Law enforcement in Mali is the responsibility of the National Police Force (NPF), which is subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Security and Civil Protection. The NPF shares responsibility for internal security with the Gendarmerie, a paramilitary organization. The NPF's responsibilities are concentrated exclusively in urban areas, while the Gendarmerie mainly works in rural areas too small to warrant the NPF. Local police districts are headed by commissioners, who report to regional directors at national police headquarters. Both forces are judged to be moderately effective despite deficiencies in resources, training, and the persistence of corruption.