J. Sterling Morton High School District 201

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This article is about the multi-campus school in suburban Chicago. For the high school in Central Illinois, see Morton High School (Morton, Illinois).
J. Sterling Morton
High School District 201
JSMortonHSdistLogo.png
Type and location
Type public secondary district
Established 1892
Location 3145 S. 55th Ave.
Cicero, Illinois
District information
Superintendent Dr. Michael J. Kuzniewski[1]
Other information
Website www.morton201.org

J. Sterling Morton High School District 201 is a school district headquartered in Cicero, Illinois, United States. The district serves the city of Berwyn, the town of Cicero, and the villages of Lyons and Stickney. The school is named after Julius Sterling Morton, Grover Cleveland's Secretary of Agriculture during his second term, who is best known for founding Arbor Day.[2]

The district competes in Illinois High School Association athletics as a unified school under the name of "Berwyn-Cicero (Morton)".[3]

Schools[edit]

The district is composed of four campuses

Feeder school districts[edit]

History[edit]

In 1892, there were reports that the town of Cicero was beginning to work to consolidate a school district that would include the then current Morton Park and Hawthorne District with one consisting of the towns of Clyde and LaVergne, to create what was called a "High School Department".[4]

1930s[edit]

By 1931, Morton had reached its capacity of 3,000 students, and a bond issue was put before the electorate to raise funds for a new school to be built in neighboring Berwyn. The issue was defeated 7751—8035.[5]

In May 1932, the school district closed the school two weeks ahead of schedule because of financial troubles. The school also announced that the autumn opening of school would be pushed back two weeks to further save money.[6] The closing also affected Morton Junior College, which was housed at the school.[7]

The 1932—33 school year saw teachers and students join in an unusual revolt against the board of education. In October 1932, the school's football coach was fired without warning, prompting 800 citizens to attend a board meeting to retain him. The coach was reputedly fired for being critical of the board for discounting tax warrants with which teachers had been paid over the past months in lieu of money.[8] About one month later, students began a boycott of the cafeteria, charging that not only had prices gone up, but that workers had been fired to be replaced by more workers with ties to the school board.[9] The board then hired private individuals to patrol the school. Both students and teachers reported that these "house detectives" acted inappropriately toward students, and also claimed that the recent hirings were politically motivated. One circular distributed by students, and alleged to have been paid for by teachers, stated: "The next time a house dick snatches anything out of your hands ... or makes any insulting remarks to your girl friend get a gang of your pals and show the hoodlum that it is safer to be hustling beer for Capone."[10]

The publicity surrounding these actions prompted the accrediting agency for the school, the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, to begin an inquiry as to whether the school should remain accredited.[11] This was immediately followed by the North Central Association's assertion that, despite teachers receiving no cash salary for almost a year, and being forced to sell the tax warrants they had been receiving for substantial discounts, the board had hired unnecessary custodial staff, cafeteria workers, and largely under-qualified teachers without consulting the superintendent.[12]

The situation reached a head when Harry V. Church, the school's superintendent, announced that he too was joining the student-faculty revolt, and would inform the state's attorney of what he knew, including the hiring of teachers sponsored by the board over his objections, a US$3.5 million debt run up by the board, and the specific names of employees that had been hired who were relatives of board members.[13] Despite a direct threat of removal from the school board president, the superintendent demoted the head of the physical welfare department, who had been instrumental in firing the football coach who had drawn attention to the school problems.[14][15]

A group of thirteen civic groups, headed by the local Rotary Club, concluded their own investigation. The demands in regards for drawing up a budget were voted on by the board, but no action was taken.[16] When the superintendent and an independent auditor asked to examine the financial information for the district, they were refused on the grounds that the financial officer "couldn't do much without two office employees, who are ill". One of the employees named was the daughter of the board president.[17] On December 12, the secretary of the North Central Association read a letter at the public meeting of the board stating "The standards of the school are very shaky.". When a taxpayers' group asked for the board to request that the State's Attorney begin an inquiry, a board member responded that the "state's attorney hasn't time to bother about such small matters."[18]

In January, the superintendent was dismissed after a taxpayers' group lobbied for his removal.[19] This prompted the Berwyn Ministers' Association to call a meeting attended by 2,500 residents to demand an open hearing on the ousted superintendent. At that meeting, the secretary of the North Central Association spoke out in favor of the former superintendent, and stated that the board's inability to set a budget and to engage in politically motivated hiring practices would lower the accreditation rating of the school.[20] Despite adopting a budget for the remainder of the school year, new charges against the board surfaced.[21] The parent-teacher association began a petition to submit to the governor requesting the removal of the board, amongst allegations that similarly worded and appearing petitions were being circulated to gain praise for the board.[22]

On the evening of February 2, a 20-foot-tall (6.1 m) burning cross was found on the athletic field.[23] At a board meeting in March, a citizen identified himself as a member of the Ku Klux Klan, and informed the board that "As an organization we are watching developments ..."[24]

The interim superintendent recommended immediate austerity measures, punctuated by a reduction in staffing, including the elimination of 20 of the 40 office clerks, several custodial personnel, and the elimination of all teacher-clerks (permanent substitute teachers).[25] The board was also forced to deal with being voted out of the Suburban League.[25] As a result of the actions at Morton, the (pre-union) National Education Association's department of secondary school principals censured the board, and called for new laws that would prevent similar abuses in the future.[26]

Later in March, the board secretly selected a new superintendent and principal, despite a recommendation from the North Central Association that a list of educators form a search committee.[27] By this time, results of inquiries into the finances of the district had been hampered by the disappearance of the district's financial officer.[28] When it was determined that the controller had taken money from the school's petty cash, leaving an IOU, the board requested, and received, a warrant for his arrest. His successor also found that US$9,500 in tax warrants were missing, one of which was traced to a local grocer who had received it from the missing controller to pay a debt.[29] The controller surrendered himself, and paid bail, claiming he had been suffering from a nervous breakdown brought on by the recent problems; he denied stealing from the school.[30]

The April school board election saw two new members elected to the board, with one of them becoming the new president.[31] In the wake of the election, the North Central Association delivered a formal warning to the school, stating that while it would remain accredited, the warning was a formality required as a prelude to losing accreditation, should it be deemed necessary in a year's time.[32] The new board followed through on a recommendation from the North Central Association, and took the recommendation of a committee of 33 educators to hire a professor of education from South Dakota to become the new permanent superintendent, L. M. Hrudka.[33]

By 1934, the district was back on a cash paying basis.[34] By 1936, the school population had reached 6,000.[34] The firing of three maintenance workers in December 1936 at the school prompted a strike of the 40 unionized members of the custodial staff.[35][36] The picket line blocked the delivery of coal to the school, forcing it to remain closed as there was only a limited stockpile available for heating.[37] The board retaliated by firing thirty more maintenance workers, with the caveat they could reapply for their jobs within three days.[37] A local painter who had helped maintain the furnaces in the absence of maintenance staff was beaten near the school.[37]

As the coal supplies dwindled, the state's attorney called for mediation, and the sides met on January 8.[38] When talks were unsuccessful, school officials arranged for police to guard deliveries of coal to the school.[39][40] Three of the drivers who had made the coal deliveries, a man and his two sons, were run off the road and beaten in retaliation.[41]

Municipal officials began to ask for greater effort to end the strike.[42] One board member resigned a key position in his church after the pastor spoke out against school officials.[43] The Illinois Department of Labor issued subpoenas for school officials to appear at a conference arranged to settle the strike.[44] An agreement was ratified by both sides on January 24, with all but four strikers returning to work, and the original fired maintenance staff guaranteed a hearing with "good prospects of reinstatement".[45][46]

In 1938, L. M. Hrudka was dismissed as superintendent, despite a year remaining on his contract, following concerns raised by the North Central Association that he was not cooperating properly with the faculty.[47] However, the secretary of the board, publicly declaring the firing as a "colossal piece of trickery", refused to notify the administrator of his dismissal, and claimed the vote was illegal since it occurred after the board had adjourned.[48] The board claimed that Hrudka had been a factor in the North Central Association downgrading the school's rating.[48]

In March 1939, the Illinois state committee of the North Central Association, citing political interference and a lack of leadership, informed the school that it would be recommending that it lose accreditation, invalidating current and future student credits toward college admission.[49] While preparing to defend itself against these charges, the board settled a lawsuit filed by fired superintendent Hrudka for the full amount of his remaining contract.[50] An investigation by the North Central Association resulted in the school again being put on one year's notice to improve standards or risk losing accreditation.[51]

1950s to 1960s[edit]

While the 1940s had been relatively quiet, 1952 saw the joint resignation of the superintendent and business manager over what was described as "personal quarreling".[52] At the meeting where the resignations were accepted, a citizen denounced the board president, Edward Chodl. Chodl then "ran toward (him), but was restrained by other board members."[52] The pair were guaranteed to be paid their combined $23,740 contracts for the next year, with the outgoing superintendent given an additional $8,000 to rent his educational film library for ten years.[52]

In the autumn of 1969, a teacher's strike was called at the school for the first time in its history. One teacher was arrested for using his picket sign as a weapon against a school board member.[53] In response, the West Suburban Teachers' Union, which represented eleven school districts, asked for all of its members to take an emergency personal day and join in protesting a back to work order issued by a judge, and what were termed as "union busting" tactics by the Morton school board.[54] The strike lasted 22 days.[55] In November, the striking teachers were charged individually with contempt of court. 64 teachers were found guilty and sentenced to ten days in prison and a $100 fine.[56] In the end, the president of the union, a Morton East teacher, was fined $1,000 and sentenced to 20 days in jail for contempt.[55]

Today[edit]

With the increased immigration of Hispanic families from Chicago and elsewhere, Morton 201 has seen an increase in ELL (English Language Learners) students. A five-year study, however, has shown that this hasn't caused a drop in test scores. In fact, based upon Prairie State Achievement Exam results over the 2007-2012 academic years, scores have risen. During those 5 years, the average ACT scores in both math and science have risen, and PSAE reading scores are up 35% at the East campus where the largest population of ELL students attends.

During the October 10 Morton 201 Board Meeting, Assistant Superintendent of Educational Programs Tim Truesdale highlighted improvements in the school district, including:

• The addition of a Director of Student Success and Accountability position to provide support in using student achievement results to improve curriculum and instruction; • The implementation of fall EXPLORE, PLAN and ACT exams to help prepare students for the PASE; • The use of Professional Learning Communities for faculty, where teacher teams in each subject area use common assessments to focus on test results to drive instruction and meet higher standards; • Implementation of Using Understanding by Design (UbD) curriculum framework to organize the district’s curriculum to ensure that the goals, assessments, and instructional activities in every unit of instruction are aligned to the highest standards; and, • Increased student participation and success in college-level Advanced Placement courses where students have the opportunity to earn advanced college credit through AP exams.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morton201 District Administration; accessed 9 September 2010
  2. ^ "Event Honors Originator of Arbor Day"; Chicago Tribune (1963–Current file); 30 April 1964; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; "The seedlings were planted in memory of J. Sterling Morton, who originated Arbor day in 1872 and for whom the high school district was named."; accessed 28 July 2009
  3. ^ School information for Berwyn-Cicero (Morton); ihsa.org; accessed 27 July 2009
  4. ^ "Cicero's Women Are Barred: They cannot vote for school trustees or school directors"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 8 April 1892; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  5. ^ "Voters Defeat Proposal For Berwyn School"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 24 May 1931; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  6. ^ "Close Morton High School for Lack of Funds: Saving $50,000; Affects 8,000 Pupils"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 28 May 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  7. ^ "758 Graduates Get Diplomas at Morton High: Junior College's Finals Also Are Held"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 29 May 1932,ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  8. ^ "Besiege School Board to Fight Ouster of Coach: Closed Meeting Is Held in Morton High"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 25 October 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  9. ^ "Pupils Unite to Fight Politics in High School: Charge Appointees Boost Food Prices"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 18 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  10. ^ "8,000 Pupils Rebel Against 'Terror Rule'"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 23 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  11. ^ "School 'Dicks' More Mannerly, Rebels Boast: College Association Will Investigate Morton"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 24 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  12. ^ "Charge Morton High Pay Roll is Overloaded: Audit of School Books to Be Demanded"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 25 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  13. ^ "Head of Morton High Joins His Pupils' Rveolt: Superintendent Assails School Board"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 28 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  14. ^ "Veteran Head of Morton School to Fight Ouster"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 29 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  15. ^ "Morton High's Chief Removes Physical Head"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 30 November 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  16. ^ "Charges Gross Waste by Board of Morton High: Civic Groups Join to Fight for Reforms"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 1 December 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  17. ^ "Official Balks Audit At Morton High, Is Charge"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 3 December 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  18. ^ "Educator Warns Morton High to Save Standards"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 13 December 1932; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  19. ^ "Church, Years Head of the Morton High School, Dismissed"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 10 January 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  20. ^ "2,500 Protest Ousting Head of Cicero School: Demand Open Hearing by Board of Morton High"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 11 January 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  21. ^ "Morton School Board Named in new Charges"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 20 January 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  22. ^ "Row at Morton High Becomes a War of Petitions"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 28 January 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  23. ^ "Flaming Cross if Found in Yard of Cicero School"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 3 February 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  24. ^ "'Klan' has Eye on Morton High, Citizen Warns"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 14 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  25. ^ a b "Board Orders Morton School Expenses Cut: Abolishes Jobs, Votes Credit Rating Reform"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 14 February 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  26. ^ "Asks State Law Aimed at Cicero Cicero School Board: Urged at Convention of Educators"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 2 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  27. ^ "Carl Anderson Selected Head of Morton High: Alderman, Boys' Dean, Made Principal"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 19 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  28. ^ "Morton High School Funds Under Inquiry"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 20 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  29. ^ "Warrant Out for Former Morton High Controller"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 21 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  30. ^ "Morton High's Ex-Controller Gives Self Up"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 28 March 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  31. ^ "Morton High School Board Elects New Member President"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 18 April 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  32. ^ "Morton School to Keep Rating; Given Warning"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 22 April 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 26 July 2009
  33. ^ "Prof. L. M. Hrudka Chosen as Head of Morton High"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 9 May 1933; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; 26 July 2009
  34. ^ a b "Morton School Renovated for Autumn Opening: Expect 6,000 Enrollment in September"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 16 August 1936; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  35. ^ "Threaten Strike at Morton High Over Dismissals"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 15 December 1936; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  36. ^ "Call Strike Today of 40 Cicero High School Employees"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 4 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  37. ^ a b c "30 More Fired at Morton High Over Walkout: Board Offers Jobs to 29 if Back in Three Days"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963) 5 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  38. ^ "Morton School Board Will Hear Strikers Today"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963) 8 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  39. ^ "Reject Union's Peace Terms in Morton Strike"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963) 9 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  40. ^ "Midnight Ride Takes Coal to Morton School: Police Guard Helps Foil Striking Janitors"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 11 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  41. ^ "Defy Strikers with Coal for School; Beaten"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 12 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  42. ^ "Calls For Town Conference on School Strike"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 13 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  43. ^ "Search Pressed for Sluggers in Morton Strike"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 15 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  44. ^ "Writs to Bring Morton Board to Strike Parley"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 20 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  45. ^ "Morton School Strike is Ended; Sigh Peace Today"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 24 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  46. ^ "Cicero School Strikers Return to Work Today"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 25 January 1937; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  47. ^ "Morton High's Head Fired at Special Session: Hrudka Inefficient, Say Foes in Board"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 1 July 1938; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  48. ^ a b "Foes Clash Over Hrudka Ouster at Morton High: Friends Charge Move Is Political Trick"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 2 July 1938; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web.; accessed 27 July 2009
  49. ^ "School Credit Grup Aasked to Drop Cicero High: Pupils' Standing Periled; Board Fights Action"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 2 March 1939; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  50. ^ "Cicero Settles $9,000 Contract with Schoolman"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 15 March 1939; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  51. ^ "Morton High is Given a Year to Lift Standards: Expulsion Threatened by North Central Assn."; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 31 March 1939; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  52. ^ a b c "Two Feuding Cicero School Heads Ousted"; Chicago Daily Tribune (1872–1963); 10 June 1952; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  53. ^ Negronida, Peter; "Arbiter Picked for Strike at City College:Seek to End Dispute on Transfers"; Chicago Tribune (1963–Current file); 20 September 1969; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; "Lawrence E. Smith, 31, a physical education teacher picketing Morton East High school in Cicero, was arrested and charged ..."; accessed 27 July 2009
  54. ^ "West Suburban Teacher Strike Set Friday"; Chicago Tribune (1963–Current file); 22 September 1969; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  55. ^ a b Wood, Henry; "Morton East Teacher Gets Jail in Strike"; Chicago Tribune (1963–Current file); 17 April 1970; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009
  56. ^ "23 Morton Teachers Held in Contempt"; Chicago Tribune (1963–Current file); 8 November 1969; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849–1986), ProQuest. Web; accessed 27 July 2009

External links[edit]