|Karim Khan Zand|
|Vakil e-Ra'aayaa وكيل الرّعايا
(Representative of the People)
Shahanshah of Persia
|Reign||1750 – 1 May 1779|
|Place of death||Zand Palace, Shiraz|
|Buried||Pars Museum, Shiraz
|Successor||Mohammad Ali Khan|
|Religious beliefs||Shia Islam|
He was born in Village of Pari near Malayer to a family of the Zand tribe of Lak or Lur deportees. Kurdish nationalists such as Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou considered him as a Kurdish hero Modern scholarships such as Wadie Jwaideh suggested his proud Kurdishness.
He never styled himself as "shah" or king, and instead used the title Vakil e-Ra'aayaa (Representative of the People).
Karim Khan Zand was one of the generals of Nader Shah. After Nader Shah's death in 1747, Persia fell into a state of civil war. At that time, Karim Khan, Abolfath Khan and Ali Mardan Khan reached an agreement to divide the country among themselves and give the throne to Ismail III. However, the cooperation ended after Ali Mardan Khan invaded Isfahan and killed Abdolfath Khan. Subsequently, Karim Khan killed Ali Mardan Khan and gained control over all of Iran except Greater Khorasan, ruled by Shahrokh, grandson of Nader Shah. Nevertheless, he did not adopt the title of Shah for himself, preferring the title, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa (Advocate of the People = People's President)
While Karim was ruler, Persia recovered from the devastation of 40 years of war, providing the war ravaged country with a renewed sense of tranquility, security, peace, and prosperity. During his reign,relations with Britain were restored, and he allowed the East India Company to have a trading post in southern Iran. He made Shiraz his capital and ordered the construction of several architectural projects there. Following Karim Khan's death, civil war broke out once more, and none of his descendants were able to rule the country as effectively as he had. The last of these descendants, Lotf Ali Khan, was killed by Agha Mohammad Khan, and the Qajar dynasty came to power.
To this day, he has a reputation as one of the most just and able rulers in Iranian history. A wealth of tales and anecdotes portray Karim Khan as a compassionate ruler, genuinely concerned with the welfare of his subjects. In the words of John Malcolm, "The happy reign of this excellent prince, as contrasted with those who preceded and followed him, affords the historian of Persia that kind of mixed pleasure and repose, which a traveler enjoys on arriving in a beautiful and fertile valley during an arduous journey over barren and rugged wastes. It is pleasing to recount the actions of a chief who, though born of an inferior rank, obtained power without crime, and who exercised it with a moderation that, for the times in which he lived, was as singular as his humanity and justice." He is buried at Pars Museum of Shiraz.
Karim KhanBorn: 1705 Died: 1779
Shah Rukh Afshar
|Shah of Persia
Mohammad Ali Khan
Azad Khan Afghan
|Ruler of Azerbaijan (as part of Persia)
Abol Fath Khan Zand
Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar
|Ruler of Mazandaran (as part of Persia)
Abol Fath Khan Zand
See also 
- Arg of Karim Khan
- History of Iran
- History of Kurdistan
- Hyder Ali
- List of kings of Persia
- List of Kurdish people
- Zand dynasty
- Yeroushalmi, David (2009). The Jews of Iran in the nineteenth century. Brill's Series in Jewish Studies 40. The Netherlands: Brill. pp. xxxix. ISBN 90-04-15288-1.
- Dabashi, Hamid (2011). Shi'ism: A Religion of Protest. Harvard University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 0-674-04945-4.
- KARIM KHAN ZAND[dead link]
- A fourth pretender was Karim Khan, son of Aymak of the Zand, a section of Lak tribe, Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes, A History of Persi, Macmillan and co., limited, 1930, p. 277.
- One of the contenders for power was Karim Khan Zand, a member of the Lak tribe near Shiraz, William Marsden, Stephen Album, Marsden's Numismata orientalia illustrata, Attic Books, 1977, ISBN 978-0-915018-16-1, p. 158.
- Karim Khan, the founder of the Zand dynasty of Persia that succeeded the Afsharids, was himself born to a family of these Lak deportees (of the Zand tribe), Mehrdad R. Izady, The Kurds: A Concise Handbook, Taylor & Francis, 1992, ISBN 978-0-8448-1727-9, p. 12.
- Muhammad Karim Khan, of the Zand clan of the Lur tribe, suc- ceeded in imposing his authority on parts of the defunct Safavid empire, David Yeroushalmi, The Jews of Iran in The Nineteenth Century: Aspects of History, Community, and Culture, BRILL, 2009, ISBN 978-90-04-15288-5, p. xxxix.
- Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, Kurdistan and the Kurds, Pub. House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1965, p. 37.
- While the late Kurdish nationalist Ghassemlou, who spoke of the era of Karim Zand as "a splendid chapter in Kurdish history ", compared Karim Khan to Saladin as a Kurdish ruler of other nations,... , Martin Strohmeier, Crucial Images in the Presentation of a Kurdish National Identity: Heroes and Patriots, Traitors and Foes, Brill, 2003, ISBN 978-90-04-12584-1, p. 46.
- ...ethnically non-Kurdish rulers such as Nadir Shah and Karim Khan have been transformed into, and accepted by some as, ethnic Kurds., Abbas Vali, Essays on the Origins of Kurdish Nationalism, Mazda Publishers, 2003, ISBN 978-1-56859-142-1, p. 147.
- Kurdish leader, Karim Khan Zand,..., Wadie Jwaideh, The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development, Syracuse University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7, p. 17.
- Lokman I. Meho, Kelly L. Maglaughlin, Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. ISBN 978-0-313-31543-5, p. 308.
- ...the bulk of the evidence points to their being one of the northern Lur or Lak tribes, who may originally have been immigrants of Kurdish origin., Peter Avery, William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0, p. 64.
- Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish national movement: its origins and development.
- (John Malcolm, The History of Persia, 1829)
Malcolm, John, Sir, The history of Persia, from the most early period to the present time containing an account of the religion, government, usages, and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom in 2 volumes; London : Murray, 1815.; re-published by Adamant Media Corporation 2004 vol 1. ISBN 978-1-4021-5134-7; vol. 2 ISBN 978-1-4021-5205-4.
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