Imperial Government (Ottoman Empire)

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The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) was in power between 1908 and 1918. In this period, most of the ministers were also from the CUP.

The imperial government was housed in the block of buildings referred to metonymously as the Sublime Porte, and was composed of:

Education Minister[edit]

War Department[edit]

Ministers of War[edit]

War Council[edit]

Chiefs of General Staff

  • Ahmed Izzet Pasha from August 15, 1908 to January 1, 1914
  • Enver Pasha from January 3, 1914 to October 4, 1918
  • Ahmed Izzet Pasha October 4, 1918 to November 3, 1918
  • Djevad Pasha from November 3, 1918 to December 24, 1918
  • Fevzi Pasha from December 24, 1918 to May 14, 1919
  • Djevad Pasha from May 14, 1919 to August 2, 1919
  • Hadi Pasha from August 2, 1919 to September 12, 1919
  • Fuad Pasha from September 12, 1919 to October 9, 1919
  • Djevad Pasha from October 9, 1919 to February 16, 1920
  • Shevket Turgut Pasha from February 16, 1920 to April 19, 1920
  • Nazif Pasha from April 19, 1920 to May 2, 1920
  • Hadi Pasha from May 2, 1920 to May 19, 1920

British Naval Mission[edit]

British Naval Mission was led by Admiral Limpus.

French Gendarmerie Mission[edit]

French Gendarmerie Mission was led by General Moujen.

German Military Mission[edit]

The German military mission become the third most important command center (Sultan, Minister of War, Head of Mission) for the Ottoman Army.

The initial contact was established during the Balkan Wars by Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha and Minister of War Ahmed Izzet Pasha. Kaiser Wilhelm II sent General Goltz’s mission, which served two periods in Turkey within two years (8 months total).

The German mission was accredited from 27 October 1913 to 1918. General Otto Liman von Sanders, previously commander of the 22nd Division, was assigned by the Kaiser to Constantinople.[1][2] Germany considered an Ottoman-Russian war to be imminent, and Liman von Sanders was a general with excellent knowledge of the Russian armed forces. The Ottoman Empire was undecided about which side to take in a future war involving Germany, Britain and France. The 9th article of the German Military Mission stated that in case of a war the contract would be annulled.


  1. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  2. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.