James Eagan Holmes
|James Eagan Holmes|
December 13, 1987 |
San Diego, California, U.S.
|Education||Bachelor of Science (neuroscience)|
|Known for||Accused perpetrator of 2012 Aurora shooting|
|Criminal status||Jailed, pending trial|
James Eagan Holmes (born December 13, 1987) is the suspected perpetrator of a mass shooting that occurred on July 20, 2012 at a Century movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, which killed 12 people and injured 58 others. He had no known criminal record prior to the shooting.
Holmes was hospitalized after making several suicide attempts while in jail in November 2012. He is currently held without bail and has entered a plea of not guilty on March 12, 2013. His attorneys had been expected to enter a plea of diminished capacity (which differs from an insanity plea), but they told the presiding judge in the preliminary hearing that they were not ready to decide on such a step yet, and needed more time to peruse and review the massive documentation on the case. Colorado State District Court Judge William B. Sylvester, who is the trial judge overseeing the case, also was concerned about moving too fast in proceeding to the arraignment, which could produce further issues supporting an eventual appeal.
On Tuesday, March 12, 2013, a Colorado judge entered a plea of not guilty when Holmes' attorney claimed that his client was not prepared to enter a plea. On March 27, 2013, Holmes's attorneys said he would plead guilty to avoid the death penalty, but the following day prosecutors said they are not ready to accept the offer. On the following Monday, prosecutors said they would seek the death penalty. He pleaded Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity on June 4, 2013, which the judge has accepted. No trial date has been set.
James Eagan Holmes was born on December 13, 1987, in San Diego, California. His mother is a registered nurse. His father is a mathematician and scientist and has degrees from Stanford University, UCLA and UC Berkeley. He has one sister. Holmes was raised in Castroville, California, where he attended elementary school, and San Diego. Holmes played soccer and ran cross-country in high school. He attended a local Lutheran church with his family, according to the church's pastor.
In Aurora, Holmes lived on Paris Street in a one-bedroom apartment, in a building with other students involved in health studies. In his rental application, he described himself as "quiet and easygoing". He left some digital footprints, like a university email address, an old MySpace photo, a dating profile on Match.com, and a profile on Adult FriendFinder, as well as a resume at the employment website Monster.com. According to a few sources, Holmes may have hired prostitutes and left reviews of them on an online message board.
Education and career
In 2006, Holmes worked as an intern at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies where he was assigned to write computer code for an experiment. Holmes, who was described by his supervisor as stubborn, uncommunicative and socially inept, presented his project to the other interns at the end of the internship, but never actually completed it. Holmes wrote of his experiences at the Salk Institute in a college application essay: "I had little experience in computer programming and the work was challenging to say the least. Nonetheless, I taught myself how to program in Flash and then construct a cross-temporal calibration model.... Completing the project and presenting my model at the end of the internship was exhilarating."
Graduating from Westview High School in the Torrey Highlands community of San Diego in 2006, Holmes attended the University of California, Riverside (UCR) and, in 2010, received his undergraduate degree in neuroscience with the highest honors. He was a member of several honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Golden Key. According to UCR recommendation letters submitted to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (UIUC), Holmes graduated in the top 1% of his class with a 3.949 GPA. The UCR letters also described Holmes as "a very effective group leader’’ and a person who "takes an active role in his education, and brings a great amount of intellectual and emotional maturity into the classroom".
In 2008, Holmes worked as a counselor at a residential summer camp in Glendale, California, that catered to needy children aged 7–14. There he was responsible for 10 children and had no disciplinary problems.
In June 2011, Holmes enrolled as a Ph.D. student in neuroscience at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora. He received a $21,600 grant from the National Institutes of Health, according to agency records, which was disbursed in installments from July 2011 to June 2012. Holmes also received a $5,000 stipend from the University of Colorado, Denver. Though Holmes received a letter of acceptance to UIUC, where he was offered a $22,600 stipend and free tuition, he declined their offer without specifying a reason. Reviewers of Holmes' application at UIUC remembered his application because he submitted a picture of himself with a llama.
In 2012, his academic performance declined, and he scored poorly on the comprehensive exam in the spring. The university was not planning to expel him. However, Holmes was in the process of withdrawing from the university. Three days after failing a key oral exam at the university in early June 2012, Holmes dropped out of his studies without further explanation. At the time of his arrest, he gave his occupation as "laborer."
Aurora theater shooting
Events leading to the shooting
Holmes' defense attorneys claimed in a motion he was a "psychiatric patient" of the medical director of Anschutz's Student Mental Health Services prior to the Aurora shooting; however, the prosecution disagrees with that claim. Four days after the release of the defense attorney's motion, the judge required this information to be blacked out. CBS News later reported that Holmes met with at least three mental health professionals at the University of Colorado prior to the massacre.
Some of Holmes' acquaintances suspected prior to the shooting that Holmes suffered from mental illness and could be dangerous. A month prior to the shooting, Dr. Lynne Fenton reported to the campus police that he had made homicidal statements which indicated he was a threat to the public. Two weeks prior to the shooting, he sent a text message asking a graduate student if they had heard of the disorder dysphoric mania, and warning the student to stay away from him "because I am bad news."
It was reported that Holmes was a big fan of superheroes, including Batman, and that his apartment was decorated with Batman paraphernalia. "Diggity" Dave Aragon, an actor from MTV television series Pimp My Ride, stated that James Holmes called him twice the month prior to the shooting. Aragon is the writer, director, and star of an upcoming film entitled The Suffocator of Sins, which has a plot that involves a vigilante who shoots criminals, and Aragon claimed that Holmes showed interest in his movie's trailer.
Actions prior to shooting
On May 22, 2012, Holmes purchased a Glock 22 pistol at a Gander Mountain shop in Aurora, and six days later bought a Remington Model 870 shotgun at a Bass Pro Shops in Denver. On June 7, just hours after failing his oral exam at the university, he purchased a Smith & Wesson M&P15 semi-automatic rifle, with a second Glock 22 pistol following on July 6. All the weapons were bought legally. In the four months prior to the shooting, Holmes also bought 3000 rounds of ammunition for the pistols, 3000 rounds for the M&P15, and 350 shells for the shotgun over the Internet. On July 2, he placed an order for a Blackhawk Urban Assault Vest, two magazine holders and a knife at an online retailer.
On June 25, less than a month before the shooting, Holmes emailed an application to join a gun club in Byers, Colorado. The owner, Glenn Rotkovich, called him several times throughout the following days to invite him to a mandatory orientation, but could only reach his answering machine. Due to the nature of Holmes' voice mail, which he described as "bizarre, freaky", "guttural, spoken with a deep voice, incoherent and rambling," Rotkovich instructed his staff to inform him if Holmes showed up, though Holmes neither appeared at the gun range nor called back. "In hindsight, looking back – and if I'd seen the movies – maybe I'd say it was like the Joker – I would have gotten the Joker out of it...It was like somebody was trying to be as weird as possible," Rotkovich said.
Shooting and arrest
On July 20, 2012, police arrested an unresisting Holmes next to his car behind the Century 16 theater, moments after the 2012 Aurora shooting, in which Holmes allegedly set off several gas or smoke canisters and then opened fire on the theater audience, killing 12 and wounding 58. The responding officers recovered several guns from inside the car and the theater. According to two federal authorities, Holmes had dyed his hair orange and had called himself "The Joker". Although it should also be noted, that Holmes calling himself "The Joker," was later retracted  to news sources such as "Face The Nation," on the CBS News network, by police.
Once apprehended, Holmes told the police that he had booby-trapped his apartment with explosive devices before heading to the theater. Police later confirmed the presence of explosives in the apartment.
Detention and court appearance
Holmes was initially jailed at Arapahoe Detention Center, under suicide watch. He is being held in solitary confinement to protect him from other inmates, a routine precaution for high-profile cases.
Holmes made his first court appearance in Centennial, Colorado on July 23, before Judge William B. Sylvester. He was read his rights and no bond was given. A mandatory protection order was issued by the judge. The judge appointed a public defender. Holmes said nothing and never looked at the judge. His appearance, which was described as "dazed" and "confused" fueled speculation about his mental state.
On July 30, Colorado prosecutors filed formal charges against Holmes that included 24 counts of first degree murder, 116 counts of attempted murder, possession of explosive devices, and inciting violence. The multiple charges expand the opportunities for prosecutors to obtain convictions. For each person killed in the shooting, Holmes is charged with one count of murder with deliberation and one count of murder with extreme indifference. Holmes agreed in court to waive his right to a preliminary hearing within 35 days.
On August 9, Holmes' attorneys said their client is mentally ill and that they need more time to assess the nature of his illness. The disclosure was made at a court hearing in Centennial where news media organizations were asking a judge to unseal court documents in the case.
On September 19, the prosecution filed a motion to add 10 new charges against Holmes and asked to amend 17 others. The additional charges would bring the total counts Holmes faces to 152. Holmes appeared in the Arapahoe County Court house the following day for the first time without his dyed-red hair, but with cropped hair revealing his natural brown color.
On September 28, court documents released by prosecutors say Holmes was revoked access to the University of Colorado campus because he threatened a professor. The university has said Holmes was denied access to non-public parts of the campus because he had withdrawn from school.
On October 11, 2012, Holmes' attorneys asked Judge William Sylvester to postpone a preliminary hearing scheduled for November. On October 25, the preliminary hearing was set for the week of January 7.
Holmes' lawyers filed an emergency motion on November 14, 2012 to delay a pre-trial hearing, citing an unspecified condition that has left him unable to appear in court. "As a result of developments over the past 24 hours, Mr. Holmes is in a condition that renders him unable to be present in court for tomorrow's hearing," They requested to delay the hearing, which they received. It was rescheduled for December. Evidently, Holmes made various suicide attempts referred to as "half-hearted" in days before the scheduled hearing on November 15.
Holmes returned to court on January 7, 2013 at which 9-1-1 phone call recordings and videos from the cineplex were presented as evidence, information that up until then had not been released. Holmes' defense team maintained that he is mentally ill.
On that same day, it is reported that investigators seized four prescription bottles and immunization records from his apartment when it was searched in July 2012. It was not revealed what the prescriptions were or what they were for. The judge ultimately ruled in October that prosecutors could keep the items.
On March 27, 2013, Holmes's attorneys said he would be willing to plead guilty to avoid the death penalty. On March 28, prosecutors said they are not ready to accept James Holmes' offer to plead guilty and avoid the death penalty and also criticized the offer as a ploy 
On April 1, 2013, prosecutors announced they will seek the death penalty in a trial to start in February 2014.
On May 29, 2013, The judge Ruled about the constitutionality of the laws for Insanity-plea questioned by Holmes's attorneys and the conclusion is that those laws are not in violation of the U.S. Constitution 
On June 4, 2013, the presiding judge accepted his plea of Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity. A jury will still have to side with him; they also may reject and find him Guilty; Mental evaluations of him will likely take months, and court proceedings could take years. He remains remanded to jail without bail.
- Ross French (July 20, 2012). "Information regarding James Eagan Holmes". UCR Today (University of California, Riverside). Retrieved August 2, 2012.
- "Profile: Aurora cinema shooting suspect James Holmes". BBC. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Colo. shooting suspect James Holmes' apartment booby trapped, police say". CBS News. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- James Holmes Update: Judge enters not guilty plea for suspect in Colorado movie theater massacre - Crimesider - CBS News
- Muskal, Michael. "Judge allows plea of not guilty by insanity for James Holmes". LA Times. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Peter Rowe and John Wilkens (July 20, 2012). "Quiet, unassuming San Diegan accused of mass murder". U-T San Diego. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Sara Burnett and Jessica Fender (July 20, 2012). "Colorado shooting suspect James Eagan Holmes was honor student". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "A closer look at Aurora shooting suspect James Holmes". USA Today. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Peter Rowe and John Wilkens (July 20, 2012). "Quiet, unassuming, San Diegan accused of mass murder". UT San Diego. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Stickney, R.; Fry, Wendy (July 24, 2012). "Holmes Family Stands by Son: Attorney". NBC San Diego. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- "Castroville classmates stunned: As a youth James Holmes was 'friends with everybody'". The Salinas Californian. July 23, 2012.
- "Who is James Egan Holmes?". The Blade (Toledo, OH). Associated Press. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Sandell, Clayton; Dolak, Kevin; Curry, Colleen (July 20, 2012). "Colorado Movie Theater Shooting: Suspect Bought 4 Guns, 6,000 Rounds of Ammunition in Past 60 Days". ABC News. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Pastor: Colo suspect was shy boy driven to succeed". Sacramento Bee. Associated Press. July 22, 2012.[dead link]
- Simon, Stephanie (July 22, 2012). "Colorado shooter: a high achiever's abrupt descent". Reuters.
- Castillo, Mariano (July 21, 2012). "James Eagan Holmes: Aurora, Colorado shooting suspect: Who is he?". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Williams, Pete; Dedman, Bill; NBC News staff (July 21, 2012). "Aurora suspect James Holmes was buying guns, dropping out of graduate school". ABC News. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Stern, Joanna (July 20, 2012). "James Holmes: Colorado Shooting Suspect Had Few Digital Fingerprints". ABC News. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "The Match.Com Profile". TMZ.com. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Asbury, John; Gruszecki, Debra; Robinson, Alicia (20 July 2012). "At UC Riverside, Holmes led enigmatic life". The Press-Enterprise. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "James Holmes: Denver Dark Knight killer paid prostitute for sex just a week before massacre". Dailymail.co.uk. 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- Caulfield, Philip (25 July 2012). "Aurora suspect hired prostitutes". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- Lysiak, Matt; Chapman, Ben (30 July 2012). "Holmes wasn't hot for prostitute". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- "Colorado shooting suspect James Holmes was an 'unusually bad intern'". The Christian Science Monitor. 23 July 2012.
- "Suspected Aurora shooter James Holmes brilliant? Not by a long shot, says former Salk Institute supervisor John Jacobson". New York Daily News. 23 July 2012.
- Holmes, James. "Resume submitted to University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign". Reuters. p. 11. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Lohr, David (July 20, 2012). "Colorado Shooting: What We Know About James Holmes (UPDATED)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Whitaker, Bill (July 20, 2012). "James Holmes "smart" but "quiet," teachers and neighbors say". CBS News. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Burnett, Sara. "Theater shooting suspect: A quiet man who authorities say harbored a deadly plan". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Stickney, R.; Tevrizian, Megan; Powell, Brandi (July 20, 2012). "Westview HS Graduate 'Acted Alone' in Deadly Rampage: Investigators". NBC San Diego. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Chancellor Timothy P. White Press conference video". University of California, Riverside.
- "Aurora suspect James Holmes was buying guns, dropping out of graduate school". MSNBC. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "Man accused in Colo. shooting was accepted to UIUC". 5 NBC Chicago. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Dedman, Bill (21 July 2012). "Photos of James Holmes, camp counselor for underprivileged kids". NBC News. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Shooting Suspect Was Graduate Student At Colorado Medical School". WLEX-TV. 20 July 2012.
- "James Holmes received thousands from grad-school grants ahead of deadly Aurora shooting". CBS This Morning. CBS News. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "University: CO shooting suspect had federal grant". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Leonnig, Carol D.; Achenbach, Joel (July 20, 2012). "James Holmes, held in Colorado shooting, had academic promise but was struggling". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Statement from the university on James Holmes". University of Colorado Denver. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Harris, Dan (July 25, 2012). "James Holmes Bought Rifle After Failing Oral Exam at University of Colorado". ABC News. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- Sickles, Jason (August 9, 2012). "Judge accused of creating ‘unusual shroud of secrecy’ in movie theater shooting case". Yahoo News.
- "Colorado shooting suspect was a psychiatric patient". CNN. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "Defense: Shooting suspect was seeing psychiatrist". Associated Press. Retrieved July 28, 2012.[dead link]
- Meyer, Jeremy P. (August 1, 2012). "Holmes court document revised four days after its release". The Denver Post. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Sallinger, Rick. "James Holmes saw three mental health professionals before shooting". CBS News. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Psychiatrist told campus police before Colo. theater attack Holmes had homicidal thoughts". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- Goode, Erica; Kovaleski, Serge F.; Healy, Jack; Frosch, Dan (26 August 2012). "Before Gunfire, Hints of 'Bad News'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012.
- "Profile of Aurora shooting suspect keeps getting murkier". Los Angeles Times. 22 July 2012.
- "MTV Star Claims Alleged Aurora Theater Shooter Called Him Prior To Massacre". CBS. August 1, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Castillo, Michelle. Colo. shooter purchased guns legally from 3 different stores. CBS News. July 20, 2012. Accessed from December 10, 2012.
- "James Holmes appears in court being accused of killing 12 people in Aurora cinema shooting | BelleNews.com, Latest News". Bellenews.com. 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- Police: Colo. Shooting Suspect Bought Guns Legally, ABC News (July 21, 2012)
- Suspect Bought Large Stockpile of Rounds Online, The New York Times (July 22, 2012)
- Aurora Gunman’s Arsenal: Shotgun, Semiautomatic Rifle and, at the End, a Pistol, The New York Times (July 23, 2012)
- Colo. shooting suspect used Internet for arsenal[dead link], [Associated Press] (July 23, 2012)
- Massacre suspect James Holmes' gun-range application drew red flag, Fox News (July 22, 2012)
- "Aurora 'Dark Knight' Suspect James Holmes Says He 'Was the Joker': Cops". ABC News. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- James Holmes Said He Was the Joker -Turns out, Not True - Yes on the Hair, No On the Utterance - YouTube
- "70 Shot In Movie Theater Mass Shooting; 12 Killed". The Denver Channel. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Minshew, Charles (July 20, 2012). "Map: Aurora theater shooting, suspect's apartment, hospitals". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Colo. suspect's apartment 'booby-trapped'". Clinton News-Record. Reuters. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Lysiak, Matthew; Arkin, James; Mcshane, Larry (July 21, 2012). "Aurora shooting suspect James Holmes jailed in solitary: 'All the inmates were talking about killing him'". Daily News (New York). Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "James Eagan Holmes will appear in court on Monday". Global Post. July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Watch Theater Shooting Suspect's First Court Appearance". YouTube. July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Formal charges coming in a week in Colorado shootings". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- James Holmes makes court appearance in Colorado theater shooting[dead link], Los Angeles Times (July 23, 2012)
- Shooting suspect's court appearance puzzles many[dead link], The Detroit News (July 25, 2012)
- Court appearance fuels theories about Colorado shooting suspect, CNN (July 25, 2012)
- Riccardi, Nicholas; Banda, P. Solomon (July 30, 2012). "Colo. Suspect Charges: Murder, Attempted Murder". Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- John Ingold (July 30, 2012). "James Holmes faces 142 counts, including 24 of first-degree murder". The Denver Post. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- Banda, Solomon. "LAWYERS: COLO. SHOOTING SUSPECT IS MENTALLY ILL". Associated Press.
- Ingold, John (September 19, 2012). "Prosecutors seek to add 10 charges against theater shooting suspect". The Denver Post. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Stephen Rex Brown (September 20, 2012). "James Holmes has brown hair now". The New York Daily News. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Gary Strauss (September 28, 2012). "Prosecutors: Shooting suspect threatened professor". USA Today. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Coffman, Keith. "Preliminary hearing in Colorado movie rampage case set for January". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Accused Colorado gunman cannot attend court due to condition: lawyer". Reuters. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Colorado massacre suspect has made half-hearted suicide attempts". CBS News. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "Accused Colo. Shooter James Holmes Hearing Set — ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "Aurora theater shooting: Cops took pill bottles from Holmes' apartment". The Denver Post. January 7, 2013.
- "Judge rules James Holmes should face trial in Colorado massacre". Fox News. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "JUDGE DELAYS ARRAIGNMENT IN COLO. THEATER SHOOTING". Associated Press. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "James Holmes offers guilty plea to avoid death penalt". USA Today. March 27, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "PROSECUTORS NOT READY TO AGREE TO HOLMES PLEA". AP. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Death penalty sought for James Holmes; trial set for Feb. 2014". USA Today. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Attorneys: Holmes plans insanity plea in Aurora shootings". CNN. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Holmes asking judge to change plea to insanity". USA Today. Retrieved 13 May 2013.