It uses a solution of 2 fluids with different boiling points for its working fluid. Since the solution boils over a range of temperatures as in distillation, more of the heat can be extracted from the source than with a pure working fluid. The same applies on the exhaust (condensing) end. This provides efficiency comparable to a Combined cycle, with less complexity.
By appropriate choice of the ratio between the components of the solution, the boiling point of the working solution can be adjusted to suit the heat input temperature. Water and ammonia is the most widely used combination, but other combinations are feasible.
Because of this ability to take full advantage of the temperature difference between the particular heat source and sink available, it finds applications in reuse of industrial process heat, geothermal energy, solar energy, and use of waste heat from power plants (Bottoming cycle).
Kalina cycle power plants
Recoverable heat from industrial processes
The Kalina cycle has been thought to increase thermal power output efficiencies by up to 50% in suitable installations, and is ideally suited for applications such as steel, coal, oil refineries and cement production plants.
- The Kashima Steel Works operated by Sumitomo Metals was commissioned in 1999. It produces 3.6MW of electricity and is the longest running commercial application of the Kalina Cycle
- The Tokyo Bay Oil Refinery operated by Fuji Oil was commissioned in 2005 and produces 4MW of power
- Husavik facility, Iceland rated 2MW electric power output and 20MW heat power
- Unterhaching facility, Germany was commissioned in April 2009 and was the first of its kind in the low enthalpy region of southern Germany. This plant produces 3.4MW of electric power and 38MW of heating power for the local township of Unterhaching.
- Brushal facility, Germany was commissioned in December 2009 and produces 580kw of electricity.
- EcoGen Unit, the first ever 50kw EcoGen unit was installed at Matsunoyama Onsen hot spring at Tokamachi, Niigata in Japan in 2011. The EcoGen units are based on the miniaturization of the Kalina Cycle and designed for the Japanese hot spring market and other low enthalpy geothermal markets.
The Kalina cycle trademark and all global patents are owned by Wasabi Energy plc. owner of Global Geothermal Ltd., parent company of Recurrent Engineering Inc.
Global Geothermal Ltd. (parent company: Wasabi Energy Ltd.) owns all the worldwide entities licensed to deploy the Kalina Cycle process. As a result GGL controls the Kalina cycle rights and over 200 international patents associated with this technology. The process is currently used via licensing deals with Siemens and Shanghai Shenge New Energy for all their Chinese applications. FLSmidth has the exclusive right in most countries to offer Kalina cycle technology to the cement and lime industries.
- http://vganapathy.tripod.com/kalina.html Overview of the Kalina cycle
- "Kalina Cycle".