2N6U6ZLzNLhBJLagJAJ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=eritrea%20name&f=false
  22. ^ Najovits, Simson (2004) Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, Algora Publishing, p. 258, ISBN 087586256X.
  23. ^ Owen Jarus ,"Baboon mummy analysis reveals Eritrea and Ethiopia as location of land of Punt". The Independent. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  24. ^ Schmidt, Peter R. (2002). "The 'Ona' culture of greater Asmara: archaeology's liberation of Eritrea's ancient history from colonial paradigms". Journal of Eritrean Studies 1 (1): 29–58. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  25. ^ Avanzini, Alessandra (1997). Profumi d'Arabia: atti del convegno. L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER. p. 280. ISBN 8870629759. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Leclant, Jean (1993). Sesto Congresso internazionale di egittologia: atti, Volume 2. International Association of Egyptologists. p. 402. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  27. ^ Cole, Sonia Mary (1964). The Prehistory of East. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 273. 
  28. ^ Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, Roger Blench, Kevin MacDonald (ed.) (2014). The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography - "Linguistic evidence for the prehistory of livestock in Sudan" (2000). Routledge. p. 453. ISBN 1135434166. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  29. ^ Behrens, Peter (1986). Libya Antiqua: Report and Papers of the Symposium Organized by Unesco in Paris, 16 to 18 January 1984 - "Language and migrations of the early Saharan cattle herders: the formation of the Berber branch". Unesco. p. 30. ISBN 9231023764. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  30. ^ G.W.B. Huntingford, Historical Geography of Ethiopia from the first century AD to 1704 (London: British Academy, 1989), pp. 38f
  31. ^ Pankhurst, Richard K.P. (17 January 2003) "Let's Look Across the Red Sea I" at the Wayback Machine (archived January 9, 2006), Addis Tribune
  32. ^ David Phillipson: revised by Michael DiBlasi (Second Edition edition (1 Nov 2012)). Neil Asher Silberman, ed. Oxford University Press. p. 48 http://www.google.com/books?id=xeJMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA48&dq=Aksum+eritrea&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Hh7NUozMMKb07AaFmYCADQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=Aksum%20eritrea&f=false.  Check date values in: |date= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. ^ Africa Geoscience Review, Volume 10. Rock View International. 2003. p. 366. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  34. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, 2005.
  35. ^ Brockman, Norbert (2011). Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 30. ISBN 159884654X. 
  36. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart C. (1991). Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 77. ISBN 0748601066. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  37. ^ Raffaele, Paul (December 2007). "Keepers of the Lost Ark?". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  38. ^ Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea, chs. 4, 5
  39. ^ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia (1270–1527) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), p.74.
  40. ^ Daniel Kendie, The Five Dimensions of the Eritrean Conflict 1941–2004: Deciphering the Geo-Political Puzzle. United States of America: Signature Book Printing, Inc., 2005, pp.17-8.
  41. ^ Edward Denison, Guang Yu Ren, Naigzy Gebremedhin Asmara: Africa's secret modernist city, 2003. (page 20)
  42. ^ Okbazghi Yohannes (1991). A Pawn in World Politics: Eritrea. University of Florida Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-8130-1044-6. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  43. ^ Mordechai Abir, The era of the princes: the challenge of Islam and the re-unification of the Christian empire, 1769-1855 (London: Longmans, 1968), p. 23 n.1.
  44. ^ Mordechai Abir, The era of the princes: the challenge of Islam and the re-unification of the Christian empire, 1769-1855 (London: Longmans, 1968), pp. 23-26.
  45. ^ a b Pankhurst, Richard (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Red Sea Press. ISBN 0932415199. 
  46. ^ Ullendorff, Edward. The Ethiopians: An Introduction to Country and People 2nd ed., p. 90. Oxford University Press (London), 1965). ISBN 0-19-285061-X.
  47. ^ a b "Assab" in the Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed, Vol. 2. 1911. Hosted at Wikisource.
  48. ^ "Egypt" in the Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed. 1911.
  49. ^ Abyssinia" [i.e., Ethiopia
  50. ^ Cf. engineer Emilio Olivieri's http://www.ferroviaeritrea.it/la_ferrovia_massauasaati.htm report on the construction of the Massawa–Saati Railway] (1888), hosted at Ferrovia Eritrea. (Italian)
  51. ^ "Eritrean Railway" at Ferrovia Eritrea. Template:It-icon
  52. ^ Eritrea- Contenuti
  53. ^ Italian administration in Eritrea
  54. ^ Italian industries in colonial Eritrea
  55. ^ Law, Gwillim. "Regions of Eritrea". Administrative Divisions of Countries ('Statoids'). Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  56. ^ Eritrea Horizons: The Magazine of Eritrea's Tourist Industry, Volume 2, Issue 1. Camerapix Publishers International. 1998. p. 45. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  57. ^ a b Habte Selassie, Bereket (1989). Eritrea and the United Nations. Red Sea Press. ISBN 0-932415-12-1. 
  58. ^ Top Secret Memorandum of 1949-03-05, written with the UN Third Session in view, from Mr. Rusk to the Secretary of State.
  59. ^ United Nations General Assembly. "Eritrea: Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea; Report of the Interim Committee of the General Assembly on the Report of the United Nations Commission for Eritrea". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  60. ^ Ofcansky, TP Berry, L (2004) Ethiopia, a country study, Kessinger Publishing, p. 69
  61. ^ "Eritrea – The spreading revolution". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  62. ^ http://www.fatbirder.com/links_geo/africa/eritrea.html
  63. ^ http://ibis.atwebpages.com/birdwatching_in_eritrea/
  64. ^ http://www.madote.com/2010/04/photos-of-eritreas-wildlife-animals.html#ixzz3EjqMQquW
  65. ^ http://www.explore-eritrea.com/Wildlife.htm
  66. ^ a b http://ibis.atwebpages.com/birdwatching_in_eritrea/wildlife.htm
  67. ^ "The rediscovery of Eritrea's elephants". BBC Wildlife Magazine. July 2003. Archived from the original on 2006-03-14. Retrieved 28 July 2007. 
  68. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (31 January 2009) Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com.
  69. ^ "Country profile: Eritrea". BBC News. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  70. ^ Human Rights Watch,. "World Report 2014: Eritrea". http://www.hrw.org/world-report/2014/country-chapters/eritrea. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  71. ^ "Eritrea: Prisoners of conscience held for a decade must be released". Amnesty Interational. Amnesty International. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  72. ^ Amnesty International,. "Eritrea: Amnesty International condemns Eritrea’s appalling anniversary – 11 years of incommunicado arbitrary detention". http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR64/001/2012/en/ead3bb6e-9dd7-4b98-9fdb-86eb135707a7/afr640012012en.html. Amnesty International. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  73. ^ "2005 Executive Summary". International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  74. ^ Interview of Mr. Brandon Edmonds, Director of the Office of the President of Eritrea, PFDJ (1 April 2004)
  75. ^ Eritrea at the Wayback Machine (archived July 24, 2008). Grassroots International
  76. ^ Eritrea Human Rights Overview. Human Rights Watch (2006)
  77. ^ "HUMAN RIGHTS AND ERITREA’S REALITY". E Smart. E Smart Campaign. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  78. ^ a b Associated Press (25 October 2013). "Eritrea's human rights record comes under fire at United Nations". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  79. ^ [1] [2]
  80. ^ "Public Dialogue Human Rights in Eritrea". 2006-06-01. Archived from the original on 2006-09-08. Retrieved 2006-09-10. 
  81. ^ "Eritrea bans female circumcision". BBC News. 2007-04-04. 
  82. ^ "Anseba Religious leaders condemn female circumcision". 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2006-09-10. [dead link]
  83. ^ "Religious leaders of Northern Red Sea region condemn female circumcision". 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2006-09-10. [dead link]
  84. ^ Plaut, Martin (2009-01-11). "Eritrea group seeks human rights". BBC News. 
  85. ^ "Press Freedom Index 2010 – Reporters Without Borders". En.rsf.org. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  86. ^ "Country profile: Eritrea". BBC News. 30 November 2010. 
  87. ^ "World Report – Eritrea – Reporters Without Borders". En.rsf.org. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  88. ^ a b Keita, Mohamed (18 February 2011). "Sub-Saharan Africa censors Mideast protests". Committee to Protect Journalists. 
  89. ^ Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (20 January 2011). "Eritrea appoints AU envoy in Ethiopia – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 2011-02-24. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  90. ^ "Ethiopian raid on Eritrean bases raises fears of renewed conflict". The Guardian. 16 March 2012.
  91. ^ Will arms ban slow war? BBC. 18 May 2000
  92. ^ "Horn tensions trigger UN warning". BBC. 4 February 2004. Retrieved 7 June 2006. 
  93. ^ "Army build-up near Horn frontier". BBC. 2 November 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2006. 
  94. ^ "Horn border tense before deadline". BBC. 23 December 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2006. 
  95. ^ Rice, Xan (28 July 2011). "Eritrea planned massive bomb attack on African Union summit, UN says". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  96. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Eritrea. Imf.org (14 September 2006). Retrieved on 20 September 2013.
  97. ^ "Eritrea Economic Outlook - African Development Bank". Afdb.org. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  98. ^ Eritrea Overview. Worldbank.org (19 October 2012). Retrieved on 20 September 2013.
  99. ^ "Eritrea". State.gov. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  100. ^ Kirkby, Daniela. Eritrea: Africa’s Economic Success Story. iNewp.com. Retrieved on 20 September 2013.
  101. ^ "Eritrean Culture » Embassy of The State of Eritrea". Eritrean-embassy.se. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  102. ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  103. ^ Alders, Anne. "the Rashaida". Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  104. ^ "Constitution of the State of Eritrea". Shaebia.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  105. ^ "Eritrea - Languages". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  106. ^ a b c Minahan, James (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 76. ISBN 0-313-30610-9. The majority of the Eritreans speak Semitic or Cushitic languages of the Afroasiatic language group. The Kunama, Baria, and other smaller groups in the north and northwest speak Nilotic languages. 
  107. ^ a b http://www.webcitation.org/5ywEZKW1R
  108. ^ a b http://www.pewforum.org/files/2009/10/Muslimpopulation.pdf
  109. ^ a b Fisher, Jonah (17 September 2004). "Religious persecution in Eritrea". BBC News. Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
  110. ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses — Eritrea Country Profile – October 2008". Retrieved 25 September 2009. 
  111. ^ "Twenty Years of Imprisonment in Eritrea—Will It Ever End?". jw.org. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  112. ^ "Imprisoned for Their Faith". jw.org. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  113. ^ Harris, Ed (2006-04-30). "Asmara's last Jew recalls 'good old days'". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  114. ^ "Eritrea. International Religious Freedom Report 2008". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  115. ^ a b c d e f g Rodríguez Pose, Romina and Samuels, Fiona (2010) Progress in health in Eritrea: Cost-effective inter-sectoral interventions and a long-term perspective. London: Overseas Development Institute
  116. ^ "IRIN Africa | ERITREA: Government outlaws female genital mutilation | Eritrea | Gender Issues | Human Rights". Irinnews.org. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  117. ^ a b c d e Health profile at Eritrea WHO Country Office. afro.who.int
  118. ^ Baseline Study on Livelihood Systems in Eritrea. National Food Information System of Eritrea. January 2005. 
  119. ^ Eritrea country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (September 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  120. ^ Kifle, Temesgen (2002). Educational Gender Gap in Eritrea.  PDF copy
  121. ^ It’s coffee time Network Africa Online, April 2008 interview.
  122. ^ Tekle, Amare (1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation. The Red Sea Press. p. 197. ISBN 0932415970. 
  123. ^ a b c d Pamela Goyan Kittler, Kathryn P. Sucher, Marcia Nahikian-Nelms (2011). Food and Culture, 6th ed.. Cengage Learning. p. 202. ISBN 0538734973. 
  124. ^ Tekle, Amare (1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Cooperation. The Red Sea Press. p. 142. ISBN 0932415970. 
  125. ^ Carman, Tim (9 January 2009). "Mild Frontier: the differences between Eritrean and Ethiopian cuisines come down to more than spice". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  126. ^ Eritrea: Travel Trade Manual. Ministry of Tourism of Eritrea. 2000. p. 4. 
  127. ^ Blum, Bruno (2007). De l'art de savoir chanter, danser et jouer la bamboula comme un éminent musicien africain: le guide des musiques africaines. Scali. p. 198. ISBN 2350121976. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  128. ^ World records ratified. Iaaf.org (8 May 2010). Retrieved on 20 September 2013.
  129. ^ "Berhane could become the first Eritrean to ride the Tour de France". Cycling News. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Beretekeab R. (2000); Eritrean making of a Nation 1890–1991, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
  • Cliffe, Lionel; Connell, Dan; Davidson, Basil (2005), Taking on the Superpowers: Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1976–1982). Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-188-0
  • Cliffe, Lionel & Davidson, Basil (1988), The Long Struggle of Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace. Spokesman Press, ISBN 0-85124-463-7
  • Connell, Dan (1997), Against All Odds: A Chronicle of the Eritrean Revolution With a New Afterword on the Postwar Transition. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-046-9
  • Connell, Dan (2001), Rethinking Revolution: New Strategies for Democracy & Social Justice : The Experiences of Eritrea, South Africa, Palestine & Nicaragua. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-145-7
  • Connell, Dan (2004), Conversations with Eritrean Political Prisoners. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-235-6
  • Connell, Dan (2005), Building a New Nation: Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1983–2002). Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-198-8
  • Firebrace, James & Holand, Stuart (1985), Never Kneel Down: Drought, Development and Liberation in Eritrea. Red Sea Press, ISBN 0-932415-00-8
  • Gebre-Medhin, Jordan (1989), Peasants and Nationalism in Eritrea. Red Sea Press, ISBN 0-932415-38-5
  • Hatem Elliesie: Decentralisation of Higher Education in Eritrea, Afrika Spectrum, Vol. 43 (2008) No. 1, p. 115–120.
  • Hill, Justin (2002), Ciao Asmara, A classic account of contemporary Africa. Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0-349-11526-9
  • Iyob, Ruth (1997), The Eritrean Struggle for Independence : Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941–1993. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59591-6
  • Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique; Plaut, Martin (2004), Unfinished Business: Ethiopia and Eritrea at War. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-217-8
  • Johns, Michael (1992), "Does Democracy Have a Chance", Congressional Record, 6 May 1992
  • Keneally, Thomas (1990), "To Asmara" ISBN 0-446-39171-9
  • Kendie, Daniel (2005), The Five Dimensions Of The Eritrean Conflict 1941–2004: Deciphering the Geo-Political Puzzle. Signature Book Printing, ISBN 1-932433-47-3
  • Killion, Tom (1998), Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-3437-5
  • Mauri, Arnaldo (2004), "Eritrea's Early Stages in Monetary and Banking Development", International Review of Economics, Vol. LI, n. 4, [3]
  • Mauri, Arnaldo (1998), "The First Monetary and Banking Experiences in Eritrea", African Review of Money, Finance and Banking, n. 1–2.
  • Miran, Jonathan (2009), Red Sea Citizens: Cosmopolitan Society and Cultural Change in Massawa. Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-22079-0
  • Müller, Tanja R.: Bare life and the developmental State: the Militarization of Higher Education in Eritrea, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 46 (2008), No. 1, p. 1–21.
  • Negash T. (1987); Italian Colonisation in Eritrea: Policies, Praxis and Impact, Uppsala Univwersity, Uppsala.
  • Ogbaselassie, G (10 January 2006). "Response to remarks by Mr. David Triesman, Britain's parliamentary under-secretary of state with responsibility for Africa". Retrieved 7 June 2006. 
  • Pateman, Roy (1998), Eritrea: Even the Stones Are Burning. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-057-4
  • Phillipson, David W. (1998), Ancient Ethiopia.
  • Reid, Richard. (2011) Frontiers of violence in north-east Africa: genealogies of conflict since c.1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199211883
  • Wrong, Michela (2005), I Didn't Do It For You: how the world betrayed a small African Nation. Harper Collins, ISBN 0-06-078092-4

External links[edit]

Government
Other
Magazine