|Caliph of Islam
His Imperial Majesty
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Commander of the Faithful
Successor of the Prophet of the Universe
|Reign||3 July 1918 – 1 November 1922|
|Sword Girding||4 June 1918|
|Grand Viziers||See list|
|Reign||3 July 1918 – 19 November 1922|
|Successor||Abdülmecid II |
|Spouse||Emine Nazikedâ Marjim-Abaza Kadın Efendi
Inshira Kadın Efendi
Sadiye Mevedett Kadın Efendi
Nevare Kadın Efendi
Nimit Nevzad Kadın Efendi
Fatma Ulviye Sultan
Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Hanım Efendi
Şehzade Ertuğrul Mehmed Efendi
14 January 1861|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Died||16 May 1926
|Royal styles of
|Reference style||His Imperial Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Imperial Majesty|
Mehmed VI (Ottoman Turkish: محمد سادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahidettin. Turkish: Mehmed Vahideddin or Mehmet Vahdettin) (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922. The brother of Mehmed V, he succeeded to the throne as the eldest male member of the House of Osman after the 1916 suicide of Abdülaziz's son Yusuf Izzettin Efendi, the heir to the throne. He was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 June 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdülmecid I and mother was Gülüstü (1831 – May 1861), a Circassian. Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922.
He was born in the Dolmabahçe Palace or the Beşiktaş Palace, Beşiktaş, both in Constantinople. On his ninth birthday he was ceremonially circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkapı Palace.
The First World War was a disaster for the Ottoman Empire. British and allied forces had conquered Baghdad, Damascus, and Jerusalem during the war and most of the Empire was divided among the European allies. At the San Remo conference of April 1920, the French were granted a mandate over Syria and the British were granted one over Palestine and Mesopotamia. On 10 August 1920, Mehmed's representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres, which recognized the mandates, removed Ottoman control over Anatolia and İzmir, severely reduced the extent of Turkey, and recognized Hejaz as an independent state.
Turkish nationalists rejected the settlement by the Sultan's four signatories. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was formed on 23 April 1920, in Ankara (then known as Angora). The new government denounced the rule of Mehmed VI and a temporary constitution was drafted.
Exile and death
The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and Mehmed was expelled from Constantinople, aboard the British warship Malaya on 17 November. He went into exile in Malta; Mehmed later lived on the Italian Riviera.
On 19 November 1922, Mehmed's first cousin and heir Abdülmecid Efendi was elected Caliph, becoming the new head of the Imperial House of Osman as Abdülmecid II before the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.
Marriages and issue
First marriage and issue
His first marriage was to Abkhaz Emine Nazikedâ Marjim-Abaza Kadın Efendi (Sukhumi, Georgia, 9 October 1866 - Maadi, Cairo, 1944 and buried there) in the Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, on 8 June 1885. Their issue was:
- Princess Münire Sultan (1888).
- Princess Fatma Ulviye Sultan (11 September 1892, Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, – 25 January 1967, İzmir and buried at Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, first married to HE Damat Ismail Hakki Okday Beyefendi (Athens, 28 October 1881 - Istanbul, 11 October 1977) at the Kurucheshme Palace, Istanbul, on 10 August 1916, with issue; second marriage to Damat Ali Haidar Beyefendi (Göztepe, Istanbul, 20 September 1889 – Istanbul, 5 February 1962) at the Nişantaşı Palace, Nişantaşı, Pera (today Beyoğlu), on 1 November 1923, also with issue.
- Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Hanım Efendi (the Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, 19 March/1 April 1894 – Istanbul, 26 August 1971), married to her cousin Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi (the Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 27/29 February 1898 – 28 March 1969/1971), son of Abdülmecid II, at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 29 April 1920 as his first wife. Their issue was:
- Princess Fatma Neslişah Osmanoğlu Sultan (Istanbul, Nişantaşı, Nişantaşı Palace, 4 February 1921 – 1 April 2012), married in Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, 26 September 1940 to her cousin Damat Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Beyefendi (Alexandria, Montaza Palace, 20 February 1899 – Istanbul, 1/2 December 1979, buried in Cairo), Heir Apparent to the Throne of Egypt from 1899 to 1914, created HH in 1922, created HRH in 1952, Regent of Egypt from 1952 to 1953, and had issue.
His second marriage was to Georgian HH Seniye Inshira Kadın Efendi (Batumi, 10 July 1887 - Cairo, 10 June 1930) at the Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, on 8 July 1905. The marriage ended in divorce.
Third marriage and issue
His third marriage was to HH Sadiye Mevedett Kadın Efendi (Adapazarı, 12 October 1893 – Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, 1951 and buried there), at the Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, on 25 April 1911, Their only issue was:
- Prince Şehzade Ertuğrul Mehmed Efendi (Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, 5 September 1912 – Cairo, 2 July 1944). Issue about his Nikah 'urfi not recognized by the Ottoman dynasty.
Titles & styles
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdümecid II". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8
- Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, 1999, Chapter 16: The Year of Three Sultans.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), The Encyclopædia Britannica 7 (3), "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire".
- Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
- Treaty of Sèvres
- Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, published 1999, Chapter 19: The Gathering Place of the Jinns
- Fromkin, David, 1989. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East ISBN 0-8050-0857-8
Media related to Mehmed VI at Wikimedia Commons
Mehmed VIBorn: 14 January 1861 Died: 16 May 1926
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
3 July 1918 – 1 November 1922
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
3 July 1918 – 19 November 1922
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1 November 1922 – 19 November 1922