Kutná Hora

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Coordinates: 49°57′N 15°16′E / 49.950°N 15.267°E / 49.950; 15.267
Kutná Hora
Town
KH-sv Jakub.jpg
Flag
Coat of arms
Country Czech Republic
Region Central Bohemian
District Kutná Hora
Commune Kutná Hora
River Vrchlice
Elevation 254 m (833 ft)
Coordinates 49°57′N 15°16′E / 49.950°N 15.267°E / 49.950; 15.267
Area 33.05 km2 (12.76 sq mi)
Population 21,142
Density 640 / km2 (1,658 / sq mi)
Founded 13th century
Mayor Ivo Šanc
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 284 01
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Name Historical Town Centre with the Church of St. Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec
Year 1995 (#19)
Number 732
Region Europe and North America
Criteria ii, iv
Location in the Czech Republic
Location in the Czech Republic
Wikimedia Commons: Kutná Hora
Statistics: statnisprava.cz
Website: www.kutnahora.info

Kutná Hora (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkutnaː ˈɦora] ( ); medieval Czech: Hory Kutné; German: Kuttenberg) is a city situated in the Central Bohemian Region of Bohemia, which is now part of the Czech Republic.

History[edit]

The town began in 1142 with the settlement of the first Cistercian monastery in Bohemia, Sedlec Monastery, brought from the Imperial immediate Cistercian Waldsassen Abbey. By 1260 German miners began to mine for silver in the mountain region, which they named Kuttenberg, and which was part of the monastery property. The name of the mountain is said to have derived from the monks' cowls (the Kutten) or from the word mining (kutání in old Czech). Under Abbot Heidenreich the territory greatly advanced due to the silver mines which gained importance during the economic boom of the 13th century.

The earliest traces of silver have been found dating back to the 10th century, when Bohemia already had been in the crossroads of long-distance trade for many centuries. Silver dinars have been discovered belonging to the period between 982–995 in the settlement of Malín, which is now a part of Kutná Hora.

Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, 1490s

From the 13th to 16th centuries the city competed with Prague economically, culturally and politically.[1] Since 1995 the city center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2]

In 1300 when King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia issued the new royal mining code Ius regale montanorum. This was a legal document that specified all administrative as well as technical terms and conditions necessary for the operation of mines.[3] The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite Wars in 1419 was the second most important city in Bohemia, after Prague, having become the favourite residence of several Bohemian kings. It was here that, on January 18, 1409, Wenceslaus IV signed the famous Decree of Kutná Hora, by which the Czech university nation was given three votes in the elections to the faculty of Prague University as against one for the three other nations.

In 1420 Emperor Sigismund made the city the base for his unsuccessful attack on the Taborites during the Hussite Wars, leading to the Battle of Kutná Hora. Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) was taken by Jan Žižka, and after a temporary reconciliation of the warring parties was burned by the imperial troops in 1422, to prevent its falling again into the hands of the Taborites. Žižka nonetheless took the place, and under Bohemian auspices it awoke to a new period of prosperity.

Along with the rest of Bohemia, Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) passed to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In 1546 the richest mine was hopelessly flooded; in the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I the city lost all its privileges; repeated visitations of the plague and the horrors of the Thirty Years' War completed its ruin. Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the town became impoverished, and in 1770 was devastated by fire. The mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century.

In this town Prague groschen were minted between 1300–1547/48.

Austrian bilingual KK stamp in 1861
Chandelier made out of human bones inside Sedlec Ossuary

Bohemia was a crownland of the Austrian Empire in 1806, in the Austrian monarchy (Austria side) after the compromise of 1867). Until 1918, Kuttenberg was head of the district with the same name, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia.[4]

The city became part of Czechoslovakia after World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary. Kutná Hora was incorporated into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany in the period 1939–1945, but was restored to Czechoslovakia after World War II. The city became part of the Czech Republic in 1993 during the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

Notable Residents[edit]

Nicolas Dacicky

Architecture[edit]

Kutná Hora and the neighboring town of Sedlec are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the most important buildings in the area are the Gothic, five-naved St. Barbara's Church, begun in 1388, and the Italian Court, formerly a royal residence and mint, which was built at the end of the 13th century. The Gothic Stone Haus, which since 1902 has served as a museum, contains one of the richest archives in the country. The Gothic St. James's Church, with its 86 metre tower, is another prominent building. Sedlec is the site of the Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady and the famous Ossuary.

Main sights[edit]

  • Church of St. Barbara (Chrám Svaté Barbory)
  • Church of Our Lady (Chrám Nanebevzetí Pany Marie)
  • Sedlec Ossuary (Sedlecká kostnice)
  • Church of St. James (Kostel sv. Jakuba)
  • Church of St. John Nepomuk (Kostel sv. Jana Nepomuckého)
  • Church of Ursuline Convent (Klášter řádu sv.Voršily)
  • Jesuit College (Jezuitská kolej)
  • Italian Court (Vlašský dvůr)
  • Marian column (Morový sloup)

Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Kutná Hora is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Discover Czech". Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  2. ^ "UNESCO page on Kutná Hora". Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  3. ^ "Town history". Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  4. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967

External links[edit]