|— city —|
|Ancient names: Ecbatana, Hegmatana|
|Elevation||1,850 m (6,069 ft)|
|• Rank||14th in Iran|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE.
Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 km southwest of Tehran.
According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC." 
Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.
During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.
During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C (−22 °F) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.
|Climate data for Hamedan|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.0
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−34
|Precipitation mm (inches)||46.3
|Avg. rainy days||11.6||11.1||12.4||12.1||9.5||2.0||1.3||1.6||1.0||5.6||6.8||10.1||85.1|
|Avg. snowy days||8.8||8.2||4.2||0.6||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||0.9||6.9||29.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||131.8||137.1||174.5||199.6||258.5||341.8||342.7||322.2||295.6||234.3||183.1||135.3||2,756.5|
|Source: NOAA (1961-1990) |
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone.
The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan.
The 11th century Iranian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.
According to the survey of 1997, the population of Hamadan province was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people (with overwhelming majority living in Hamadan city). In Hamadan city, 97% of the people identified their language as Persian and 3% other languages. (Azeris, Lurs, some others...).
Contemporary culture and extras 
The residents of Hamadan are very proud of the city's historical heritage. Another source of their pride is Avicenna (aka Bouali, Buali, Ebn-e-sina, Pur-e-Sina) who is buried in Hamadan. Primary schools, high schools, and the city's main university are named after him. Even shops and businesses are named after him. Bouali Street is a very busy one and a favorite pastime of Hamadanians is to stroll up and down the street where they frequently bump into their acquaintances. The city has a population of around 600,000 including its outer suburbs. Hamadan is generally a prosperous city; the northern districts are mainly lower middle-class or working class, whereas the southern half of city is where the upper middle class and the rich live.
Main sights 
- Ali Sadr Cave
- Avicenna mausoleum
- Baba Tahir Mausleum
- Estakhr e Abbas Abad- a lake with a magnificent view of the city.
- Tomb of Esther and Mordechai
- Excavated Ancient Ekbatana City
- Gonbad-e Alavian
- Hamadan Museum of Natural History
- Hamadan Stone Lion
- Mohammadi House
- Nazari House
International relations 
Twin towns – Sister cities 
Hamedan is twinned with:
Colleges and universities 
- Bu-Ali Sina University
- Hamedan Medical University
- Islamic Azad University of Hamadan
- Hamadan University of Technology
Famous Hamadanians 
- Abolhassan Banisadr, Economist, Politician, the first post-revolutionary elected President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Amir Nosrat'ollah Balakhanlou, Born in Tehran — Two-time Mayor and MP for Hamadan (1950s and early 1960s).
- Amir-Shahab Razavian, film director, writer and producer
- Baba-Taher-e Oryan, Iranian famous Poet (1100 A.c)
- Ein-Alqozat Hamadani (عین القضات همدانی), Great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C)
- Ehsan Yarshater, Historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopædia Iranica; born in Hamadan
- Fazlollah Zahedi, Military general
- Fereydoun Moshiri, Originally is from Hamadan, but was born in Tehran, Contemporary Poet
- Hanieh Tavassoli, Actress
- Joseph Emin, (1726–1809), A major activist in the attempts to liberate Armenia during the 18th century
- Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, A celebrated sufi saint and poet.
- Mirzadeh Eshghi, A celebrated nationalist poet
- Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Celebrated poet (1300 A.C)
- Parviz Parastouei, Acclaimed actor
- Shirin Ebadi, Lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate
- Samuel Rahbar, Scientist
- Abolmohsen Salemi (1913–2008), journalist, lawyer, poet, writer and newspaper publisher.
- Mehrnoush Najafi Ragheb Blogger,Lawyer and Activist Human Rights.
See also 
- Ganj Nameh
- Baba Taher Orian
- Ali Sadr Cave
- Hamadan Airport
- Wojtek (soldier bear)that was famous bear in the world . atth was died in Poland.
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2010-11-16.
- Hamadan Province Web Site, retrieved Januari 2010.
- Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
- (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopaedia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamadān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.
- "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan provinces - Population and ethnicites -  accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hamedan|
- Hamedan Medical University 
- Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- The Bisotun inscription, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Photos from Hamadan City
- Hamadan City
- Hamadan: Older than history
- Hamadan; Capital of Median Empire
- Iconos satellite photo (January, 2005)
- Google Satellite Picture
- Hamedan Cultural Heritage Organization
- Hegmataneh Official Website
- Hamadān entries in the Encyclopædia Iranica
- Various Photos of Hamadan - Photos of Esthers Shirne, Tomb of Avicenna, Gonbad Alavian, Tomb of Baba Taher, Stone Lion, Ganjnameh and the City.