Jean Ziegler

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Jean Ziegler, Geneva book fair 2011

Jean Ziegler (French: [ziglɛʁ]; born April 19, 1934 as Hans Ziegler) is a former professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris. He was a Member of Parliament for the Social Democrats in the Federal Assembly of Switzerland from 1981 to 1999. He has also held several positions with the United Nations, especially as Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food from 2000 to 2008,[1] and as a member of the Advisory Committee of the UN Human Rights Council from 2008 to 2012. Jean Ziegler has authored numerous works, is a lecturer, and is well known for this sentence: "A child who dies from hunger is a murdered child."[2]

Early life and teaching career[edit]

Jean Ziegler was born on April 19, 1934 in Thun, Switzerland. His father was the president of the town’s court and a reserve artillery colonel.

Ziegler married and had one son. He studied at the universities of Bern and Geneva and has doctorates in Law and Sociology. He also earned his barrister brevet at the bar association of Geneva. In 1952, he met Abbé Pierre in Paris, and became the first director of the Emmaus charitable community of Geneva. In 1964, Ziegler admired the Cuban communists, and was Che Guevara's chauffeur in Geneva.[3]

Ziegler was professor at the University of Grenoble and until 2002 at the University of Geneva and at the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, where he taught sociology. He also held the position of associate professor at the Sorbonne in Paris.

Election and appointment to public offices[edit]

In 1963 Jean Ziegler was elected at the municipal council of Geneva as a social democrat. From 1967 to 1983 and from 1987 to 1999 he held a seat at the Swiss National Council. While there he was the president of the “Swiss-Third World” parliamentary group. He joined the commissions for foreign affairs, science and international trade.

Nominated by Switzerland, he was the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food from 2000 to 2008.[1] Following Ziegler's election, the Swiss government stated that it "attaches great importance to human rights and is pleased that a Swiss candidate will be able to contribute his expertise to the committee."[4] He then served a one-year term on the Advisory Committee to the United Nations Human Rights Council, receiving forty of forty-seven votes in 2008 to finish first in a field of seven candidates.. He is also a member of the advisory board of the non-profit organization Business Crime Control which targets white-collar crime.

Honors[edit]

Jean Ziegler was made knight (chevalier) of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1994. He has an honorary degree at the University of Mons in Belgium. He was awarded the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. The Republic of Cape Verde awarded him the National Order of Amílcar Cabral, first degree. He turned down the Gaddafi Human Rights Prize in 2002.

On January 17, 2009 he received an honorary degree from the University of Paris VIII. He is a member of the Advisory Board of the left-wing South East European magazine Novi Plamen[5] In Austria Jean Ziegler was awarded with the "Federal State Salzburg prize for future research" by Federal State Salzburg Governor Gabi Burgstaller on 20 November 2008.[6]

He was honored with ethecon's 2012 "Blue Planet Award"[7] for his "outstanding efforts towards humanitarian ethics".[8]

Issues during diplomatic career[edit]

As a United Nations official, Ziegler has dealt with both general worldwide issues such as the use of biofuels, as well as country-specific issues. Regarding the former, Ziegler has criticised the uptake of biofuels because their production can come at the expense of growing food. On 26 October 2007 Ziegler told a news conference at the UN that "it's a crime against humanity to convert agricultural productive soil into soil ... which will be burned into biofuel... What has to be stopped is ... the growing catastrophe of the massacre (by) hunger in the world." [9]

Swiss banks[edit]

In 1997, Ziegler alleged that Swiss banking officials were lying to protect the assets of Mobutu Sese Seko, former President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Ziegler said, "This is grotesque... This is a financial empire and it is here in Switzerland."[10] In 1994 he had already proposed to the Swiss parliament to confiscate the finances of Mobutu and give it back to the country after the end of Mobutu's dictatorship, but his proposal was declined.[11]

He also criticized the Swiss banks in connection with the dormant accounts scandal. According to Ziegler, his "defense of the interests of Jewish communities in their claims against Swiss banks earned him acclaim in the United States and in Israel,"[this quote needs a citation] while he faced attacks and court procedures in Switzerland as a result of this work. In 1998, he testified before Senator Alfonse D'Amato's hearing on the assets of Holocaust victims by the US Senate Banking Committee, against the Swiss banks and in support of the claims of the World Jewish Congress. His book The Swiss, the Gold and the Dead: How Swiss Bankers Helped Finance the Nazi War Machine was published in America in 1998.[12]

Gaddafi Prize and Roger Garaudy[edit]

A prize foundation fund in the name of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi was established in Geneva in 1989, and Nelson Mandela was selected the first recipient of the fund's Gaddafi International Human Rights Prize.[13] Some newspaper accounts have identified Ziegler as one of the panel members who administered the fund in 1989.[14] He has denied launching the award, however, and has said that he was merely "consulted."[15] Although Libya funded the award, its winners were to be chosen by the Swiss foundation, and Ziegler said that "ironclad guarantees" had been established to ensure that "Tripoli's influence would not be felt."[16]

Gaddafi Prize officials announced thirteen disparate winners in 2002, including Ziegler and the French philosopher and convicted Holocaust denier Roger Garaudy. Agence France-Press noted the irony of Ziegler, who had worked for Holocaust reparations in Switzerland, sharing the award with Garaudy.[17] Ziegler turned down the prize, saying that he "could not accept an award or distinction from any country because of my responsibilities at the United Nations."[18]

Ziegler's alleged associations with the Gaddafi Prize has been the subject of criticism.[19] Alan Johnson, writing for The Guardian online in 2008, criticized Ziegler for "launching" the prize four months after the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 (which many believe to have been the work of Libyan agents).[20] Joshua Muravchik from the American Enterprise Institute also criticized his involvement with the award in a 2006 article for the Weekly Standard.[21]

On March 25, 2011, the Swiss television channel Schweizer Fernsehen ran a report on Ziegler's alleged associations with Gaddafi. The piece included criticism of Ziegler from Pierre Weiss, a sociologist and member of the Swiss Liberal Party. Ziegler, for his part, said that he was never a friend of Gaddafi and repeated his claim that he never oversaw the Human Rights Prize.[22]

The following month, the Salzburg Music Festival withdrew an invitation to Ziegler to speak at the event's opening, citing his alleged links to Gaddafi. In the same period, Ziegler said that he now regarded Gaddafi as "completely mad" and as a psychopath and murderer.[23]

In 1996, Ziegler signed a letter of support for Roger Garaudy. He later clarified that he intended to express "his respect for Garaudy's battle against all fundamentalisms — and Muslim fundamentalism, in particular," and that he "most firmly condemned all revisionist activity or ideas whose purpose is to deny or to minimize the genocide of the Jewish people by the Nazis."[24]

Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and South Africa[edit]

During the Ethiopian famine of the mid-1980s, Ziegler described the world as an "immense extermination camp", wherein 40,000 people died of hunger every day. He blamed this on an economic system that allowed the rich to become richer, and the poor to become poorer.[25]

Some of Ziegler's critics have accused him of working as an adviser to Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam in the drafting of Ethiopia's 1986 constitution, which established the country as a one-party state.[20]

Ziegler defended the principle of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's land reforms in 2002, saying that Mugabe had "history and morality on his side". He described agrarian reforms as "an absolute necessity" in Zimbabwe and South Africa, and was quoted as saying:

South Africa is threatened by a social disaster because it has not touched white lands. The whites are the colonisers... they are not people who came after independence and bought their land. They are on despoiled land."

He added that Mugabe's land reforms were being undertaken "in a despicable context", however, and said that agrarian reform under democratic conditions would bring "equitable distribution of the property titles to rural communities". He also clarified that he was speaking in a personal context, and not as a representative of the United Nations.[26]

Iraq and its wars with the United States[edit]

During the buildup to the 1990 Gulf War, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein took several Swiss nationals in Iraq as hostages. Ziegler was involved in efforts to release them, initially working with former Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella and later traveling to Baghdad himself as part of an independent delegation that managed to secure the release of some hostages. The Swiss government did not endorse this effort, and Ziegler argued that his delegation could have freed all of the hostages had the government agreed to allow the export to Iraq of medicines and powdered milk for children.[27]

Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Ziegler proposed that Saddam Hussein be granted a Swiss exile to prevent war from breaking out. The Swiss government did not take up this proposal.[28] After the 2003 invasion, Ziegler accused British and American forces of using water and food as weapons of war in Iraqi cities under attack by insurgents, to encourage civilians to flee.[29]

Cuba and its relations with the United States[edit]

Ziegler has praised Cuba, stating in November 2007 that it is a world model for how it provides its people with food and praised it for cooperating with the United Nations and agreeing to allow him to report on the country's respect for the "right to food."[30] Regarding a visit he made to Cuba, Ziegler stated: "We cannot say that the right to food is totally respected in Cuba, but we have not seen a single malnourished person."[31] Ziegler's trip to Cuba was the first in several years by a U.N. rights rapporteur, and his invitation to Havana followed a decision by the U.N. Human Rights Council to stop scrutinizing Cuban human rights abuses.[31]

According to The Weekly Standard, Ziegler believes that the United States is an "'imperialist dictatorship' that is guilty, among other atrocities, of 'genocide' against the people of Cuba by means of its trade embargo."[21]

Comments about Israel[edit]

Ziegler criticized Israel's conduct in the 2006 Lebanon War, stating that the International Criminal Court should investigate whether Israel is guilty of war crimes for a bombing campaign in Lebanon that blocked access to food and water. Specifically, Ziegler stated that "The government of Israel should be held responsible under international law for the violations of the right to food of the Lebanese civilian population."[32]

Itzhak Levanon, Israel's ambassador to the UN responded that "In all of his reports, Mr. Ziegler always transgresses the limits of his mandate. The latest report - which touches upon several external issues - is no exception." Israel also noted that Ziegler's report focused only on the impact of Israeli bombing in Lebanon and did not cover the effects of Hezbollah rocket fire on northern Israel."[32]

Ziegler, according to a pro-Palestinian website, stated on television that "the Israeli occupation is a colonial regime and an illegal military occupation from the UN's point of view, it continues to annex more Palestinian lands; and thus the Israeli occupation is the worst in the history of colonialism."[33]

In 2005, Ziegler likened Gaza to "an immense concentration camp", adding that he was glad the "guards" were about to leave (this was a reference to Israel's unilateral disengagement plan under Ariel Sharon's government). Ziegler later rejected as "absurd and patently false" the suggestion that he had compared Israelis to Nazis, saying that he was actually quoting an Israeli scholar when he made the remark.[34]

Interactions with North Korea[edit]

Ziegler had several interactions with the government of North Korea while serving as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food. In 2001, he reported that some of the one million tonnes of aid provided by the World Food Programme had been taken by the army, the secret services and the government.[35] In April 2004, a writer in the Asian Wall Street Journal called on North Korea to accept Ziegler's repeated requests for a visit, and to help establish an accountable network for food aid.[36] Later in the same year, Ziegler said that five of his requests to visit North Korea had been turned down by officials in Pyongyang.[37]

Criticisms[edit]

Ziegler's appointment as U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food was criticized by The Weekly Standard, on the grounds that Ziegler is a sociologist by training and had no particular expertise on food or agriculture.[21]

Ziegler's appointment was also criticized by an independent group of political figures including Irwin Cotler and Per Ahlmark. This group criticized Ziegler for his associations with figures such as Mengistu Haile Mariam and Robert Mugabe, his involvement with the Gaddafi Prize, and his support for Roger Garaudy. Their letter opposing Ziegler was issued by the group UN Watch.[38]

In March 2008, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, a Cuban-American and the ranking Republican on the U.S. House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee, sharply criticized Ziegler's appointment as an advisor to the UN Human Rights Council. Ros-Lehtinen's stated:

Mr. Ziegler has drawn criticism for his unyielding support of many of the world's most vicious dictators. He expressed "total support for the Cuban revolution" and its leader, Fidel Castro, whose repressive regime has left hundreds of political dissidents to languish in jail.[4]

Ros-Lehtinen also accused Ziegler of ignoring various famine emergencies using "his platform to consistently attack America and Israel".[4]

The American Jewish Committee (AJC) opposed Ziegler's bid for re-election to the UN Human Rights Office in 2009. The AJC cited his past support for Roger Garaudy and his criticisms of Israel.[39]

Authored works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Special Rapporteur on the right to food". UN Human Rights Council. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 
  2. ^ "Un enfant qui meurt de faim est un enfant assassiné." (Destruction massive: Géopolitique de la faim, Paris, Seuil, 2011.)
  3. ^ Bollag, Burton. "For One Swiss Professor, Vexing His Fellow Citizens Is a Duty and a Delight", Chronicle of Higher Education (1998-10-23).
  4. ^ a b c Engeler, Eliane (2008-03-26). "Outspoken Swiss Tapped by UN Council". Fox News (Associated Press). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  5. ^ "O Novom Plamenu (About Novi Plamen)". Novi Plamen. Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  6. ^ "Video of the "Federal State Salzburg prize for future research" - ceremony on 20th November 2008". 
  7. ^ "Jean Ziegler erhält den “Blue Planet Award 2012″". offene Akademie. Retrieved 2013-10-16. 
  8. ^ "Blue Planet Dossier 2012: Jean Ziegler". ethecon foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-16. 
  9. ^ Lederer, Edith (2007-10-27). "Production of biofuels 'is a crime'". The Independent. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  10. ^ "Swiss banks find only $3.4 million in Mobutu assets". CNN. 1997-06-03. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  11. ^ "Mobutu. Vermögenswerte in der Schweiz". Swiss parliament. 1994. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  12. ^ Grose, Peter (1998-04-05). "Gnomes and Nazis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  13. ^ "Mandela wins Gadhafi prize", The Record, 24 April 1989.
  14. ^ "Gadhafi honors Mandela", Chicago Sun-Times, 24 April 1989, p. 12.
  15. ^ "Zieglers Libyen-Connection", Neue Zürcher Zeitung (2006-06-25).
  16. ^ "World Notes Prizes". Time. 1989-05-08. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  17. ^ "French Holocaust denier, Swiss campaigner for victims share Kadhafi prize", Agence France-Press, 30 September 2002.
  18. ^ "Swiss human rights campaigner turns down "Kadhafi" award", Agence France-Press, 1 October 2002.
  19. ^ "UN rights official Jean Ziegler created "Qaddafi Prize", reports Swiss TV". UN Watch. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Johnson, Alan. "Appointment with Farce", The Guardian 5 April 2008.
  21. ^ a b c Muravchik, Joshua (2005-05-15). "Qaddafi's Good Friend at the U.N.". The Weekly Standard. Vol. 11, No. 33. 
  22. ^ http://www.srf.ch/player/tv/10vor10/video/ruecktrittsforderung-an-jean-ziegler?id=199ccfc1-2cc4-46e9-ad97-99eb72de2f0b
  23. ^ "Swiss politico dropped from music fest over Qaddafi links", The Local, 4 April 2011, accessed 31 May 2011.
  24. ^ Le Monde, 23 April 1996, p. 12.
  25. ^ "L'AFRICA, IL DEBITO E IL RAP DIPLOMAZIA PUNK. "JUBILEE 2000" - CAMPAGNA PER LA CANCELLAZIONE DEI...", La Stampa, 27 February 2000.
  26. ^ "Swiss sociologist defends Zimbabwean land reforms", Agence France-Presse, 22 August 2002.
  27. ^ "Italy criticises EC partners' efforts to free Gulf hostages", Reuters News, 16 October 1990; Samantha McArthur, "91 hostages freed from Iraq arrive back in Europe", Reuters News, 22 November 1990.
  28. ^ "Swiss rights campaigner urges Swiss exile for Saddam", Agence France Presse, 5 February 2003; Irene Harnischberg, "U.S. military planes banned from Swiss airspace except for Iraq surveillance, aid missions", Associated Press Newswires, 21 February 2003, 11:50 am.
  29. ^ Iglesias, Eulàlia. "Rights: U.N. Food Expert Condemns U.S. Tactics in Iraq". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  30. ^ Klapper, Bradley S. (2007-11-14). "UN Regrets Undercover Cubans at Event". Newsday (Associated Press). Archived from the original on 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2008-04-20.  Via archive.org.
  31. ^ a b Boadle, Anthony (2007-11-06). "U.N. food envoy praises Cuba, sees need for reform". Canada.com (Reuters). Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  32. ^ a b "UN envoy tells international court to probe Israel for war crimes". Haaretz (Associated Press). 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  33. ^ "Ziegler: Israel is the worst colonial regime". Palestinian Information Center. 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  34. ^ Perelman, Marc (2005-12-09). "U.N. Official Slammed for Criticism of Israel". The Forward. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  35. ^ “North Korean government hiving off food aid for itself: MSF”, ‘’Agence France-Presse’’, 30 July 2001.
  36. ^ Kay Seok, “Speak Out About Human Rights In North Korea”, ‘’The Asian Wall Street Journal’’, 16 April 2004.
  37. ^ Alan Campiotti, “Jean Ziegler défend les petits pêcheurs, oublie les criquets et prend une volée de bois vert”, ‘’Le Temps’’, 29 October 2004.
  38. ^ "Suspension Of Jean Ziegler's UN Nomination Urged", UN Watch, 25 March 2008.
  39. ^ "AJC Criticizes Nomination of Jean Ziegler for UN Human Rights Office" [press release] 5 March 2009.

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