Indigenous peoples of Costa Rica
There are about 104,000 (2.4%) indigenous peoples in Costa Rica located throughout the country. They often do not receive the same attention as other indigenous groups around the world, because they are not as well known. In a way of not becoming modernized, they emphasize the importance of their culture and traditions. They want to help preserve their language and traditions in whichever way possible. In 1977, the government passed the Indigenous Law, which created reserves. There are a total of 22 reserves located throughout Costa Rica. After only gaining the right to vote in 1994, they are still fighting for their rights, particularly regarding the government taking over their land and ignoring the articles which protect them. There are eight ethnic groups that they are divided into.
Christopher Columbus arrived in Costa Rica in 1502 on his last trip to the New World. Costa Rica received its name from Christopher Columbus when he arrived and thought he found the most gold he had ever seen; therefore naming it the "Rich Coast". To the Spanish, it was less organized from other indigenous groups they had discovered, mainly because they lived in separate groups rather than one large group. During the colonization, Costa Rica was very poor, mainly because it was isolated from the majority of the Spanish Empire. Natives had lived in Costa Rica for what stretches back to 10,000 years before this, but the cultures were destroyed when the Spanish arrived. Colonies that were set up originally weren't successful, because of disease as well as the tropical rain forests. Costa Rica didn't become a province of Spain until the 1560s, when a community was created that used the volcanic soil for agricultural purposes. By the time that Columbus arrived, there were about 20,000 Costa Rican natives, but this number greatly declined. This was primarily due to disease, particularly smallpox as well as the fact that many indigenous were enslaved to work and oftentimes escaped from them.
- Matambú or Chorotega
The Matambú, also known as the Chorotega are located in Guanacaste. The Chorotegas translating to "The Fleeing People" fled to Costa Rica in 500 A.D. to escape slavery from Southern Mexico, particularly being related to the Mayans. Parts of their Mexican culture is evident in regards to their language and rituals, including human sacrifices. They are known as being the most powerful group of peoples during the conquest of the Spanish, as they were an organized military group and fought against the Spanish. There is evidence that they were a democracy and elected Caciques, or priests to be the leaders, and also that they were a hierarchical group. They are known for their agriculture, producing primarily corn and their ceramics/pottery today.
- Maleku (northern Alajuela)
The Maleku are an indigenous group located in the Guatuso Indigenous Reserve. Before the Spanish colonization, their territory extended as far west as Rincon de la Vieja, and included the volcano Arenal to the south and Rio Celeste as sacred sites. Today their reserve is located about an hour north of La Fortuna."The Maleku are an indigenous tribe of about 600 people who live on a reserve in San Rafael de Guastoso. Although their land was much larger prior to colonization, they are now working on buying their own land back from the government. Their economy is based on indigenous art and many tourists are welcome to watch them perform musical pieces in nearby La Fortuna. This reservation is in great danger and the Maleku no longer live in their traditional houses as the trees are also endangered.They are working hard to protect their language, as there are only about 300 speakers of it.
- Bribri (southern Atlantic)
The Bribri are an indigenous tribe that lives in the Talamanca Canton in Limón Province of Costa Rica. They are a voting majority in the Puerto Viejo de Talamanca area. The range of the population stetches from 11,000 to 35,000.The Bribri have a specific social structure that is organized in Clans. Each clan is composed of an extended family. Women have a higher status in this society, because their childrens' clans are determined by whichever clan they come from. Women in the Bribri society are the only ones that can inherit land and prepare the sacred cacao drink used during the rituals.Men's roles are defined by their clan, and often are exclusive for men. The Shaman, or "awa" is very important to the Bribis, which men may have the opportunity to become. Just as it is important to many other indigenous groups in Costa Rica, Cacao holds a particular significance for the Bribi. They believe that the cacao tree used to be a woman and God turned it into a tree. Only women may prepare the drink, there are many associations that produce hand made chocolate which help these women.
- Cabécar (Cordillera de Talamanca)
The Cabécar Indians is the largest Indigenous group in Costa Rica and is considered to be the most isolated. They have been pushed up to the Chirripo Mountains, which requires a few hours long hike to reach. Therefore, the Cabécar Indians have not been exposed to many basic items, and few of them have been exposed to education. They are very traditional and have preserved their culture. They speak the most of their own language rather than Spanish.
- Guaymí (southern Costa Rica, along the Panamá border),
The Guaymís, also known as the Ngabe are the group of the most people in Costa Rica. They have emigrated from Panama to Costa Rica in the 1960s. Their main source of income is based on agriculture where they grow bananas, rice, corn, beans and more. The majority of them live in poverty, because they live in such secluded areas.
- Boruca (southern Costa Rica)
There are about 2,660 people in the Boruca tribe and are found in the Puntarenas area of Costa Rica on one of the first reservations that was established for Indigenous Costa Ricans. They are popular for their crafts, particularly masks made for the “Fiesta de los Diablos” which is a three day festival that stages fights between the Brouca Indians (depicted as devils) and the Spanish conquistadors (Portrayed as Bulls).
- Térraba (southern Costa Rica)
There are about 750 Térraba Indians. As of 2007, the regional poverty rate was 19.3% while for the whole country it was about 3.3%. It is so high, because their forest land has been cleared over the years, which was used for their agriculture and predominant economy. They have not preserved their language as much, as mainly only the elders speak it.
The Quitirrisi are located in Ciudad de Colon and Puriscal in the Central Valley. They are known for weaving baskets and making straw hats.
They often do not receive the health care because they are located in secluded areas, particularly in the mountains. They also do not have much access to clean water. Only about 26% of the indigenous have access to clean water. Therefore, the natives tend to rely on traditional ways of healing rather than modern medicine. Groups like CONAI (National Commission for Indigenous Affairs) which works to improve cultural and economic situations of the indigenous peoples, tried to integrate the two, which resulted in competition and little acknowledgment of the Indigenous traditional ways. Some areas have built clinics, but the doctors only work about two days of the week.
Current issues 
There is a conflict that is over indigenous teachers and students are not receiving the same opportunities as the non indigenous peoples. There were two cases in Boruca and Teribe in which qualified indigenous teachers were not given jobs in the local schools. There is also the fact that the schools which the indigenous attend are not funded properly, and the students aren't given the same resources to learn. As for the universities, the indigenous are fighting to gain qualifications so that they can earn higher paying jobs.
Land issues 
The major issues facing the indigenous groups of Costa Rica today mainly relate to land. The farmers and ranchers are not in charge of their own land that they work because they are considered to be on a reserve, or their land is in danger due to mining and oil work being done. The government is doing little to protect the land that is rightfully that of the indigenous.
They also oppose the current El Diquís Hydroelectric Project that will flood some of the lands and affect many of the other groups. It will affect seven of the indigenous territories, including Bribi, Cabecar, Teribe and Brunka). This will be the largest hydro-electric dam in Central America and will cut through nearly 200 historical sites and sacred grounds. 
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