Military of Mali

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Armed and Security Forces of Mali
Forces Armées et de Sécurité du Mali
Flag of Mali.svg
National flag of Mali
Founded 10 October 1960[1][2][3]
Service branches Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, and National Police (Sûreté Nationale)
Headquarters Bamako
Leadership
President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta
Minister of Defence Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga
Chief of staff Brigadier General Mahamane Touré Appointed November 8th 2013.
Manpower
Conscription Compulsory military service[4]
Active personnel 7,350 plus 4,800 paramilitary forces
Expenditures
Budget $68 million ($5 million procurement) (FY03)
Percent of GDP 2% (FY01)
Industry
Foreign suppliers  France
 United States
 USSR

Mali's armed forces are the Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, and National Police (Sûreté Nationale).[5] They number some 7,000 and are under the control of the Minister of Armed Forces and Veterans. The Library of Congress as of January 2005 stated that "[t]he military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization. Its organisation has suffered from the incorporation of Tuareg irregular forces into the regular military following a 1992 agreement between the government and Tuareg rebel forces."[6]

In 2009, the IISS Military Balance listed 7,350 soldiers in the Army, 400 in the Air Force, and 50 in the Navy.[7] The Gendarmerie and local police forces (under the Ministry of Interior and Security) maintain internal security. The IISS listed paramilitary total force as 4,800 soldiers: 1,800 in the Gendarmerie (8 companies), 2,000 in the Republican Guard, and 1,000 police officers. A few Malians receive military training in the United States, France, and Germany. Military expenditures total about 13% of the national budget. Mali is an active contributor to peacekeeping forces in West and Central Africa; the Library of Congress said that in 2004 Mali was participating in United Nations operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC, 28 personnel including 27 observers), Liberia (UNMIL, 252 personnel, including 4 observers), and Sierra Leone (3 observers).

History[edit]

The Malian armed forces were initially formed by Malian conscript and volunteer veterans of the French Armed Forces. In the months preceding the formation of the Malian armed forces, the French Armed Forces withdrew from their bases in Mali. Among the last bases to be closed were those at Kati, on 8 June 1961, Tessalit (un base aérienne secondaire), on 8 July 1961, Gao (la base aérienne 163 de Gao), on 2 August 1961, and Air Base 162 at Bamako (la base aérienne 162 de Bamako), on 5 September 1961.[1]

"On 1 October 1960, the Malian army was created and solemnly installed through a speech by Chief of Staff Captain Sekou Traore. On 12 October the same year the population of Bamako attended for the first time an army parade under the command of Captain Tiemoko Konate. Organizationally, says Sega Sissoko, is the only battalion of Ségou and includes units scattered across the territory. A memo from the Chief of Staff ordered a realignment of the battalion. Following on, a command and services detachment in Bamako was created, and the engineer company in Ségou, the first Saharan motorized company of Gao, the Saharan Motor Company of Kidal, the Arouane nomad group, nomadic group of Timetrine (in the commune of Timtaghène), the 1st Reconnaissance Company and Nioro 2nd Reconnaissance Company Tessalit. As of January 16, 1961, Mali's army totaled 1232 men."[1][3]

In the sixties and seventies, Mali's army and air force relied primarily on the Soviet Union for materiel and training.[6]

On 19 November 1968, a group of young Malian officers staged a bloodless coup and set up a 14-member military junta, with Lieutenant Moussa Traoré as president. The military leaders attempted to pursue economic reforms, but for several years faced debilitating internal political struggles and the disastrous Sahelian drought. A new constitution, approved in 1974, created a one-party state and was designed to move Mali toward civilian rule. However, the military leaders remained in power. Single-party presidential and legislative elections were held in June 1979, and General Moussa Traoré received 99% of the votes. His efforts at consolidating the single-party government were challenged in 1980 by student-led anti-government demonstrations, which were brutally put down, and by three coup attempts. The Traore government ruled throughout the 1970s and 1980s. On 26 March 1991, after four days of intense anti-government rioting, a group of 17 military officers, led by current President Amadou Toumani Touré, arrested President Traoré and suspended the constitution. They formed a civilian-heavy provisional ruling body, and initiated a process that led to democratic elections.[8]

The First Tuareg Rebellion began in 1990 when Tuareg separatists attacked government buildings around Gao. The armed forces' reprisals led to a full-blown rebellion in which the absence of opportunities for Tuareg in the army was a major complaint. The conflict died down after Alpha Konaré formed a new government and made reparations in 1992. Also, Mali created a new self-governing region, the Kidal Region, and provided for greater Tuareg integration into Malian society. In 1994, Tuareg, reputed to have been trained and armed by Libya, attacked Gao, which again led to major Malian Army reprisals and to the creation of the Ghanda Koi Songhai militia to combat the Tuareg. Mali effectively fell into civil war.

As of June 2008, service commanders were Colonel Boubacar Togola (Armée de Terre), Colonel Waly Sissoko (Armée de l’Air), Lieutenant-Colonel Daouda Sogoba (Garde Nationale) et du Colonel Adama Dembélé (Gendarmerie Nationale).[9]

The Malian army largely collapsed during the war against Tuareg separatists and Islamist rebels in early 2012. In a span of less than fourth months at the start of 2012, the Malian army was defeated by the rebels who seized more than 60% of the former Malian territory, taking all camps and position of the army, capturing and killing hundreds of Malian soldiers, while hundred others deserted or defected.[10]

Following the rebel advance, a group of soldiers from the Kati camp near Bamako staged a coup[when?] which overthrew Malian president Amadou Toure. After the junta seized power, they successfully repelled a counter coup on 30 April by loyalists from the red berets elite units.[11]

Army[edit]

A national guard soldier walks by demonstrators at Bamako airport

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Tuareg Rebellion, the Army has struggled to maintain its size, despite recent military aid from the United States. It is organised into two tank battalions (T-55, T-54 [12] and T-34/85, tanks, including possibly a light armoured battalion of PT-76's [13] and Type 62 light tanks),[14] four infantry battalions, one Special Forces battalion, one airborne battalion (possibly the 33rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, Djikoroni, in Bamako[15]), two artillery battalions, one engineer battalion (34th), 2 AD artillery batteries, and one SAM battery.[7] Manpower is provided by two-year selective conscription. Mali apparently has six military regions, according to Jane's World Armies. 1st Military Region and 13th Combined Arms Regiment may be in Gao.[16] 3rd Military Region appears to be at Kati.[17] The 4th Military Region is at Kayes [1] and the 5th Military Region is at Timbuktu.[15] The 512 Regiment was reported within the 5th Military Region in 2004.[2] On 13 April 2010, Agence France Press reported that French training would be given to the 62nd Motorized Infantry Regiment of the 6th Military Region, based at Sévaré.[18] The same story said that the regiment consisted of three Rapid Intervention Companies (CIR) and AFP said it was 'considered the elite troops of the Malian army.'

Mali is one of four Saharan states which has created a Joint Military Staff Committee, to be based at Tamanrasset in southern Algeria. Algeria, Mauritania, Niger, and Mali will take part.[19]

The Army controls the small navy (approx. 130 sailors and 3 river patrol boats).

List of Malian generals[edit]

Grade Nom et Prénom Corps d'origine Date de nomination
1ère république 1960 - 1968
01 Général de Brigade Abdoulaye SOUMARÉ (deceased) Infantry 29 décembre 1960
2ème république, 1968 - 1991
02 Général d'Armée Moussa Traoré Infantry 1974/79
03 Général de Division Amadou Baba DIARRA (deceased) Armour 1981/84
04 Général de Division Filifing SISSOKO (deceased) Air Force 1982/84
05 Général de Division Sékou LY (décédé) Armour 1984/86
06 Général de Brigade Bougary SANGARÉ (décédé) Infantry 1985/89
07 Général de Brigade Abdoulaye OUOLOGUEM (décédé) Infantry 1985/89
08 Général de Brigade Amara DANFAGA (décédé) Infantry 1985/90
09 Général de Brigade Sory Ibrahim SILLA (décédé) Infantry 1987/90
10 Général de Brigade Mamadou COULIBALY Air Force 1987/91
3ème république, Alpha Oumar Konaré, 1991 - 2002
11 Général d'Armée Amadou Toumani TOURÉ Infantry 20 janvier 1995
12 Général de Division Bourama Siré TRAORÉ Air Force 1997/99
13 Général de Division Cheick O. DIARRA (décédé) Air Force 1997/99
14 Général de Division Kafougouna KONÉ Infantry 1997/99
15 Général de Division Tiécoura DOUMBIA Artillery 1997/99
16 Général de Brigade Mamadou DOUCOURÉ Air Force 1997/99
17 Général de Brigade Abdoul Karim DIOP Engineers 1997/99
18 Général de Brigade Siriman KEITA (décédé) Infantry 1999/2000
3ème république, Amadou Toumani Touré, 2002 - 2010
19 Général de Brigade Seydou TRAORÉ Infantry 2005
20 Général de Brigade Salif TRAORÉ Air Force 2006
21 Général de Brigade Sadio GASSAMA Infantry 01 janvier 2007
22 Général de Brigade Toumani SISSOKO Infantry 01 janvier 2007
23 Général de Brigade Pangassy SANGARÉ Armour 01 janvier 2007
24 Général de Brigade Tiefolo TOGOLA Infantry 01 janvier 2007
25 Général de Brigade Brahima COULIBALY Artillery 01 janvier 2007
26 Général de Brigade Lassana KONÉ Armour 01 janvier 2007
27 Général de Division Youssouf BAMBA Air Force 01 janvier 2007
28 Général de Division Souleymane SIDIBÉ Gendarmerie 01 janvier 2007
29 Général de Brigade Naïny TOURÉ Gendarmerie 01 janvier 2007
30 Général de Division Gabriel POUDIOUGOU Infantry 12 juin 2008
31 Général de Brigade Mahamane TOURÉ Infantry 01 octobre 2010
32 Général de Brigade Mamadou DIALLO Infantry 01 octobre 2010
33 Général de Brigade Kalifa KEITA Armour 01 octobre 2010
34 Général de Brigade Bégrélé SIORO Air Force 01 octobre 2010
35 Général de Brigade Mamadou TOGOLA Air Force 01 octobre 2010
36 Général de Brigade Siaka SANGARÉ Air Force 01 octobre 2010
37 Général de Brigade Samballa DIALLO Gendarmerie 01 octobre 2010
38 Général de Brigade Sirakoro SANGARÉ Engineers 01 octobre 2010
39 Général de Brigade Djibril SANGARÉ DCSSA 01 octobre 2010
40 Général de Brigade Mohamed COULIBALY DCSSA 01 octobre 2010
41 Général de Brigade Kani DIABATÉ DCSSA 01 octobre 2010
42 Général de Brigade Minkoro KANÉ Infantry 01 octobre 2010
43 Général de Brigade Youssouf GOITA Infantry 01 octobre 2010
44 Général de Brigade Yakouba SIDIBÉ Artillery 01 octobre 2010
45 Général de Brigade Ismaïla CISSÉ Artillery 01 octobre 2010
46 Général de Brigade Lamine DIABIRA Armour 01 octobre 2010
47 Général de Brigade Cheick Fanta M. MAIGA Administration 01 octobre 2010
48 Général de Brigade Hamet SIDIBÉ Air Force 01 octobre 2010
49 Général de Brigade Hamidou SISSOKO Gendarmerie 01 octobre 2010
50 Général de Brigade Idrissa DJILLA Engineers 01 octobre 2010
51 Général de Brigade Sékou Hamed NIAMBÉlÉ DTTA (transmission) 01 octobre 2010
52 Général de Brigade Mady MACALOU DCSSA 01 octobre 2010
53 Général de Brigade Fanta KONIPO (décédé) DCSSA 01 octobre 2010
54 Général de Brigade Amadou Baba TOURÉ (décéssed) Infantry 01 octobre 2010
55 Général de Brigade Waly SISSOKO Air Force 01 janvier 2012
56 Général de Brigade Soumana KOUYATE Air Force 01 janvier 2012
57 Général de Brigade Mady Boubou KAMISSOKO Gendarmerie 01 janvier 2012
58 Général de Brigade Mamadou Lamine BALLO Engineers 01 janvier 2012
59 Général de Brigade Antoine Ibrahima NIENTAO DCSSA 01 janvier 2012

Sources: Mali Actu du 17 février 2012: Liste des généraux du Mali sous ATT : À quoi servaient-ils ? Quel sera leur sort ? and Le Monde-Duniya du 12 avril 2012: Les Generaux du MALI

Training establishments[edit]

The Malian armed forces have at least two significant training establishments:

The Alioune Bloundin Beye school is the tactical-level component of a trio of three ECOWAS peacekeeping training schools: the Alioune Bloundin Beye school, the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana (operational level), and the Nigerian National Defence College (strategic level).[20]

Mali Air Force[edit]

Three Malian soldiers stand in a hangar, in front of the Mali Air Force's MiG 21bis fighter aircraft at Bamako/Senou Airport in Mali (1997)

The Mali Air Force (Armée de l'air du Mali) was founded in 1961 with French supplied military aid. This included MH.1521 Broussard utility monoplane followed by two C-47 transports until Soviet aid starting in 1962 with four Antonov AN-2 Colt biplane transports and four Mi-4 light helicopters.[21] In the mid-1960s the Soviets delivered five MIG-17F fighters and a single MIG 15UTI fighter trainer to equip a squadron based at Bamako-Sénou initially with Soviet pilots. Two Ilyushin Il-14 transports and a Mil Mi-8 helicopter were delivered in 1971 followed by two Antonov AN-24 transports. In 1976 an AN-26 transport was acquired along with a second AN-26 in 1983. Also in the 1970s the first of 12 MiG-21MF fighter and two MIG 21UM trainers were delivered. In 1983 six Aero L-29 jet trainers were delivered to form an Ecole de Pilotage (pilots school).

The current inventory of the air force:

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes
Aero L-29 Delfín  USSR Advanced trainer (6) Received from USSR in 1983
Antonov An-2 Colt  USSR Transport AN-2P 'Colt' (2) Received from USSR in 1962
Antonov An-24 Coke  USSR Transport (2) Received from USSR in 1976
Antonov An-26 Curl  USSR Tactical transport 1 Received from USSR in 1976
Basler BT-67 Turbo Dakota  USA Transport BT-67 Turbo Dakota 3[22]
Eurocopter AS350 Ecureuil  FRA Utility helicopter AS 350B 1
Harbin Z-9  China utility helicopter Chinese variant of AS-365N Dauphin 2 2
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 Fresco  USSR Fighter/ Light attack MiG-17F (5) Received from USSR in 1965
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed J  USSR Air defence
Ground attack
MiG-21BIS/MF/UM (14) Received from USSR in 1976
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fagot  USSR Combat trainer MiG-15UTI  ? Received from USSR in 1965 Now gate guardian of the Senou Airbase on a concrete block[23]
Mil Mi-8 Hip  USSR Transport helicopter 1
Mil Mi-24 Hind  USSR attack helicopter Mi-24D 2 (1) Received from Bulgaria in 2007 Deagel.com Mi-24 transaction reports One lost on 13 March 2013.[24]
Yakovlev Yak-18 Max  USSR Primary trainer 0 (2) Received from USSR in 1983

References[edit]

Members of the Malian army conduct drills to instruct new recruits during exercise Flintlock 2007 in Tombouctou, Mali, 4 September 2007.
  1. ^ a b c DISCOURS DE AMADOU TOUMANI TOURE, PRESIDENT DE LA REPUBLIQUE, : CINQUANTENAIRE DU 20 JANVIER (Speech by Amadou Toumani Toure, President of the Republic Demi-Centennial of 20 January), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2011. The President of Mali's Demi-Centennial Army Day speech, with a detailed history of the formation of the Malian Armed Forces and withdrawal of French forces.
  2. ^ 49EME ANNIVERSAIRE DU 20 JANVIER, Discours de Amadou Toumani TOURE, Président de la République,(49th Anniversary of 20 January, speech by Amadou Toumani Toure, President of the Republic of Mali), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2010. The President of Mali on the History of the Malian Armed forces.
  3. ^ a b Fete de l'armee: Beintot un demi siecle. S. Konate. L’Essor n°16365, 2009-01-19. Reprinted on primature.gov.ml.
  4. ^ Financial Times, World Desk Reference Mali Defense
  5. ^ CIA World Fact Book, 2003
  6. ^ a b Library of Congress, Country Profile, January 2005
  7. ^ a b IISS Military Balance 2009 p.310
  8. ^ Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States, Lynne Rienner, 2005, p.277
  9. ^ État-major général des armées : Le colonel Gabriel Poudiougou promu Général de brigade. L'Indépendant, 12/06/2008
  10. ^ Dixon, Robyn; Labous, Jane (4 April 2012). "Gains of Mali's Tuareg rebels appear permanent, analysts say". Los Angeles Times. 
  11. ^ Pflanz, Mike (1 May 2012). "Mali counter-coup fails". The Daily Telegraph. 
  12. ^ http://esotericarmour.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/mali-t-54b.html
  13. ^ http://esotericarmour.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/mali-pt-76.html
  14. ^ May include 35ème régiment blindé in the vicinity of Kati - http://www.malikounda.com/nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle=10935
  15. ^ a b United States European Command, 1/10 Special Forces Group Supports Pan Sahel Initiative, 2004
  16. ^ State Department, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/34329.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.malikounda.com/nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle=20217
  18. ^ Ennaharonline.com, French troops for anti-terrorist training in Mali, 13 April 2010.
  19. ^ "Saharan states to open joint military headquarters". BBC. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010. . See also http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/231198 - 09ALGIERS0048, on Tamanrassat committee
  20. ^ http://www.ambafrance-gh.org/spip.php?article115. Retrieved September 2011
  21. ^ World Aircraft Information Files. Brightstar Publishing, London. Files 337, Sheet 04.
  22. ^ http://www.airport-data.com/manuf/Basler.html
  23. ^ http://www.airliners.net/photo/Mali---Air/Mikoyan-Gurevich-MiG-15UTI/1371121/&sid=204a4f626b9a0e3c9162a5c79454e5fc
  24. ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. May 2013. p. 30. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2003 edition".

Further reading[edit]

  • 'Insurgency, disarmament, and insecurity in Northern Mali 1990-2004,' in Nicolas Florquin and Eric G. Berman (eds.) Armed and Aimless Armed Groups, Guns, and Human Security in the ECOWAS Region, Small Arms Survey, ISBN 2-8288-0063-6, May 2005
  • Mahamadou Nimaga, 'Mali', in Alan Bryden, Boubacar N'Diaye, 'Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa: Realities and Opportunities,' DCAF/Lit Verlag, 2011.

External links[edit]