Later Tang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Tang Dynasty.
Tang

 

 

923–937
 

 

Capital Daming
(923)
Luoyang
(923–936)
Languages Chinese
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 -  923–926 Emperor Zhuangzong
 -  926–933 Emperor Mingzong
 -  933–934 Emperor Min
 -  934–936 Emperor Modi
Historical era Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
 -  Established in Daming May 923
 -  Overthrown by Khitan and Shi Jingtang January 11, 937
Today part of  China
The preceding entity of the Later Tang was the State of Jin, which was established by Li Keyong in 895 under the Tang Dynasty and existed as a state in 907–923.
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Old Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Volga Bulgaria
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang
  Later Jin
  Later Han (Northern Han)
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

The Later Tang lasted from 923 to 936 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China,[1] the first in a series of three dynasties ruled by the Shatuo Turks. At its height, it controlled most of northern China.

Formation of the Later Tang[edit]

From the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907, a rivalry had developed between the successor Later Liang, formed by Zhu Wen, and the State of Jin, formed by Li Keyong, in present-day Shanxi. The rivalry survived the death of Li Keyong, whose son Li Cunxu continued to expand Jin territories at the expense of the Later Liang.

Li Keyong forged an alliance with the powerful Khitan, like the Shatuo a people of the northern steppe, a relationship that figured significantly in the expansion and ultimate triumph of the Shatuo. Li Cunxu was successful in overthrowing the Later Liang in 923 and proclaimed himself emperor of the Later Tang, which he referred to as the “Restored Tang”. As a part of “restoring the Tang”, the capital was moved back to the old Tang eastern seat of Luoyang.

Course of the Later Tang[edit]

The Later Tang was a short-lived regime, lasting only thirteen years. Li Cunxu himself lived only three years after the founding of the dynasty, having been killed during an officer’s rebellion in 926. Li Siyuan, the adopted son of Li Keyong, took over the dynasty, but relations with the Khitan had fallen sour. Internal struggles typified the remaining ten years of the dynasty, ending with its toppling in 936 when Shi Jingtang, son-in-law of Li Siyuan and a fellow Shatuo, rebelled, stormed the capital with the help of Khitan troops, and founded the Later Jin.

Extent of Later Tang territories[edit]

The Later Tang controlled considerably more territory at its height than did the Later Liang. It extended to all the northern territories controlled by the Later Liang as well as its own base in Shanxi. It also had control over the areas around Beijing and Shaanxi, which were not entirely under the control of the Later Liang. The largest expansion of the Later Tang occurred in 925 when they conquered the Former Shu State, centered in present-day Sichuan. However, as Later Tang power was waning, a Later Shu state formed in 934, a year before the fall of the Later Tang.

Rulers of the Later Tang[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Chinese naming conventions Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Zhuāngzōng (莊宗) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Cúnxù (李存勗) Family name and given name 923–926 Tóngguāng (同光) 923–926
Míngzōng (明宗) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Sìyuán (李嗣源) or Lǐ Dǎn (李亶) Family name and given name 926–933 Tiānchéng (天成) 926–930
Chángxīng (長興) 930–933
did not exist Mǐn (閔) Lǐ Cónghòu (李從厚) Family name and given name 933–934 Yìngshùn (應順) 933–934
did not exist Mòdì (末帝) Lǐ Cóngkē (李從珂) Family name and given name 934–937 Qīngtaì (清泰) 934–937

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zurndorfer, Harriet T. (2010). "Efflorence? Another Look at the Role of War in Song Dynasty China". War in words transformations of war from antiquity to Clausewitz. Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 92. ISBN 9783110245424. 
  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press.