Platform screen doors

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"Horizontal Lift" style at Lomonosovskaya station in St. Petersburg, the first type of screen doors in the world.
Serangoon station. The Singapore MRT is the first in the world to be fitted with glass screen doors.
Platform screen doors in Paris Metro Line 14.
Platform screen doors at Barcelona Metro
Taipei Main Station, Taipei Metro are installed with automatic platform gates.
Screen doors are common in people mover systems, including the one in Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada.
The unique rope-style screen door at Nokdong station of Gwangju Subway, South Korea.

Platform screen doors (PSDs) and platform edge doors (PEDs) at train or subway stations screen the platform from the train. They are a relatively new addition to many metro systems around the world, some having been retrofitted to established systems. They are widely used in Asian and European metro systems. The first station in the world with platform screen doors is Park Pobedy (Russian: Парк Побе́ды) in the Saint Petersburg Metro that was opened in 1961.

Door types[edit]

Although the terms are often used interchangeably, platform screen doors are full height, total barriers between the station floor and ceiling, while platform edge doors are full height but do not reach the ceiling and thus do not create a total barrier.

Platform screen doors[edit]

These doors help to:

  • Prevent accidental falls off the platform onto the lower track area, suicide attempts and homicides by pushing.
  • Prevent or reduce wind felt by the passengers caused by the piston effect which could in some circumstances make people fall over
  • Reduce the risk of accidents, especially from service trains passing through the station at high speeds.
  • Improve climate control within the station (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning are more effective when the station is physically isolated from the tunnel).
  • Improve security — access to the tracks and tunnels is restricted.
  • Lower costs — eliminate the need for motormen or conductors when used in conjunction with Automatic Train Operation, thereby reducing manpower costs.
  • Prevent litter build up on the track which can be a fire risk.
  • Improve the sound quality of platform announcements, as background noise from the tunnels and trains that are entering or exiting is reduced.

Their primary disadvantage is their cost; installing a system typically costs several million USD per station. When used to retrofit older systems, they limit the kind of rolling stock that may be used on a line, as train doors must have exactly the same spacing as the platform doors; this results in additional costs due to depot upgrades and otherwise unnecessary purchases of rolling stock.

The doors also pose their own safety risks, as people maybe trapped by the doors; however, cases of this happening are extremely rare and such incidents have only occurred a few times in the history of installed platform screen doors.

Automatic platform gate[edit]

Automatic platform gates (or half-height platform screen doors as referred to by some manufacturers) are chest-height sliding doors at the edge of railway platforms to prevent passengers from falling off the platform edge onto the railway tracks. Like full-height platform screen doors, these platform gates slide open or closed simultaneously with the train doors.

Half-height platform gates are cheaper to install than platform screen doors, which require more metallic framework for support. Some railway operators may therefore prefer such an option to improve safety at railway platforms and, at the same time, keep costs low and non-air-conditioned platforms naturally ventilated. However, these gates are less effective than full platform screen doors in preventing people from intentionally jumping onto the tracks.[1]

These gates are firstly in practical use by Hong Kong metro system, MTR on Disneyland Resort Line for their open-air stations design. The later design by other manufacturers, such as Gilgen Door Systems AG, have their gates higher than the one installed on Disneyland Resort Line.

Examples[edit]

Usage[edit]

Brazil[edit]

The São Paulo Metro has nine stations with platform screen doors (PSDs): Sacomã station (Line 2 - Green) opened on January 30, 2010 with this feature. On May 25, 2010, Faria Lima and Paulista stations (Line 4 - Yellow) opened featuring PSDs; on August 21, 2010, Vila Prudente Station was opened with PSDs and on September 21, 2010, Tamanduateí Station was also opened with PSDs. Stations Butantã, Pinheiros, República, and Luz of Line 4 - Yellow, opened in 2011 with PSDs. All the future stations of the system will be inaugurated with PSDs. They are planned to be installed in the old stations as well.[2]

Canada[edit]

In Toronto, the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) plans to begin to add screen doors at select subway stations on the Yonge line beginning in 2013 and completion on the Yonge-University-Spadina line by 2015.[3] The remaining Bloor-Danforth and Sheppard lines will not have screen doors until new train sets, dubbed the Toronto Rocket, begin to run on these lines, and all older cars are retired from the system. There are no plans for the Scarborough RT, as the system's future is still under debate.

Screen doors are already in use at all three LINK Train stations and future Union Pearson Express stations at Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga, Ontario.

China[edit]

A number of Chinese cities have started to install platform screen doors. Systems such as Shanghai Metro, Beijing Subway, Guangzhou Metro, and Shenzhen Metro have adopted the platform screen doors.

Denmark[edit]

The Copenhagen Metro uses Westinghouse[4] and Faiveley platform screen doors on its underground stations platforms.

Finland[edit]

The Helsinki Metro is currently conducting a trial run with Faiveley automatic platform gates installed on a single platform at Vuosaari metro station during phase one of the project. The doors, which are part of the Siemens metro automation project, were built over a year ago. Phase 2 of the project has been delayed due to metro automation technical and safety related testings.[5]

France[edit]

Paris Métro's line 14 from Saint-Lazare to Bibliothèque François Mitterrand was inaugurated with Faiveley platform screen doors. The new station Olympiades opened with platform screen doors in June 2007. Line 1 has been retrofitted with platform screen doors, for full driverless automation effective in 2012. Some stations on Line 13 also has had platform edge doors since 2010 due to overcrowding, after tests were conducted in 2006.

In addition, all lines of the VAL automated subway system are also equipped with platform screen doors at every station. Those include Toulouse, Rennes and Lille subways, as well as the CDGVAL and Orlyval airport shuttles.

The D line in Lyon, equipped with full automated trainset, isn't equipped with platform screen doors but by infrared detectors upon the tracks.

Hong Kong[edit]

In 1998, the Tung Chung Line and Airport Express saw the earliest operations of platform screen doors in Hong Kong. Since then, the MTR Corporation began to retrofit 2,960 pairs of screen doors at all the underground stations of the MTR network, the first in the world to retrofit PSDs on a transit system already in operation. The project was completed in October 2005.[6] The remaining 8 at-grade or elevated stations were retrofitted with automatic platform gates in 2011.

Platform screen doors were also installed on all platforms of the West Rail Line, then built by the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) before the MTR-KCR merger.

The longest screen doors in the world can be found in East Tsim Sha Tsui Station, but a reduction of train length from 12 to 9 cars followed by the construction of Kowloon Southern Link, caused parts of those screen doors to be permanently out of service.

Besides the MTR, all stations on the Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover are equipped with platform screen doors.

India[edit]

Platform screen doors are used in all the platforms on Delhi Airport Metro Express, a Delhi Metro line which links New Delhi Metro Station to Dwarka Sector 21, linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport at a speed of 135 kmph.[7] There have been plan to install platform screen doors on Line 1 and Line 2 of the Kolkata Metro.[8] Kochi Metro plans to install platform screen door in all upcoming stations.[9] Chennai metro rail limited, a rapid urban transit system in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, will have platform screen doors installed in all underground stations.

Italy[edit]

Platform screen doors are used in most of the rapid transit systems of new construction in Italy, in particular in the Turin Metro, the Venice People Mover, the Perugia Minimetrò, the Brescia Metro and the Line 5 of the Milan Metro.

Japan[edit]

The Tokyo Metro began installing barriers in 1991, with the opening of the Namboku Line, and subsequently on the Marunouchi and Fukutoshin lines.

In August 2012 the Japanese government announced plans to install barriers at stations used by 100,000 or more people per day, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism allotted 36 million yen ($470,800) for research and development of the system the 2011-2012 fiscal year. A difficulty was the fact that some stations are used by different types of trains with different designs, making barrier design a challenge.[10]

As of November 2012, only 34 of 235 stations with over 100,000 users per day were able to implement the plan. The ministry stated that 539 of approximately 9,500 train stations across Japan have barriers. Of the Tokyo Metro stations, 78 of 179 have some type of platform barrier.[11]

Malaysia[edit]

Platform screen doors are installed at all underground Kelana Jaya Line LRT stations, from Ampang Park to Masjid Jamek LRT stations for safety reasons. The automated announcement message reading "For safety reasons, please stand behind the yellow line" in both English and Malay languages are also heard before the train arrived at all LRT stations.

South Korea[edit]

Yongdu Station of Seoul Subway Line 2 was the first station on the Seoul Subway to feature platform screen doors; the station opened in October 2005. By the end of 2009, many of the 289 stations operated by Seoul Metro, SMRT, and Seoul Metro Line9 were equipped with platform screen doors.[citation needed] However, not all stations operated by Korail have completed installation. All stations in South Korea will have platform screen doors by 2018.[12] As of 2012, 100%, 57.9%, 49.1%, 41.4% and 15.3% of subway stations are equipped with platform screen doors in Daejeon, Gwangju, Busan, Incheon and Daegu respectively.[13] The platform screen doors installed in Nokdong Station on Gwangju Subway have a unique rope-based platform screen named Rope type Platform Safe Door (RPSD).[14] A set of ropes cordones off the platform from the rails. When the train arrives, the rope screen ascends to allow entry.

Russia[edit]

Park Pobedy (Russian: Парк Побе́ды) is a station of the Saint Petersburg Metro that was the first station in the world with screen doors. The station was opened in 1961. Later the other nine stations of this type were built in Saint Petersburg (Leningrad): Petrogradskaya (Russian: Петроградская), Vasileostrovskaya (Russian: Василеостровская), Gostiny Dvor (Russian: Гостиный двор), Mayakovskaya (Russian: Маяковская), Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo I (Russian: Площадь Александра Невского-1), Moskovskaya (Russian: Московская), Yelizarovskaya (Russian: Елизаровская), Lomonosovskaya (Russian: Ломоносовская), Zvyozdnaya (Russian: Звёздная).

There was an electronic device to ensure that the train stopped with its doors adjacent to the platform doors; they were installed so that driverless trains could eventually be used on the line.[15] Unlike other platform screen doors, which are lightweight units with extensive glazing installed on a normal platform edge, the St Petersburg units give the appearance of a solid wall with heavyweight doorways and solid steel sliding doors, similar to a bank of elevators in a large building, and the train cannot be seen entering from the platform; passengers become familiar with the sound alone to indicate a train arrival.

Singapore[edit]

The Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) was the first rapid transit system in Asia to incorporate platform screen doors in its stations in 1987.[16] Full height PSDs are installed at all existing underground MRT stations in Singapore and all future underground MRT stations. Half-height platform screen doors have been retrofitted into all stations on 14 March 2012 (starting with three elevated MRT stations by 2009), as well as all future elevated MRT stations. The LRT Station at Sengkang also has platform screen panels installed.

There are two series of the full-height platform screen doors in use. The first was installed at all underground stations along the North South Line and the East West Line from 1987 to the completion of the initial system in 1990. The second series of PSDs sporting a sleeker design, producing less sound when the doors were opened and closed, and incorporating more glass were installed in the Changi Airport MRT Station which opened in 2002. All stations in the fully underground North East Line, which opened in 2003, sport these new doors. The Circle Line features second-generation platform screen doors on all of its stations. They were installed on the North South Line platform in the Bishan MRT Station in 2009 after the opening of the Circle line platforms there.

Considered a novelty at the time of its installation, it was introduced primarily to minimise hefty air-conditioning costs, especially since elevated stations are not air-conditioned and are much more economical to run in comparison. Since then the safety aspects of these doors have become more important, as highlighted by a series of high-profile incidents where individuals were injured or killed by oncoming trains since the year 2002 — all occurring on elevated stations with no screen doors. The Land Transport Authority reports that there have been more than 220 cases of commuters trespassing on the tracks between 1991 and 15 September 2004, of which 87 percent were deliberate acts of trespass. Nine fatalities were recorded during this period, of which only one was an accident. Since September 2004 there have been six fatalities occurring on elevated MRT and LRT stations.

Spain[edit]

Half platform screens were installed first in Provença FGC station (Barcelona) around 2003. Later doors were tested on Barcelona Metro line 11 before fitting them on all stations for the new lines 9 and 10, which operate driverless. In Seville Metro this system is the one used since it was opened, at April 2009

Switzerland[edit]

  • Zurich International Airport's Skymetro shuttle between the main building (hosting terminals A and B) and the detached terminal E has glass screen doors separating the tracks from the passenger hall platforms at both ends.
The M2 Lausanne Gare station showing the glass screen doors.

Taiwan[edit]

Taipei[edit]

Platform screen doors were installed from the beginning with the opening of the then Muzha Line (now the Wenshan line, was the first metro line in Taiwan and in the Republic of China) of the Taipei Metro in 1996. In the 21st century, all platform of the Neihu Line, Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center Station (the terminal of the Nangang Line eastern extension), Xinlu Line (beside Guting Station which platform gates will be soon in use) and the Xinyi Line (beside Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall Station which platform gates will be soon in use) are equipped with them. Future extensions and lines will be equipped with those doors. Last station without platform screen doors while getting operational is Nangang Station. Meanwhile, TRTC decided that they will install platform gate to all stations without platform door when they were built and those stations with high amount of passenger or transfer station will be targeted first. Currently, platform gates in major stations like Taipei Main Station and Yuanshan Station are already in use.

Kaohsiung[edit]

All underground stations on the Kaohsiung MRT system have platform screen doors installed.

Thailand[edit]

Bangkok's MRT is equipped with platform screen doors. In 2013, Half platform screens were installed on the BTS skytrain at Siam station.

United Kingdom[edit]

Platform screen doors on the Jubilee line at Westminster tube station, London

The Jubilee line extension project saw platform edge doors installed on its new stations. They were designed primarily to reduce the movement of air caused by emergency ventilation fans which activate in event of a fire, or under test conditions. They were also built as a barrier to prevent people falling or jumping onto the tracks. The Jubilee line PEDs were produced by Westinghouse.[17]

PEDs are present on the Gatwick Airport shuttle system and on the Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 airside people mover shuttle.

United States[edit]

Full-height platform screen doors at AeroTrain Terminal at Washington Dulles International Airport

Chicago O'Hare International Airport has a people mover system which operates 24 hours a day and is a 2.5 mile long (4 km) line that operates between the four terminals at the airport and parking areas. Each station is fully enclosed with platform screen doors allowing access to the fully automated people mover trains.

In New York City, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey uses full height platform screen doors at its AirTrain JFK and AirTrain Newark stations. The Metropolitan Transit Authority may, in the future, be including these in several stations along the Second Avenue Subway and the 7 Subway Extension, but their installation presents substantial technical challenges, as there are different placements of doors on New York City Subway rolling stock.[18][19] The MTA is also interested in retrofitting platform screen doors on the Canarsie Line, along the L train, and on the remainder of the IRT Flushing Line, along the 7 <7> trains. However, it is unlikely that the entire New York City Subway system will get retrofitted with platform screen doors,[20] due to the varying placements of doors on rolling stock.[21]

People movers, systems that ferry passengers across large distances they would otherwise walk, make use of platform screen doors. These systems are common at airports such as Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport and Denver International Airport.

The Las Vegas Monorail system and the United States Capitol subway system have these doors as well.

San Francisco International Airport has AirTrain which operates 24 hours a day and is a 6 mile long line that operates between the domestic terminal, international terminal, both international garages, and rental car. Each station is fully enclosed with platform screen doors allowing access to the fully automated People mover.

AeroTrain is a 3.78-mile (6.08 km) people mover system at Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia with fully enclosed tracks including platform screen doors.

Accidents[edit]

On 15 July 2007 in Shanghai, platform-edge doors led to a fatal accident. A man tried to force his way onto a crowded train at the station for the Shanghai Indoor Stadium but failed. When the doors closed, he was sandwiched between closed doors and pulled under the train, leading to his death.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manusa - website on Automatic Platform Gate
  2. ^ [1], São Paulo Metro Official website
  3. ^ TTC plans suicide barriers on Yonge line
  4. ^ "WPSD Platform Screen Door System - Case Study". Platformscreendoors.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  5. ^ "Vuosaari platform doors introduced on 15 February". HKL. 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  6. ^ "LCQ16: Retrofitting of PSDs at MTR stations to be completed by 2006". HKSAR Government Information Centre. 2005-01-05. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  7. ^ "Media Kit - Airport Express". Reliance Airport Express Metro. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Metro to get platform screen doors". Times of India. Jan 5, 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  9. ^ CMRL wiki page
  10. ^ Asahi Shimbun Keeping commuters safe; mobile station barriers October 20, 2011
  11. ^ Daily Yomiuri Progress stalls on installing platform barriers at train stations nationwide November 13, 2012
  12. ^ 잇단 투신에도…국철 스크린도어 설치는 '서행' Hankooki.com (in Korean)
  13. ^ 문병호 의원, 기존 전철역에도 스크린도어 설치 국비지원을 스크린도어 설치로 인한 자살예방 효과 탁월 Asia News Agency (in Korean)
  14. ^ http://rpsd.kr/eng/ebook/RPSD_eng.pdf Rope type Platform Safe Door English promotional
  15. ^ Cooke, B.W.C., ed. (November 1959). "Sliding Doors on Platform Edge". The Railway Magazine (Westminster: Tothill Press) 105 (703): 796. 
  16. ^ Westinghouse Platform Screen Doors - Completed Projects[dead link]
  17. ^ "Westinghouse Platform Screen Doors". Platformscreendoors.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  18. ^ NYC Subway Deaths Spur Officials to Call for Action, The Epoch Times.
  19. ^ CUSTOMER CONTACT WITH TRAIN INCIDENT REPORT, January 2013.
  20. ^ Capital New York: After subway-push killings (and Lhota's resignation), the MTA considers platform screen doors
  21. ^ Council demands an end to the M.T.A.‘s subway-safety ’exploratory' phase
  22. ^ "Man caught between subway train and safety doors dies in Shanghai - International Herald Tribune". International Herald Tribune. 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 

External links[edit]