Liberty (rocket)

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Liberty
LogoLibertyLaunchVehicle.svg
Manufacturer Alliant Techsystems
Astrium
Country of origin United States
Europe
Size
Height 90.00 m (300 ft)
Diameter 5.40 m (18 ft)
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to
LEO
22,000 kg (44,500 lb)[1]
Payload to
GTO
First Stage
Engines 5-segment Shuttle-derived Solid Rocket Booster
Thrust
Burn time ~150 seconds[citation needed]
Fuel Solid
Second Stage
Engines 1 × Vulcain 2
Thrust 1,340 kN[2]
Specific impulse 431 seconds (vacuum)[2]
Burn time 650 seconds[2]
Fuel LOX/LH2

Liberty was a 2011 launch vehicle concept proposed by Alliant Techsystems (ATK) and Astrium for phase 2 of the NASA Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program intended to stimulate development of privately operated crew vehicles to low Earth orbit.

The Liberty design proposal was a combination of hardware from the defunct Ares I project (the five-segment version of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster for a first stage) and from the commercial Ariane 5 launcher (the Vulcain cryogenic main engine, which was slated to carry the Hermes (spacecraft), as a second stage). It was intended to be launched from Kennedy Space Center.[3][4]

Liberty was proposed as a vehicle to service the International Space Station for crew and cargo, but its capacities and could potentially have allowed for government and commercial satellite launches, including to Geostationary transfer orbit.[5]

The launcher height was proposed to be 90 metres (300 ft), was advertised at a price of $180 million per launch, and had a projected payload of 20,140 kg (44,500 lb) to Low Earth orbit.[4]

History[edit]

The ATK/Astrium Liberty proposal was not initially selected by NASA in the 2011 contract awards to assist development of a commercial space transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle;[6] however, the team continued development in the hope of gaining funding from NASA in future years.[7] On September 13, 2011, NASA and ATK held a joint news conference to announce they had signed an unfunded Space Act Agreement (SAA) to collaborate on the development of the Liberty Transportation System as part of the agency's Commercial Crew Development Round 2 activities.[8] NASA suggested this agreement could "accelerate the availability of U.S. commercial crew transportation capabilities."[9]

In January 2012 NASA’s Commercial Crew office announced ATK had successfully held a Launch System Initial Systems Design (ISD) Review of the Liberty Transportation System, the third of five milestones to be completed under the SAA. The current SAA continued through at least March 2012.[10]

In May 2012 ATK announced that Liberty will indeed be a complete commercial crew transportation system, including the spacecraft, abort system, launch vehicle, and ground and mission operations.[11] The spacecraft will be narrowly derived from concepts generated during the Orion program and make use of the Orion Service Module. ATK projected that the first launch could have taken place as early as 2013, with astronauts launching by 2015.[4]

Liberty was not among the vehicles selected for funding announced on August 3, 2012 under the Commercial Crew Integrated Capacity program.[12] ATK's stated goal prior to the CCiCAP award announcement was to begin test launches in 2015, with a crewed flight in 2016.[13] In early August, 2012, shortly before NASA announced the selectees for CCDev award, ATK Liberty manager Kent Rominger stated that the program would continue even without CCiCAP funding.[14] However, following the NASA decision to not select Liberty as a design for further government funding ATK president and CEO Mark DeYoung stated that the company was "'moving on' after the failure to win a NASA contract reassessing their plans and the decision would not cause any financial hardship."[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2011/09/atk-liberty-via-unfunded-nasa-space-act-agreement/
  2. ^ a b c "Volvo Aero: Vulcain 2 - characteristics". Volvo Aero. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  3. ^ Canceled NASA Rocket Could Return as Part of Low-Cost Space Taxi
  4. ^ a b c "ATK and Astrium Unveil the Liberty™ Launch Vehicle Initiative". ATK. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  5. ^ "Alliant, EADS Unit Set Sights on Rocket Venture". Wall Street Journal. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "NASA awards funds to develop commercial space taxis". Yahoo. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 
  7. ^ "Launch firms forge ahead in commercial crew program". Spaceflightnow. Retrieved 2011-05-10. 
  8. ^ "NASA Begins Commercial Partnership With Alliant Techsystems". NASA. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  9. ^ "NASA, ATK Announce New Commercial Crew Agreement". NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-10. 
  10. ^ "NASA's Commercial Crew Partner ATK Meets Third Milestone". NASA. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  11. ^ ATK Announces Complete Liberty System to Provide Commercial Crew Access - ATK Press release - May 9, 2012
  12. ^ "Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada Win CCiCAP Awards". Space News. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  13. ^ "ATK Completes Third Space Act Agreement Milestone for Liberty under NASA's Commercial Crew Program". ATK. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  14. ^ "Utah company hopes to land $500 million NASA contract for Liberty Rocket". Deseret News. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  15. ^ Clark, Stephen (2012-09-07). "ATK 'moving on' after Liberty commercial proposal loss". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 

External links[edit]