Lanarkshire Yeomanry

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Lanarkshire Yeomanry
Lanarkshire Yeomanry.jpg
Cap badge of the Lanarkshire Yeomanry
Active 1819–present
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Cavalry
Role Yeomanry
Part of Cavalry Corps , World War I
Royal Artillery World War II
Royal Armoured Corps , Current
Battle honours South Africa 1900 -1902
World War I
Second Battle of Gaza
Third Battle of Gaza
Battle of Beersheba
Battle of Epehy
World War II
No battle honours were awarded. It is tradition within artillery units that the Regiment's guns represent its colours and battle honours.[1]

The Lanarkshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1819, which served as a dismounted infantry regiment in the First World War and provided two field artillery regiments in the Second World War, before being amalgamated into The Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry in 1956.

Early history[edit]

The units which would become the regiment were first raised in 1819, as independent troops of yeomanry around Lanarkshire. The five existing troops were regimented in 1848 as the Upper Ward and Airdrie Corps of Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry, later retitled as the Lanarkshire Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry. The regiment sponsored two companies of the Imperial Yeomanry in 1900, for service in the South African War, and in 1901 was itself reorganized as mounted infantry as the Lanarkshire Imperial Yeomanry. In 1908 it was transferred into the Territorial Force, returning to a cavalry role and equipping as lancers, under the new title of the Lanarkshire Yeomanry.[2]

World War I[edit]

Lowland Mounted Brigade
Organisation on 4 August 1914

In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 (7 Edw.7, c.9), which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country. However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split in August and September 1914 into 1st Line (liable for overseas service) and 2nd Line (home service for those unable or unwilling to serve overseas) units. Later, a 3rd Line was formed to act as a reserve, providing trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line regiments.[3]

1/1st Lanarkshire Yeomanry[edit]

The regiment mobilised into the Lowland Mounted Brigade in August 1914, but remained in England until 1915. They landed at Gallipoli in September 1915, serving as dismounted infantry, and were attached to 52nd (Lowland) Division in October; they were withdrawn in January 1916 and moved to Egypt. In early 1917 the regiment was amalgamated with The Ayrshire Yeomanry to form the 12th (Ayr and Lanark Yeomanry) Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 74th (Yeomanry) Division, seeing service in the Palestine campaign before moving to the Western Front in May 1918.[3] Whilst on the Western Front, Sergeant Thomas Caldwell of the regiment was awarded a Victoria Cross.[4]

2/1st Lanarkshire Yeomanry[edit]

The 2nd line regiment was formed in 1914. In 1915 it was under the command of the 2/1st Lowland Mounted Brigade in Scotland (along with the 2/1st Ayrshire (Earl of Carrick's Own) Yeomanry[5] and the 2/1st Lothians and Border Horse[6]) and by March 1916 was at Dunbar, East Lothian.[7] On 31 March 1916, the remaining Mounted Brigades were numbered in a single sequence and the brigade became 20th Mounted Brigade, still at Dunbar under Scottish Command.[8]

In July 1916 there was a major reorganization of 2nd line yeomanry units in the UK. All but 12 regiments were converted to cyclists[8] and as a consequence the regiment was dismounted and the brigade converted to 13th Cyclist Brigade. Further reorganization in October and November 1916 saw the brigade redesignated as 9th Cyclist Brigade in November, still at Dunbar.[9]

About May 1918 the Brigade moved to Ireland[9] and the regiment was stationed at Londonderry. There were no further changes before the end of the war.[7]

3/1st Lanarkshire Yeomanry[edit]

The 3rd line reiment was formed in 1915, and remained in the United Kingdom until disbanded in 1917.[3]

Inter War[edit]

Following demobilisation after the War, the regiment was reconstituted in 1920 in the Territorial Army.[2]

World War II[edit]

The regiment apparently did not mechanise before the outbreak of the Second World War; after mobilisation, it was converted to the artillery role. It transferred into the Royal Artillery in February 1940 as 155th (Lanarkshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, RA; in April 1940, 156th (Lanarkshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, RA was formed as a second-line duplicate. Both served as field artillery regiments.

The 155th moved to India in May 1941, and joined 9th Indian Division, equipped with 25 pounder guns; in August, it moved to Malaya with the division, leaving one battery behind to form the nucleus of 160th Field Regiment, RA. In September it re-equipped with 4.5" guns, and in October it was transferred into 11th Indian Division. It fought in the Battle of Malaya and the Battle of Singapore; with the surrender of Singapore, it was taken prisoner on 15 February 1942.[10]

The 156th moved to North Africa in July 1942, and was attached to 5th Infantry Division in August; it remained with the division through the remainder of the war, fighting in the Invasion of Sicily, the Italian Campaign and in North-Western Europe.[11]

Post war[edit]

After the War, the regiment reconstituted in the Territorial Army as a yeomanry regiment, under its old title of The Lanarkshire Yeomanry, and transferred into the Royal Armoured Corps. In 1956 it amalgamated with the Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry and the 1st/2nd Lothians and Border Horse to form The Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "mod.uk". 
  2. ^ a b c The Lanarkshire Yeomanry[dead link], regiments.org
  3. ^ a b c Baker, Chris. "The Lanarkshire Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  4. ^ The Lanarkshire Yeomanry, Scottish Military Historical Society[dead link]
  5. ^ Baker, Chris. "The Ayrshire Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Baker, Chris. "The Lothians & Border Horse Yeomanry". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  7. ^ a b James 1978, p. 21
  8. ^ a b James 1978, p. 36
  9. ^ a b James 1978, pp. 16,21,24
  10. ^ Barton, Derek. "155 (Lanarkshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  11. ^ Barton, Derek. "156 (Lanarkshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • James, Brigadier E.A. (1978). British Regiments 1914–18. London: Samson Books Limited. ISBN 0-906304-03-2.