Mehmed V

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Mehmed V
Caliph of Islam
Ottoman Sultan
Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
Ottoman Sultan and Caliph (full titles)
Reign 27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918
Sword girding 10 May 1909
Predecessor Abdülhamid II
Successor Mehmed VI
Grand Viziers Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha
İbrahim Hakkı Pasha
Küçük Mehmet Sait Pasha
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
Kıbrıslı Mehmed Kamil Pasha
Mahmud Shevket Pasha
Said Halim Pasha
Mehmed Talat
Spouse Kam-res Kadın Efendi
Durr-i And Kadın Efendi
Mihr-engiz Kadın Efendi
Naz-perver Kadın Efendi
Dil-firib Kadın Efendi
Issue
Şehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin
Şehzade Mehmed Necmeddin
Şehzade Ömer Hilmi
Refia Sultan
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Abdülmecid I
Mother Gülcemal Sultan
Born (1844-11-02)2 November 1844
Topkapı Palace, Constantinople(present day Istanbul)[1]
Died 3 July 1918(1918-07-03) (aged 73)
Yıldız Palace, Constantinople(present day Istanbul)
Signature
Religion Sunni Islam

Mehmed V Reshad (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Turkish: Mehmed V Reşad or Reşat Mehmet) (2/3 November 1844 – 3/4 July 1918) was the 35th Ottoman Sultan. He was the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I.[citation needed] He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI.

Birth[edit]

He was born at Topkapı Palace, Istanbul.[2] Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was in solitary confinement. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was an acclaimed poet. On his ninth birthday he was ceremoniously circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkapı Palace.

Reign[edit]

Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I.

His reign began on 27 April 1909 but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as the Ottoman state affairs were largely run by the Three Pashas since the Young Turk Revolution in 1908. Mehmed V's only significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 11 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. He was actually said to look with disfavor on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha.[3]

This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. The Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.

Mehmed V hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia on 27 January 1916, and of the Empire of Germany on 1 February 1916.

Death[edit]

Mehmed V died at Yıldız Palace on 3 July 1918 at the age of 73, only four months before the end of World War I. Thus, he did not live to see the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. He spent most of his life at the Dolmabahçe Palace and Yıldız Palace in Istanbul. His grave is in the historic Eyüp district of the city.

Decorations and awards[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Italian Wikipedia.
Ottoman orders

Mehmed V was Grand Master of the following Ottoman Orders:

Foreign orders and decorations

Family life[edit]

First marriage and issue[edit]

He married firstly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 30 September 1872 to Azerbaijani HH Kam-res Kadın Efendi (Ganja, Caucus, 5 March 1855 – Kuruçesme, Istanbul, 30 April 1921), and had one child.

Second marriage and issue[edit]

He married secondly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 10 October 1876 to Georgian HH Durr-i And Kadın Efendi (Kars, Caucus, 16 May 1860 – Istanbul, 17 October 1909), and had one child. She got divorces in 1887.

Third marriage and issue[edit]

He married thirdly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, on 4 April 1887 to HH Mihr-engis Kadın Efendi (Adapazarı, 15 October 1869 – Alexandria, 12 December 1938 and buried in Cairo), and had two children.

Fourth marriage and issue[edit]

He married fourthly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, in 1888 to HH Naz-perver Kadın Efendi (1870 - Istanbul, 1930) without issue.

Fifth marriage and issue[edit]

He married fifthly at Constantinople, Ortaköy Palace, in 1907 to HH Dil-firib Kadın Efendi (1890 - Istanbul, 1953) without issue.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire..".
  2. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.7, 3; "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire..".
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Mahommed V.". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mehmed V at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed V
Born: November 2, 1844 Died: July 3, 1918
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdul Hamid II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Apr 27, 1909 – Jul 3, 1918
Succeeded by
Mehmed VI
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abdul Hamid II
Caliph of Islam
Apr 27, 1909 – Jul 3, 1918
Succeeded by
Mehmed VI