Mehmed V

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Mehmed V
Caliph of Islam
Ottoman Sultan
Sultan Muhammed Chan V., Kaiser der Osmanen 1915 C. Pietzner.png
Ottoman Sultan and Caliph (full titles)
Reign 27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918
Sword girding 10 May 1909
Predecessor Abdülhamid II
Successor Mehmed VI
Grand Viziers Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha
İbrahim Hakkı Pasha
Küçük Mehmet Sait Pasha
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
Kıbrıslı Mehmed Kamil Pasha
Mahmud Shevket Pasha
Said Halim Pasha
Mehmed Talat
Spouse Kamures Kadınefendi
Dürriand Kadınefendi
Mihrengiz Kadınefendi
Nazperver Kadınefendi
Dilfirib Kadınefendi
Issue Şehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin
Şehzade Mehmed Necmeddin
Şehzade Ömer Hilmi
Refia Sultan
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Abdülmecid I
Mother Gülcemal Sultan
Born (1844-11-02)2 November 1844
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople(present day Istanbul)[1]
Died 3 July 1918(1918-07-03) (aged 73)
Yıldız Palace, Constantinople(present day Istanbul)
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra

Mehmed V Reshad (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Turkish: Mehmed V Reşad or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th Ottoman Sultan. He was the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I.[2] He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI.

Birth[edit]

He was born at Topkapı Palace, Istanbul.[1] Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was in solitary confinement. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was an acclaimed poet. On his ninth birthday he was ceremoniously circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkapı Palace.

Reign[edit]

Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I.

His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as a consequence of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 (which restored the Ottoman Constitution and Parliament) and especially the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the dictatorial triumvirate of the Three Pashas to power.

Mehmed V's most significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 11 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers.[3] He was actually said to look with disfavor on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha.[4]

This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. The Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.

Mehmed V hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia on 27 January 1916, and of the German Empire on 1 February 1916.

Death[edit]

Mehmed V died at Yıldız Palace on 3 July 1918 at the age of 73, only four months before the end of World War I.[5] Thus, he did not live to see the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. He spent most of his life at the Dolmabahçe Palace and Yıldız Palace in Istanbul. His grave is in the historic Eyüp district of the city.

Decorations and awards[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Italian Wikipedia.
Ottoman orders

Mehmed V was Grand Master of the following Ottoman Orders:

Foreign orders and decorations

Family life[edit]

First marriage and issue[edit]

Sultan Mehmed V

He married firstly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 30 September 1872 to Azerbaijani HH Kamures Kadınefendi (Ganja, Caucus, 5 March 1855 – Kuruçesme, Istanbul, 30 April 1921), and had:

  • Prince Mehmed Zia ud-din Effendi, GCVO (21.11.1911) (Ortakoy Palace, 26 August 1873 (s/o Qamuraz), educ. Habibiya Coll, Istabul. General Ottoman Army. Noted dermatologist. Rcvd: the Collar of the Hanedan-i-Al-i-Osman and the Nishan-i-Ali-Imtiaz, Knt. of the Order of the Black Eagle of Prussia. m. (first) at the Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 5 January 1898 (div. at Constantinople, 4 July 1902) Parnian Khanum Effendi (b. at Izmir, 2 January 1880; d. at Alexandria, 21 July 1947). m. (second) at the Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 16 August 1903 (div. at Constantinople, 12 December 1912) Uns-i-Yar Khanum Effendi (b. at Panderma, 12 March 1887; m. second, at Cairo, 2 January 1924, … and d. at Alexandria, 10 September 1934). m. (third) at the Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 18 January 1907, Parizadi Khanum Effendi (b. at Izmir, 14 October 1889; d. at Alexandria, 14 September 1934). m. (fourth) at Yildiz, 10 November 1911, Malika Zairan Khanum Effendi (b. at Batum, Caucasus, 23 September 1890; d. at Istanbul, February 1966), daughter of Mahir Bey. m. (fifth) at the Haidarpasha Palace, Contantinople, 10 February 1923, Nashamand Khanum Effendi (b. 1905; d. at Alexandria, 1 February 1934). He d. at Alexandria, 30 January 1938, having had issue, two sons and six daughters:
    • Prince Muhammad Nazim Effendi. b. at the Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 26 October 1910 (s/o Uns-i-Yar), educ. Galatasaray Coll., Constantinople. m. (first) at Alexandria, 1942 (div. at Cairo, 1944) Bilqis Khanum [Ghada Halijuka or Parizat Khanum Effendi] (b. 1 February 19xx; m. second, Admiral H.E. Shafiq Pasha Çürüksulu). m. (second) at Cairo, 4 December 1945, Halima Khanum Effendi (b. 16 June 1919), elder daughter of Shaikh 'Abdu'l Hida Effendi. He d. at Goztepe, Istanbul, 14 November 1984 (bur. Mausoleum of Sultan Resad, Eyub, Istanbul), having had issue, three sons:
      • Prince Janghiz Effendi [Gengiz Nazim]. b. at Cairo, 20 November 1939 (s/o Parizat). Presdt. Epes Logistics Services and Epes Express Services. m. (first) 16 June 1964, Eileen Khanum Effendi, née Emery. m. (second) 5 June 1988 (div. at Collin, Texas, 20 December 1994), Donna [Mrs Donna Nazim]. m. (third) Suzanne. He has issue, one son and one daughter:
        • Prince Eric Muhammad Zia ud-din Effendi [Eric Nazim]. b. in California, 18 June 1966 (s/o Eileen). m. 8 October 1988, Kalli, née Kapraun, photographer.
        • Princess Aisha Louisa Sultana. b. at New York, 21 March 1964.
      • Prince Hasan Orkhan Effendi [Hasan O. Nazim]. b. at Cairo, 9 September 1946 (s/o Halima). m. at Tarrant, Texas, 14 March 1976, Edna S. (b. 1945), née Tolleson.
      • Prince Muhammad Zia ud-din Effendi. b. at Cairo, 17 September 1947 (s/o Halima). Airline pilot. m. 4 September 1969,...
    • Prince Omar Fawzi Effendi. b. at the Yildiz Palace, 13 November 1912 (s/o Malika Zairan), educ. privately. m. (first) at Cairo, 1946, Mukaddas Khanum Effendi (d. 1958), née Yeghen. m. 1963, Lulia Waliya Khanum Effendi (b. 26 January 1921), younger daughter of Shaikh 'Abdu'l Hida Effendi, and sister of Halima Khanum Effendi (see above). He d. at Amman, Jordan, 24 April 1986 (bur. Mausoleum of Sultan Resad, Eyub, Istanbul).
    • Princess Behiye Sultan (Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 8 November 1900 (d/o Parnian). Rcvd: the Nishan-i-Shafakat 1st class. m. (first) at the Dolma Bahche Palace, 1912 (div. 1913), H.H. Damad Nabil 'Umar Halim Bey Effendi (b. at Yeniköy, Bosphorus, 16 February 1898; d. 1954), second son of H.H. Prince Muhammad Said Halim Pasha, by his wife Princess Amina Inju, second daughter of Field Marshal H.E. Prince Muhammad Tussun Pasha. m. (second) at Goztepe, Asia Minor, 3 May 1921 (morganatic) (div. at Alexandria, 1931) Kamal ud-din Bey, son of Mazhar Bey Turnaji, m. (third) at Alexandria, Egypt, 9 November 1934, H.H. Damad Sartabib Dr Hafiz Zaki Bey Effendi (d. 1950). She d. at Alexandria, 1950 (bur. Mausoleum of Khedive Tewfik, Cairo), having had issue, two sons.
    • Princess Duriye Sultan (Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 3 August 1905 (d/o Uns-i-Yar). Rcvd: the Nishan-i-Shafakat 1st class. m. at Heybeli, January 1922, her cousin, H.H. Prince Muhammad Jahid Bey Effendi (b. at the Ortakoy Palace, January 1899: d. at Istanbul, 30 March 1977), son of Field Marshal H.H. Damad Muhammad Kamal ud-din Pasha, by his wife, H.I.H. Princess Fatima Naima Sultana, third daughter of H.M. Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II Ghazi. She d.s.p. on the Isle of Halki, 15 July 1922 - see above.
    • Princess Rukiy Sultana (Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 11 October 1906 (d/o Uns-i-Yar). m. at Haidarpasha Kasri, 5 January 1924, H.H. Damad 'Abdu'l Baki Ihsan Bey Effendi Sokollu (b. at Constantinople, 1900; d. 1968), son of Lieutenant-General 'Abdu'l Karim Pasha Sokollu. She d. at Budapest, 20 February 1927 (bur. there), having had issue.
    • Princess Hayrie Sultan (Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 16 February 1908 (d/o Parizad). She d. unm. at Beirut, 5 March 1943.
    • Princess Lutfiye Sultana (Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 20 March 1910 (d/o Parizad). m. at Alexandria, 3 June 1932, H.H. Damad Hasan Bey Effendi, son of Kamal Pasha. She d. at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 11 June 1997 (bur. Sultan Rashid, Eyub, Istanbul), having had issue, two sons and one daughter.
    • Princess Mihrimah Sultan (Haidarpasha Kasri, Constantinople, 11 November 1922 (d/o Nashamand). m. at Cairo, Egypt, 7 October 1940 (div.), Colonel H.R.H. Prince Naif (b. at Taif, 1914; d. 1983), second son of H.M. 'Abdu'llah I bin Hussein, King of the Hashimite Kingdom of the Jordan, GCMG, GBE, by his second wife, H.H. Princess Suzdil Khanum. She d. 1982, having had issue, two sons - see Jordan.

Second marriage and issue[edit]

He married secondly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 10 October 1876 to Georgian HH Dürriand Kadınefendi (Kars, Caucus, 16 May 1860 – Istanbul, 17 October 1909), and had:

  • Prince Şehzade Mehmed Necmeddin Efendi (Vali Ahad's Palace, Ortakoy, 23 June 1878 - Kuruchashma Palace, 27 June 1913)

Third marriage and issue[edit]

He married thirdly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 4 April 1887 to HH Mihrengiz Kadınefendi (Adapazarı, 15 October 1869 – Alexandria, 12 December 1938 and buried in Cairo), and had:

  • Prince Omar Hilmi Effendi. b. at the Vali Ahad's Palace, Ortakoy, 2 March 1888 (s/o Mihrangis), educ. Col. of Infantry, Ottoman Army. Rcvd: the Collar of the Hanedan-i-Ali-Osman and the Nishan-i-Ali-Imtiaz. m. (first) at the Yildiz Palace, 3 October 1910, HH Hadice Firdevs Gülnev Baş Hanım Efendi (b. at Genj, Caucasus, 21 February 1890; d. at Nishantashi, 31 December 1919). m. (second) at Chamlidcha Palace, Scutari, 16 June 1914 (div. at Nice, 1928), Bashtar Bash Khanum Effendi (b. at Izmir, 12 October 1897; d. 1984). m. (third) at the Nishantashi Palace, 12 July 1921 (div. at Scutari, 18 September 1921), Madiha Khanum Effendi (b. at Alexandria, 4 November 1903; d. at Cairo, 1971), eldest daughter of H.E. Menliki Ahmad Pasha, by Princess Zubaida Khanum Effendi, eldest daughter of Lieutenant-General H.E. Prince Muhammad 'Ali Pasha of Egypt. He d. at Alexandria, 2 November 1935, having had issue, one son and one daughter:
    • Prince Mahmud Namiq Effendi. b. at the Dolma Bahche Palace, Constantinople, 25 February 1914 (s/o Gul-i-Nav). m. August 1939 (div. at Alexandria, 1947) Princess Shaharazade Khanum Effendi (b. at Alexandria, 1922; d. 1950), second daughter of Husain Shirin Bey, by his wife H.H. Princess Amina Bihruz Khanum Effendi, second daughter of H.E. Prince Ismail Rashid Fazil Pasha. He d. at Cairo, 13 November 1963, having had issue, two sons:
      • H.I.H. Prince 'Abdu'l-Aziz Omar Effendi (Alexandria, 4 June 1941, educ. London Univ. He had issue, a son:
      • H.I.H. Prince Mahmud Effendi (London, 27 April 1975.
    • Princess Emine Mukbil Sultan (Yildiz Palace, 30 November 1911 (d/o Gul-i-Nav). m. at Nice, France, 24 April 1931, H.I.H. (Sultan) Prince 'Ali Vassib Effendi, 41st Head of the Imperial House of Osman (b. at Ciragan Palace, Ortakoy, 14 October 1903; d. at Alexandria 9 December 1983), only son of H.I.H. Prince Ahmad Nikhad Effendi, 38th Head of the Imperial House of Osman, by his first wife, Safru Khanum Effendi. She d. 19xx, having had issue, an only son

Fourth marriage and issue[edit]

He married fourthly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, in 1888 to HH Nazperver Kadınefendi (1870 - Istanbul, 1930) and had:

  • Princess Refia Sultan (c. 1888 - c. 1888)

Fifth marriage[edit]

He married fifthly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, in 1907 to HH Dilfirib Kadınefendi (1890 - Istanbul, 1953) without issue.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.7, edited Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire..".
  2. ^ Abdulmecid, Coskun Cakir, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, ed. Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, (Infobase Publishing, 2009), 9.
  3. ^ Lawrence Sondhaus, World War One: The Global Revolution, (Cambridge University Press, 2011), 91.
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Mahommed V.". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York. 
  5. ^ Mehmed V, Selcuk Aksin Somel, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, 371.

External links[edit]

Media related to Mehmed V at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed V
Born: 2 November 1844 Died: 3 July 1918
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdul Hamid II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
27 Apr 1909 – 3 Jul 1918
Succeeded by
Mehmed VI
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abdul Hamid II
Caliph of Islam
27 Apr 1909 – 3 Jul 1918
Succeeded by
Mehmed VI