Lausanne Metro

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Lausanne Metro
Pink circle with three diagonal white lozenges forming stylised letter 'm'
Overview
Native name Métro de Lausanne
Locale Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
Transit type Light rail & Rapid transit[Note 1]
Number of lines 2
Number of stations 28
Annual ridership 40.8 million (2013)[1]
Website Transports Lausannois (TL) (French)
Operation
Began operation 1991
Operator(s) TL
Technical
System length M1: 7.8 km (4.8 mi)[1]
M2: 5.9 km (3.7 mi)[1]
13.7 km (8.5 mi) (Total)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The Lausanne Metro system includes two lines in Lausanne, Switzerland, owned by two distinct companies and operated by a third. The Line M1 is a light rail, while the Line M2 is a fully automated metro[2] which opened on 27 October 2008. A third line, M3, is in the planning stages. With the opening of the M2 line, Lausanne has replaced Rennes as the smallest city in the world to have a full metro system.[3]

History[edit]

Former Lausanne-Ouchy line[edit]

Former Lausanne-Ouchy metro

The Lausanne-Ouchy railway, the precursor to the M2 line of the Lausanne Metro, was inaugurated in 1877 as a funicular. In 1959 the first overhaul took place by transforming the funicular into a rack railway under the name "métro". At that time, Flon and Gare CFF stations were demolished and replaced by concrete underground equivalents. The line was however always nicknamed "La Ficelle" (The String) by its users due to its funicular past and circulation above ground in the greenery for more than half of its run.

Connected to the Flon facilities, the freight trains from the main station to the storage area of the harbour (in Flon) travelled on this line until the construction of a direct connection between the freight station of Sébeillon and the Flon valley in 1954.

The line was finally closed to all traffic on 21 January 2006. The rolling stock was originally sold to the French city of Villard-de-Lans which planned the construction in 2008 of its own rack railway, La Patache, to ensure a link between the center of Villard and Le Balcon de Villard.

A bus service was put into operation to replace the then-closed "La Ficelle" until the opening of the new metro M2 line. This service was called Métrobus (MB): the south loop linked Ouchy to the CFF station and the north loop linked the station to Montbenon (which is located right above the Flon area).

M1 Line[edit]

Lausanne originally had a tram system that opened in 1896, and ultimately grew to an approximately 66-kilometre (41 mi) network by 1934. But the original Lausanne tram network closed entirely in 1964.

A modern tramline, which ultimately became Lausanne Métro Line M1, opened on 24 May 1991, and began revenue service on 2 June 1991.[4] In 2001, for marketing and public communication reasons, this line was renamed the M1 line by its operator TSOL. The M1 is a light rail line with a total of 15 stations, a dozen of which are at-grade and three of which are underground.

M2 Line[edit]

  • Complementary inquiry : September 2001
  • Decision by the State Council : June 2002
  • Funding requested from the High Council : September 2002
  • Popular vote : end 2002
  • Duration of construction : 4–5 years
  • Metro-Ouchy operations stopped : January 2006
  • Official Inauguration : 18–21 September 2008
  • In operation from : 27 October 2008

Network[edit]

Line M1[edit]

Line M1
pink circle with three diagonal white lozenges forming stylised letter m, followed by twice-broken blue-outlined white circle, containing blue number 1
TSOL-p1030581.jpg
Interior of a line M1 train
Overview
Type Light rail
System Lausanne Metro
Locale Vaud, Switzerland
Termini Lausanne-Flon station
Renens railway station
Stations 15[1][4]
Daily ridership 43,500 (university term-time)[5]
Ridership 13.2 million (2013)[1]
Operation
Opening 2 June 1991[4]
Owner TSOL
Operator(s) TL
Technical
Line length 7.8 km (4.8 mi)[1][4]
No. of tracks 1 (some double track sections)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 750 V DC Overhead catenary
Lausanne Line M1
Linie Lausanne M1.svg

The Lausanne Métro Line M1 was opened[vague][not in citation given] on 24 May 1991, and began revenue service on 2 June 1991.[4] The line is owned by a company named TSOL (Tramway du Sud-Ouest lausannois) and this acronym is widely used by the commuters who use the line. Trains on the line are operated by the Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL, formerly Tramways Lausannois). The M1 is a light rail line with a dozen surface stations and three underground.

The line, which is 7.8-kilometre (4.8 mi) long,[1][4] links the centre of Lausanne, the Lausanne campus (UNIL and EPFL) and Renens. The line is generally single track. At most stations a passing loop is provided to allow trains to pass, and a dedicated platform is provided for each direction. Exceptions to this are Bassenges, UNIL-Sorge and Provence stations, where the line is still single track serving one bidirectional platform.

Rolling stock[edit]

Unlike the later line 2, an automated or remotely controlled train was not planned when the line opened in 1991. This may be due to the relatively recent development of automated metro technology, coupled with the decision to develop the line as a light metro with level crossings rather than using grade separation. To run the service, the line was equipped with a set of modern Light Rail Vehicles (LRVs), which run on an overhead live wire and can be run singly or in multiple units,[6] with each formation needing a driver.

There are a total of 18 of these original LRVs on the line, but after 20 years in service they were showing their age, and 2 were regularly out of use. Additionally, the line has been a victim of its own success, with 12.5 million passengers carried in 2012[6] and the line carrying the equivalent to the entire population of Yverdon-les-Bains every day.[7]

In 2011, the Canton of Vaud gave 34 million Swiss Francs to enable the existing LRVs to have a mid-life refurbishment, and to permit the operator to commission MOB to build 5 brand-new LRVs. Previously, it was physically impossible for all trains to operate with a double formation, but the additional vehicles will enable the line to operate a full double-car service on all 10 peak-hour trains.[4] In order to accommodate the new trains, the depot at Ecublens has been enlarged and additional servicing facilities built.[6]

The first of the new LRVs was finished in July 2013 and was taken to the Ecublens depot in three distinct pieces: one half of the car body, the other half body, and the underframes and bogies. The operator was left to complete final assembly,[6] and the new car entered service in December 2013.[4] It is expected that the full fleet will be in service by 2015, permitting a 5-minute interval service of double-length trains.

Stations[edit]

Station Altitude Situation
Lausanne-Flon 479m Flon-p1030659.jpg
Vigie 481m TSOL-p1030587.jpg
Montelly 443m Lausanne Montelly metro.jpg
Provence 430m TSOL-M1-Provence.JPG
Malley 422m Métro M1 Station Malley.jpg
Bourdonnette 389m Métro M1 Station Bourdonnette.jpg
UNIL-Dorigny 388m Lausanne Metro M1 station UNIL-Dorigny.jpg
UNIL-Mouline 386m
UNIL-Sorge 391m TSOL-M1-UNIL-Sorge.JPG
EPFL 397m EPFL-p1010381.jpg
Bassenges 399m Métro M1 Station Bassenges.jpg
Cerisaie 398m CerisaieM2.JPG
Crochy 403m Crochy.jpg
Epenex 410m
Renens CFF 404m Lausanne metro Renens CFF.jpg

Line M2[edit]

Line M2
Logo metrolausanne2.png
M2 ouverture zone sud.JPG
Overview
Type Metro
System Lausanne Metro
Locale Vaud, Switzerland
Termini Ouchy
Les Croisettes
Stations 14
Daily ridership 75,615 (average, 2013)
Ridership 27.6 million (2013)[1]
Operation
Opening 2008
Operator(s) TL
Rolling stock 15 2-car MP 89 trains
Technical
Line length 5.9 km (3.7 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
with running pads for the rubber
tired wheels outside of the steel rails
Route map
Lausanne Métro M2
Les Croisetes
Vennes
Garage
Fourmi
La Sallaz
CHUV
Ours
Bessières
Riponne
Lausanne-Flon
Lausanne-Gare
Grancy
Montriond
Délices
Jordils
Ouchy
Line m2 in construction on the stretch of the former Metro-Ouchy
The M2 Lausanne Gare station showing one of the steeply graded platforms.

The Lausanne Métro Line M2 is 5.9-kilometre (3.7 mi) long and uses the alignment of the former Lausanne-Ouchy railway, plus a new route towards Epalinges, crossing the whole city of Lausanne from north to south. Construction work (including enabling works) took around 4 years,[8] and brought significant rebuilds of all former Métro Lausanne-Ouchy stations, plus involved moving the platforms at Lausanne-Flon station a short distance further north[2] to give Cross-platform interchange from northbound M2 to the Lausanne-Echallens-Bercher railway. The new line opened in autumn 2008.[8]

Technical[edit]

The line is not entirely underground, but the majority (70-90%) of the system is in tunnel.[2][3] The line is steeply sloped, with inclines of 12% in some places.[9] A rubber-tyred metro was selected to counter these, the steepest slopes of any similar adhesion-worked system in the world.[2]

Characteristics of the line[edit]
  • 6.5 kilometres (4.0 mi)[9] of route from Ouchy to Epalinges, including 1.5 km (0.93 mi) that replaces the former Lausanne-Ouchy railway.
  • 14 stations.
  • 338 m (1,109 ft) vertical gain[9]
  • 5.7% slope average with maximum of 12%. The constraints in braking distance and deceleration are such that the M2 can travel faster upwards than downwards.[citation needed]
  • An additional 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) of track is contained within the depot at Vennes, along with the signalling, security and information facilities.[2]
Performances[edit]
  • 25 million passengers/year (forecast).
  • 37 000 jobs serviced.
  • 60 km/h (37 mph) top speed.[9]
  • 18 minutes from one end of the line to the other.
  • Up to 6 600 passengers/hour in each direction.[citation needed]
  • One train every 3 minutes[9] between the main railway station and La Sallaz (every 6 minutes along the rest of the line).
A rubber-tyred metro[edit]

A rubber-tyred metro is able to climb at high speed the Lausanne slopes (12% in some places ; 5.7% average on the whole line).

Automated metro[edit]

The Line M2 is entirely automated, managed from a central command station. This means that it is cheaper to operate[2] and more flexible during peak hours. The stations are equipped with platform screen doors and dedicated station personnel are on hand to assist passengers.

A separated right of way line[edit]

The M2 runs on its own right-of-way, with a double track (except in the tunnel under the CFF station due to high costs), underground for most of the route. The metro is a good solution to the safety and congestion problems of urban public transport, since the it can run without interference to surface traffic.

Safe and practical stations[edit]

The underground stations are located as close as possible to the surface. They are equipped with stairs, lifts and facilities for handicapped people. The Lausanne slopes have been used to create multi-level access, make ramp access easier[2] and take advantage of natural light as much as possible.

Stations[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

Mockup of a bogie of a M2 train
Technical data of the trains[edit]
  • Length of a train : 30,680 mm (100 ft 7.9 in)
  • Length of a car : 15,340 mm (50 ft 3.9 in)
  • Width of a car : 2,450 mm (8 ft 0.46 in)
  • Height of the car to ground level: 3,470 mm (11 ft 4.61 in)
  • Mass of an empty train : 57,316 kg (126,360 lb)
  • Mass of a train at maximum load (4 p/m²) : 72,856 kg (160,620 lb) (¹)
  • Width of the access doors : 1,650 mm (5 ft 4.96 in)
  • Height of the access doors : 1,900 mm (6 ft 2.80 in)

(¹) Calculated with an average of 70 kg (154 lb) per passenger.

Capacity of the trains[edit]
Number of passengers/m² Passengers per train
Nominal load 4 pax/m² 222[2]
Full load 6 pax/m² 314
Maximum load 8 pax/m² 406
Delivery of the trains[edit]

The first train was delivered on 2 March 2006 in Lausanne.[8] Since then, all the other trains have been delivered at a rate of two per month. When they arrived, the trains were stored in the CFF storage of Lausanne. Then, by autumn of 2006, the subway workshop facility having been completed, the vehicles were moved finally to the Vennes facility.

Accidents[edit]

On 23 February 2005, part of the tunnel under construction collapsed under the Saint-Laurent square in the centre of Lausanne. More than 500 m³ of debris (water and earth) fell into the tunnel, forming a huge fifteen metre gap. The area was completely evacuated for a few days and consolidation and geological analysis work started. A large pocket of water had not been noticed during the initial explorations.

Repair work lasted for a few months. The incident fortunately had no major consequence; nobody was in the area of the collapse which had heavily damaged a shopping mall. Part of the budget had been allocated for such risks and the deadline for the construction in December 2008 was not directly affected.

On 27 October 2006, a construction worker died from injuries. He had fallen a few days before on the construction site at the level of the entrance of the University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV).

On 28 July 2008 a high level manager for Alstom who had responsibility for the security system for the new lines was found hanging in the stairwell at the entrance to the Vennes station of the M2. The 45-year-old French man's death appeared to have been a suicide.[11]

Possible extensions[edit]

The end station Les Croisettes has been designed to allow a future extension of the line to the north[2] towards Epalinges-Village, or even Le Chalet-à-Gobet.

Future service[edit]

Line M3[edit]

A line M3 is proposed to serve the new development area of La Blécherette [12] and the west of Lausanne (Malley, Renens Bussigny). Line M3 could be a metro similar to the M2 and would be in correspondence with M1, M2 and LEB railway at the station Lausanne-Flon. The press theorised that the M3 could take over the M2 line from Ouchy to Lausanne Gare and a new terminus for the M2 would be established.[13] However, this issue has subsequently been clarified: while new platforms will be built at Lausanne Gare, a second tunnel would be constructed from there to Grancy, underneath the main railway station. Under these proposals, both lines 2 and 3 would share the physical track onwards to Ouchy. The proposals were put to a referendum in February 2014, and having won public approval in the vote, the new line is projected to open in 2018.[14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Lausanne Metro has two lines. Line M1 is light rail, Line M2 is rapid transit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Chiffres clé 2013" [Key figures 2013] (in French). Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL). 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Lausanne Metro m2, Switzerland". Railway-Technology.com. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  3. ^ a b "Lausanne Subway Prepares to Handle Passengers". Railway Technology. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Communiqués de presse - La première nouvelle rame m1 en circulation" [Press Release - The first new train m1 in circulation] (in French). Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL). 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  5. ^ "m2 – plus de 100'000 voyageurs en deux jours" (pdf) (in French). Transports publics de la région lausannoise. 29 October 2008. Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Communiqués de presse - Transfert de la première nouvelle rame m1" [Press Release - The first new m1 train transferred] (in French). Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL). 9 July 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-15. 
  7. ^ "Communiqués de presse - Début de la construction des nouvelles rames m1" [Press Release - Construction starts on new m1 train] (in French). Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL). 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2014-08-15. 
  8. ^ a b c "Chronologie - Site officiel de la Ville de Lausanne" [Timeline - Official site of the City of Lausanne] (in French). Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Un réseau performant - Site officiel de la Ville de Lausanne" [A performing network - Official site of the City of Lausanne] (in French). Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  10. ^ Lambert, Anthony (2013). Switzerland without a Car (5 ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 258. ISBN 978-1841624471. 
  11. ^ "[Dead link]" (in French). [dead link]
  12. ^ "[Dead link]" (pdf) (in French). 17 January 2008. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Le M3, qui passera ici ou par là, cherche encore sa voie" (pdf). 24 heures. 10–11 September 2011. p. 15. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  14. ^ "M3: l'apport de la Confédération réjouit". 20 minutes. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 

External links[edit]