Commercial Crew Development
NASA Commercial Crew and Cargo
|Commercial Cargo Development||2006 - 2011|
|Commercial Space Transportation Capabilities||2007 - 2010|
|Commercial Crew Development (phase 1)||2010 - 2011|
|Commercial Crew Development (phase 2)||2011 - 2012|
|Commercial Crew integrated Capability (phase 3)
(base period milestones)
|2012 - 2014|
|Commercial Crew integrated Capability (phase 4)
(optional period milestones)
|2014 - 2017|
|Certification Products Contract (crew)||2012 - 2014|
|Certification Contract (crew)||2014 - 2017|
|Commercial Resupply Services (cargo)||2011 - 2016|
|ISS Crew Transportation Services (crew)||2017 -|
|NASA's COTS program
Private spaceflight companies
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase space technology development program, funded by the U.S. government, and administered by NASA. The program is intended to stimulate development of privately operated crew vehicles to low Earth orbit. It is run by the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (C3PO) at NASA. William Gerstenmaier, NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations for NASA, has stated that most likely only one competitor will be chosen to deliver crew to the ISS. This spacecraft is expected to begin doing so around 2017.
In the first phase of the program, NASA provided a combined $50 million in 2010 to five American companies, intended to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector.
A second set of Commercial Crew Development proposals were solicited by NASA in October 2010 for technology development project durations of up to 14 months. In April 2011, NASA announced that they would award up to nearly $270 million to four companies as they meet their CCDev 2 objectives.
NASA awarded Space Act Agreements for the third phase, named CCiCap, in August 2012 and is to last until 2014.
The key high-level requirements for the Commercial Crew vehicles include:
- Deliver and return four crew members and their equipment.
- Provide assured crew return in the event of an emergency.
- Serve as a 24-hour safe haven in the event of an emergency.
- Capable of remaining docked for 210 days. In contrast, the Space Shuttle could only remain docked for a maximum of 12 days.
Program overview 
NASA provided the following description of the Commercial Crew Development program in December 2009.
The objectives of the Commercial Crew & Cargo Program are to implement U.S. Space Exploration policy with investments to stimulate the commercial space industry; facilitate U.S. private industry demonstration or cargo and crew space transportation capabilities with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, cost effective access to low-Earth orbit; and create a market environment in which commercial space transportation services are available to Government and private sector customers.
The Commercial Crew & Cargo Program is applying Recovery Act funds to stimulate efforts within the private sector to develop and demonstrate human spaceflight capabilities. NASA plans to use funds appropriated for "Exploration" under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) through its C3PO to support efforts within the private sector to develop system concepts and capabilities that could ultimately lead to the availability of commercial human spaceflight services. These efforts are intended to foster entrepreneurial activity leading to job growth in engineering, analysis, design, and research and to promote economic recovery as capabilities for new markets are created.
ARRA provided $400 million for space exploration related activities. Of this amount, $50 million is to be used for the development of commercial crew space transportation concepts and enabling capabilities. This effort is known as CCDev. The purpose of this activity is to provide funding to assist viable commercial entities in the development of system concepts, key technologies, and capabilities that could ultimately be used in commercial crew human space transportation systems. This development work must show, within the timeframe of the agreement, significant progress on long lead capabilities, technologies and commercial crew risk mitigation tasks in order to accelerate the development of their commercial crew space transportation concept.
Contract funding for the CCDev program is quite different from traditional space industry contractor funding used on the Space Shuttle, Apollo, Gemini, and Mercury programs. Contracts are explicitly designed to fund only specific subsystem technology development objectives that NASA wants for NASA purposes; all other system technology development is funded by the commercial contractor. Contracts are issued for fixed-price, pay-for-performance milestones. "NASA's contribution is fixed."
Funding and effect on schedule 
For the 2011 budget, NASA requested $500 million for the CCDev program, but was only granted $270 million by Congress. For the 2012 budget, NASA requested $850 million for the Commercial Crew Development program but Congress only approved a budget of $406 million, and as a result the Commercial Crew vehicles are now not expected to enter into service until 2017. For the 2013 budget, NASA is requesting $830 million for the Commercial Crew Development program; funding less than the requested amount is expected to further delay the program.
In a blog post, NASA Administrator, Charles Bolden, attributed the delays of the CCDev program to insufficient funding from Congress. Michael López-Alegría, President of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation, has also attributed the delays in the program to funding.
CCDev 1 
Under CCDev phase 1, NASA has entered into funded Space Act Agreements with several companies working on technologies and systems for human spaceflight. Funding was provided as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. A total of $50 million for 2010 was awarded to five American companies, intended to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector. The phase 1 amount was originally intended to be $150 million, most of which was diverted to the Constellation program by Senator Richard Shelby (R-AL). All 53 delivery milestones for the five companies were scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010.
Proposals selected 
NASA awarded development funds to five companies under CCDev 1:
- Blue Origin - $3.7M for an innovative 'pusher' Launch Abort System (LAS) and composite pressure vessels. As of February 2011[update], with the end of the second ground test, Blue Origin has completed all work envisioned under the contract for the pusher escape system. They have also "completed work on the other aspect of its award, risk reduction work on a composite pressure vessel" for their vehicle.
- Boeing - $18M for development of the CST-100 capsule Demonstrated in October 2010. NASA's website shows all milestones as completed.
- Paragon Space Development Corporation - $1.4M for a plug-and-play environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Air Revitalization System (ARS) Engineering Development Unit. With "the completion of testing in mid-December  of its Commercial Crew Transport Air Revitalization System, a life support system intended for use on [multiple different] commercial crew vehicles," Paragon has completed all work under the contract.
- Sierra Nevada Corporation - $20M for development of the Dream Chaser, a reusable spaceplane vehicle that can transport cargo and up to eight people to low-Earth orbit. Sierra Nevada completed its work under the contract in December 2010, with the structural testing of its engineering test article, its fourth and final milestone.
- United Launch Alliance - $6.7M for an Emergency Detection System (EDS) for human-rating its EELV launch vehicles In December ULA carried out a demonstration of its Emergency Detection System  NASA's website shows all milestones as completed.
Proposals not selected 
During the evaluation phase of CCDev1 proposals were received from the following participants:
CCDev 2 
A second set of Commercial Crew Development proposals was sought by NASA in October 2010. These could be both new concepts and proposals that mature the design and development of system elements, such as launch vehicles and spacecraft. NASA originally planned to issue about $200 million of Space Act Agreements in March 2011.
On April 18, 2011, NASA awarded nearly $270 million to four companies for developing U.S. vehicles that could fly astronauts after the Shuttle.
In August 2011, NASA provided status on the progress milestones of each of the four companies developing crew vehicle technologies under CCDev 2. There are nine to eleven specific milestones, spread over second quarter 2011 through second quarter 2012, that each company must meet in order to receive their "performance based" funding for CCDev 2.
Proposals selected 
Winners of funding in the second round of the Commercial Crew Development program, or CCDev, were as follows:
- Blue Origin, Kent, Washington: $22 million
- Blue Origin proposed advancing technologies in support of a biconic nose cone design orbital vehicle, including launch abort systems and restartable hydrolox (liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen) engines. Not to be confused with the Blue Origin New Shepard VTVL spacecraft. Blue Origin has since completed all of their CCDev 2 milestones.
- Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colorado: $80 million
- Sierra Nevada Corporation proposed for phase 2 extensions of its Dream Chaser spaceplane technology. Like the Orbital Sciences proposal, the Dream Chaser was also a lifting body design. Sierra Nevada will utilize Virgin Galactic to market Dream Chaser commercial services and will use Virgin’s WhiteKnightTwo carrier aircraft as a platform for drop trials of the Dream Chaser atmospheric test vehicle in 2012.
- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, California: $75 million
- SpaceX proposed to develop an "integrated launch abort system design" for the Dragon spacecraft, with reputed advantages over the more traditional tractor tower approaches used on prior manned space capsules. The system would be part of their Draco maneuvering system, which is currently used on the Dragon capsule for in-orbit maneuvering and de-orbit burns. SpaceX finished completing all of their CCDev 2 milestones by August 2012.
- The Boeing Company, Houston, Texas: $92.3 million
- Boeing proposed additional development for the 7-person CST-100 spacecraft, beyond the objectives for the $18 million received from NASA in CCDev 1. The capsule will have both personnel and cargo configurations, and is explicitly designed to be launched by multiple different rockets, and be reusable up to 10 times.
Proposals selected without NASA funding 
- United Launch Alliance proposed to extend development work on human-rating the Atlas V rocket. Although not selected for funding, NASA entered into an unfunded Space Act Agreement with ULA in July 2011 to share information towards human rating the Atlas V, which is the proposed launch rocket for the Blue Origin, Boeing and Sierra Nevada Corporation proposals. ULA finished completing all of their CCDev 2 milestones by September 2012.
- ATK and Astrium proposed development of the Liberty rocket derived from Ares I and Ariane 5. On September 13, 2011, it was reported that NASA intended to form at agreement with ATK to further develop the Liberty rocket as a heavy launch vehicle capable of launching humans into space. Although no funding is to be provided by NASA with this agreement, the agency will share expertise and technology. ATK finished completing all of their CCDev 2 milestones by August 2012.
- Excalibur Almaz Inc. is developing a crewed system incorporating updated and modernized Soviet-era space hardware designs, intended for tourism flights to orbit. On October 26, 2011, NASA announced it had entered into an unfunded Space Act Agreement with EAI, establishing a framework to enable collaboration in furthering the development EAI's spacecraft concept for low Earth orbit crew transportation. EAI's concept for commercial crew to the International Space Station is to use the company's planned three-person space vehicle with an intermediate stage and fly the integrated vehicle on a commercially available launch vehicle. Excalibur Almaz finished completing all of their CCDev 2 milestones by June 2012.
Proposals not selected 
Proposals that were not awarded funds in the second round of the Commercial Crew Development program, or CCDev, were as follows:
- Orbital Sciences proposed the Prometheus lifting-body spaceplane vehicle, about one-quarter the size of the Space Shuttle. The Vertical Takeoff, Horizontal Landing (VTHL) vehicle would be launched on a human-rated Atlas V rocket but would land on a runway. The initial design would carry a crew of 4, but it could carry up to 6, or a combination of crew and cargo. In addition to Orbital Sciences, the consortium included Northrop Grumman, which would have built the spaceplane, and the United Launch Alliance, which would have provided the launch vehicle. Virgin Galactic also confirmed that they would be teaming with Orbital on the Orbital CCDev 2 project. Failing to be selected for a CCDev phase 2 award by NASA, Orbital announced in April 2011 that they will likely wind down their efforts to develop a commercial crew vehicle.
- Paragon Space Development Corporation proposed additional development of the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System (CCT-ARS) program in 2011, to permit the building-out of the other parts of the Environmental Control and Life Support System to provide the complete solution for their commercial crew transport customers.
- t/Space proposed an eight-person crew or cargo recoverable reusable transfer spacecraft that could launch on a variety of launch vehicles, including the Atlas V, Falcon 9 and Taurus II.
- United Space Alliance proposed under a plan called Commercial Space Transportation Service, or CSTS, to fly commercially the two remaining Space Shuttle vehicles, Endeavour and Atlantis, twice a year from 2013 to 2017.
Commercial Crew integrated Capability (formerly CCDev 3) 
The Commercial Crew integrated Capability (CCiCap) initiative is the third round of the crew development program and was originally called CCDev 3. For this phase of the program, NASA wanted proposals to be a complete end-to-end design, including spacecraft, launch vehicles, launch services, ground and mission operations and recovery. In September 2011, NASA released a draft request for proposals (RFP).
By October 2011, NASA was planning to award competitive contracts under the more traditional Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) system instead of using Space Act Agreements. But after some months of planning for the switch to new style contracting approach, NASA announced in mid-December 2011 it would resume use of Space Act Agreements because of Congressional funding reductions to the program for Fiscal Year 2012. FAR contracts are planned to be used for the certification of Commercial Transportation Services to the ISS. The final RFP was released on February 7, 2012, with proposals due on March 23, 2012.
The funded Space Act Agreements were awarded on August 3, 2012, CCiCap will last until May 2014. NASA hopes that facilitating development of this U.S. capability will provide safe, reliable, and cost effective human transportation to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO).
As of February 2013[update], NASA reported that Boeing had completed 5 of 19 milestones, SpaceX had completed 4 of 14 milestones, and Sierra Nevada had completed 3 of 9 milestones toward their respective CCICap contract objectives.
Proposals selected 
Winners of funding in the third round of the Commercial Crew Development program, announced on August 3, 2012, were:
- Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colorado: $212.5 million
- Sierra Nevada Corporation proposed for further development of its Dream Chaser spaceplane/Atlas V system.
- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, California: $440 million
- The Boeing Company, Houston, Texas: $460 million
Proposals that passed acceptability screening 
- ATK - Liberty
Proposals not selected 
Certification Products Contract (CPC) phase 1 
The first phase of the Certification Products Contract (CPC) will involve the review of the integrated crew transportation systems through the creation of a certification plan that will result in the development of engineering standards, tests and analyses of the crew transportation systems designs. This phase of CPC is expected to run from 22 January 2013 to 30 May 2014.
Proposals selected 
Winners of funding of phase 1 of the Certification Products Contract, announced on December 10, 2012, were:
- Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colorado: $10 million
- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, California: $9.6 million
- The Boeing Company, Houston, Texas: $9.9 million
Certification Products Contract (CPC) phase 2 
The second phase of the Certification Products Contract is expected to begin in mid-2014 and will involve a full and open competition. It will include the final development, testing and verifications necessary to allow crewed demonstration flights to the ISS.
Financing of all winners in subsequent CCP rounds (in millions of $):
|Manufacturers of spacecraft:|
|The Boeing Company||18.0||92.3 + 20.61||460.0||9.9||600.9|
|Sierra Nevada Corporation||20.0||80.0 + 25.61||212.5||10.0||348.1|
|Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX)2||–||75.0||440.0||9.6||524.6|
|Manufacturers of launch vehicles:|
|United Launch Alliance||6.7||03||–||–||6.7|
|Alliant Techsystems (ATK)||–||03||–||–||0|
|Paragon Space Development Corporation||1.4||–||–||–||1.4|
1 Additional amount awarded in 2011.
2 SpaceX takes part in COTS program.
3 Space Act Agreement signed in 2011 in the frame of CCDev2.
See also 
- Space Shuttle successors
- NASA Docking System
- Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS)
- Private spaceflight
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- , p. 2-1
- Blue Origin. New Shepard Program web site
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- "Commercial Crew Development (CCDEV) video" (video). SpaceX. 2011-01-14. 3:40. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Taking the next step: Commercial Crew Development Round 2". SpaceX Updates webpage. SpaceX. 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
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- "CCP and Excalibur Sign Space Act Agreement"
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- "The Shape of Things to Come - Orbital’s Prometheus™ Space Plane Ready for NASA’s Commercial Crew Development Initiative".
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- Orbital may wind down its commercial crew effort "Orbital may wind down its commercial crew effort". NewSpace Journal. 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2011-04-25. "CEO Dave Thompson said ... "I don’t, at this time, anticipate that we’ll continue to pursue our own project in that race. We’ll watch it and if an opportunity develops we may reconsider. But at this point, I would not anticipate a lot of activity on our part in the commercial crew market.""
- "(press release) Paragon Space Development Corporation Completes All Development Milestones on the NASA Commercial Crew Development Program". Paragon. 2011-01-31.
- Boyle, Alan (2011-02-11). "Let's talk about the final frontier". Cosmic Log. MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-02-13. "the proposal calls for the development of a spaceship that could be sent into space on a variety of launch vehicles. ... "Up to eight crew, Soyuz-like architecture (recoverable reusable crew element, expendable orbital/cargo module). Incorporates HMX's patented integral abort system (uses OMS/RCS propellant in separate abort engines). Can fly on Atlas 401 [a configuration for the Atlas 5 rocket], F9 [SpaceX's Falcon 9] or Taurus II (enhanced) but with a reduced cargo and crew capability on the latter vehicle. Goal is to be the lowest-price provider on a per-seat basis. Nominal land recovery with water backup.""
- "NASA weighs plan to keep space shuttle until 2017"
- "COMMERCIAL CREW INTEGRATED CAPABILITY". NASA. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- "Statement of William H. Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; before the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics Committee on Science, Space and Technology; U. S. House of Representatives". October 12, 2011. pp. 6–7.
- Morring, Frank (December 15, 2011). "NASA Shifts CCDev Back To Space Act". Aviation Week. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
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- "Commercial Crew Program - December 20, 2011 Program Forum presentation". NASA. December 20, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "CCiCap Solicitation". NASA. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Commercial Crew Integrated Capability Pre-Proposal Conference". NASA. February 14, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- "NASA Announces Next Steps in Effort to Launch Americans from U.S. Soil". NASA. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- "NASA's Return On Investment Report: Commercial Crew Partners Achieve More Milestones". NASA. February 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- Commercial Crew Integrated Capabilities Selection Statement
- "NASA Awards Contracts In Next Step Toward Safely Launching American Astronauts From U.S. Soil". NASA. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "NASA Selects Commercial Firms to Begin Development of Crew Transportation Concepts and Technology Demonstrations for Human Spaceflight Using Recovery Act Funds". press release (NASA). February 1, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- "NASA Awards Next Set Of Commercial Crew Development Agreements". press release (NASA). April 18, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- "NASA Releases Commercial Crew Draft RFP, Announces CCDEV2 Optional Milestones". press release (NASA). September 19, 2011. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
- Official NASA Commercial Crew Program page
- Commercial Crew & Cargo Document Library on NASA.gov - CCDev2 competitor progress can be viewed here
- CCDev 2 Space Act Agreements
- CCiCap Space Act Agreements