Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte
|Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte|
|Type||Project super-heavy tank|
|Place of origin||Nazi Germany|
|Weight||1,000 tonnes (1,100 short tons; 980 long tons)|
35 m (115 ft) hull39 m (128 ft) guns forwards
|Width||14 m (46 ft)|
|Height||11 m (36 ft)|
|Crew||20+, possibly as many as 41|
|Armor||150–360 mm (5.9–14.2 in)|
|2 × 280 mm 54.5 SK C/34|
|1 × 128 mm KwK 44 L/55
8 × 20 mm Flak38
2 × 15 mm MG 151/15
|Engine||8 × Daimler-Benz MB501 20-cylinder marine diesel engines, or
2 × MAN V12Z32/44 24-cylinder marine diesel engines
12,000 to 13,000 kW (16,000 to 17,000 hp)
|Ground clearance||2 m (79 in)|
|~190 kilometres (120 mi)|
|Speed||40 km/h (25 mph)|
The Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte (lit.: Land Cruiser P. 1000 "Rat") was a design for a super-heavy tank for use by Nazi Germany during World War II. It was designed in 1942 by Krupp with the approval of Adolf Hitler, but the project was canceled by Albert Speer in early 1943 and no tank was ever completed. At 1,000 metric tons, the P-1000 would have been over five times as heavy as the Panzer VIII Maus, the heaviest tank ever built.
The development history of the Ratte originated with a 1941 strategic study of Soviet heavy tanks conducted by Krupp, the study also giving birth to the Panzer VIII Maus super-heavy tank. The study led to a suggestion from Krupp director Grotte, special officer for submarine construction, who on 23 June 1942 proposed to Hitler a 1,000-tonne tank which he named a Landkreuzer. It was to be armed with naval artillery and armored with 25 centimetres (10 in) of hardened steel, so heavily that only similar weapons could hope to affect it. To compensate for its immense weight, the Ratte would have been equipped with three 1.2 metres (3 ft 11 in) wide treads on each side with a total tread width of 7.2 metres (24 ft). This would help stability and weight distribution, but the vehicle's sheer mass would have destroyed roads and rendered bridge crossings next to impossible. However, it was anticipated that its height, and its ground clearance of 2 metres (6.6 ft) would have allowed it to ford most rivers with relative ease.
Hitler became enamored with Grote's concept and ordered Krupp to begin development on it in 1942. As of December 29, 1942 a few preliminary drawings had been completed, by which time the concept had been named Ratte (Rat). Albert Speer canceled the project in 1943 before any were constructed.
The Ratte was to be propelled by two MAN V12Z32/44 24-cylinder marine diesel engines of 6,300 kW (8,400 hp) each (as used in U-boats) or eight Daimler-Benz MB 501 20-cylinder marine diesel engines of 1,500 kW (2,000 hp) each (as used in E-boats) to achieve the 12,000 kW (16,000 hp) needed to move this tank. The engines were to be provided with snorkels also like those used by German submarines. The snorkels were designed to provide a way for oxygen to reach the engine, even during amphibious operations passing through deep water.
Further armament was to consist of a 128 mm anti-tank gun of the type used in the Jagdtiger or Maus, two 15 mm Mauser MG 151/15 autocannons, and eight 20 mm Flak 38 anti-aircraft guns, probably with at least four of them as a Flakvierling quad mount. The 128 mm anti-tank gun's precise location on the Ratte is a point of contention among historians, most believing that it would have been mounted within the primary turret, with some others thinking a smaller secondary turret at the rear of the Ratte more logical. Some concept drawings exist to suggest a flexible mount on the glacis plate. The tank was to be provided with a vehicle bay that could hold two BMW R12 motorcycles for scouting, and several smaller storage rooms, a compact infirmary area, and a self-contained lavatory system.
- Hahn, Fritz. Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933–1945: Band 2: Panzer- und Sonderfahrzeuge, "Wunderwaffen", Verbrauch und Verluste. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe Verlag, 1987. 320 p. ISBN 3-7637-5832-1.
- Ellenbogen, Michael (2006). Gigantische Visionen - Architektur und Hochtechnologie im Nationalsozialismus (in German). Graz: ARES Verlag. ISBN 3-902475-25-0.
- Spielberger, Walter J. (1977). Spezialpanzerfahrzeuge des deutschen Heeres (in German). Stuttgart: Motorbuch-Verlag. p. 137. ISBN 3-87943-457-3.
- Parsons, Zack (2007). My Tank Is Fight!. New York: Citadel Press Inc. ISBN 0-8065-2758-7.
- German site with a scale model
- Article about the 1000/1500 series
- Illustration of P.1000 Landkreuzer Ratte