Phaseolus lunatus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lima bean)
Jump to: navigation, search
Lima beans
Phaseoulus lunatus.jpg
Lima beans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Phaseoleae
Genus: Phaseolus
Species: P. lunatus
Binomial name
Phaseolus lunatus
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Dolichos tonkinensis Bui-Quang-Chieu
  • Phaseolus bipunctatus Jacq.
  • Phaseolus ilocanus Blanco
  • Phaseolus inamoenus L.
  • Phaseolus limensis Macfad.
  • Phaseolus lunatus var. macrocarpus (Moench) Benth.
  • Phaseolus macrocarpus Moench
  • Phaseolus portoricensis Spreng.
  • Phaseolus puberulus Kunth
  • Phaseolus rosei Piper
  • Phaseolus saccharatus Macfad.
  • Phaseolus tunkinensis Lour.
  • Phaseolus vexillatus Blanco, nom, illeg, non L.
  • Phaseolus viridis Piper
  • Phaseolus xuaresii Zuccagni
Phaseolus lunatus - MHNT
Lima beans, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 482 kJ (115 kcal)
20.88 g
Sugars 2.9 g
Dietary fiber 7 g
0.38 g
7.8 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(14%)
0.161 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(5%)
0.055 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.421 mg
(8%)
0.422 mg
Vitamin B6
(12%)
0.161 mg
Folate (B9)
(21%)
83 μg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.18 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
2 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(2%)
17 mg
Iron
(18%)
2.39 mg
Magnesium
(12%)
43 mg
Manganese
(25%)
0.516 mg
Phosphorus
(16%)
111 mg
Potassium
(11%)
508 mg
Sodium
(0%)
2 mg
Zinc
(10%)
0.95 mg
Other constituents
Fluoride 2.2 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Moche ceramic vessel with lima beans. Larco Museum Collection. Lima-Peru

Phaseolus lunatus is a legume grown for its edible seed. It is commonly known as the butter bean or lima bean /ˈlmə/.

Origin and uses[edit]

Phaseolus lunatus is of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. Two separate domestication events are believed to have occurred. The first, taking place in the Andes around 2000 BC,[2] produced a large-seeded variety (Lima type), while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety (Sieva type).[2] By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, and in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World.[2]

The small-seeded wild form (Sieva type) is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina, generally below 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form (Lima type) is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 metres (1,050 to 6,660 ft) above sea level.[citation needed]

The Moche Culture (0-800 CE) cultivated lima beans heavily and often depicted them in their art.[3] During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, and since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima – Peru", the beans got named as such.

The term "butter bean" is widely utilised for a large, flat and yellow/white variety of lima bean (P. lunatus var. macrocarpus, or P. limensis[4]).

In some Southern United States areas the Sieva type are traditionally called butter beans, also otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans.

In Spain it is called "garrofón" and constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian Paella.

In the United Kingdom and some areas in the American South, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to re-hydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" (and less commonly "junior") limas.

Varieties[edit]

Both bush and pole (vine) varieties exist, the latter ranges from one to four metres in height. The bush varieties mature earlier than the pole varieties. The pods are up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long. The mature seeds are 1 to 3 centimetres (0.39 to 1.18 in) long and oval to kidney shaped. In most varieties the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" varieties the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red, orange and variously mottled seeds are also known. The immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans typically yield 2,900 to 5,000 kilograms (6,400 to 11,000 lb) of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kilograms (6,600 to 17,600 lb) of biomass per hectare.

The seeds of the varieties listed below are white unless otherwise noted. Closely related or synonymous variety names are listed on the same line.

Bush types[edit]

  • Henderson / Thorogreen, 65 days (heirloom)
  • Eastland, 68 days
  • Jackson Wonder, 68 days (heirloom, seeds brown mottled with purple)
  • Dixie Butterpea, 75 days (heirloom, two strains are common: red speckled and white seeded)
  • Fordhook 242, 75 days, 1945 AAS winner

Pole types[edit]

  • Christmas / Giant Speckled / Speckled Calico, 78 days (heirloom, seeds white mottled with red)
  • Big 6 / Big Mama, 80 days[5]
  • King of the Garden, 85 days (heirloom)

Nutritional value[edit]

Lima beans, like many other legumes, are a good source of dietary fiber, and a virtually fat-free source of high quality protein.

Lima beans contain both soluble fiber, which helps regulate blood sugar levels and lowers cholesterol, and insoluble fiber, which aids in the prevention of constipation, digestive disorders, irritable bowel syndrome and diverticulitis.[citation needed]

Blood sugar[edit]

The high fiber content in Lima beans prevents blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after eating them. This is due to the presence of large amounts of absorption-slowing compounds in the beans, and their high soluble fiber content. Soluble fiber absorbs water in the stomach forming a gel that slows down the absorption of the bean's carbohydrates. They can therefore help balance blood sugar levels while providing steady, slow-burning energy, which makes them a good choice for people with diabetes suffering with insulin resistance.[citation needed]

Heart[edit]

Soluble fiber binds with the bile acids that form cholesterol and, because it is not absorbed by the intestines, it exits the body taking the bile acids with it. As a result, the cholesterol level is lowered. They may therefore help to prevent heart disease, and may reduce the medical dosage required to combat cholesterol in the form of natural food.

Lima beans also provide folate and magnesium. Folate lowers levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that is an intermediate product in an important metabolic process called the methylation cycle. Elevated blood levels of homocysteine are an independent risk factor for heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

The magnesium content of lima beans is a calcium channel blocker. When enough magnesium is present veins and arteries relax, which reduces resistance and improves the flow of blood, oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List, Phaseolus lunatus
  2. ^ a b c Motta-Aldanaa, Jenny R.; Serrano-Serranoa, Martha L.; Hernández-Torresa, Jorge; Castillo-Villamizara, Genis; Debouckb, Daniel G.; ChacónS, Maria I. (2010). "Multiple Origins of Lima Bean Landraces in the Americas: Evidence from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Polymorphisms". Crop Science (Crop Science Society of America) 50 (5): 1773–1787. doi:10.2135/cropsci2009.12.0706. 
  3. ^ Larco Hoyle, Rafael. Los Mochicas. Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. Lima 2001. ISBN 9972-9341-0-1
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary,45th Edition, various quotations
  5. ^ "Improving Heirloom varieties". Mother Earth News. Retrieved 01-07-2010. 

External links[edit]