Kielce pogrom (1918)
Kielce pogrom of 1918 refers to the events that occurred on November 11, 1918, in the Polish town of Kielce, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. According to 1919 Report by Henry Morgenthau, Sr. who led the Mission of The United States to Poland; shortly after the Austrian troops were evacuated from Kielce, towards the end of World War I during Poland's fight for independence, the city authorities allowed local Jews to hold a rally at the Polish Theatre, in order to demand Jewish political and cultural autonomy. According to one U.S. source, during the rally, anti-Polish speeches were also being delivered. As the meeting went on, a crowd of Polish onlookers gathered outside the theatre.
At 6:30 P.M. the meeting began to break up, wrote Morgenthau. Only about 300 people remained in the auditorium. Soon, a group of soldiers entered the theatre and began to search for arms, driving the Jews towards the stairs, where a double line of extremists, some armed with clubs and bayonets beat the Jews as they were leaving the building. Outside the theatre, Jews were assaulted by the right-wing mob again. Jewish homes and shops were damaged. During the pogrom four Jews were killed and a large number wounded, according to Morgenthau. "A number of civilians have been indicted for participation in this excess", but have not been brought to trial by the time, his report was delivered.
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- Mission of The United States to Poland, Henry Morgenthau, Sr. Report
- "A RECORD OF POGROMS IN POLAND" (PDF), The New York Times, 1919-06-01;: 1–3 based on information provided by a Russian writer M.J. Olgin, a Jewish Communist representing Bolshevik interests in Poland ultimately leading to the Polish–Soviet War. Olgin escaped to USA in 1915 and began to advocate that the affairs of Poland need to be taken over by an external force.
- Województwo Świętokrzyskie – Kielce (including Kielce Synagogue/Synagoga w Kielcach). (Polish)
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