|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Licence data||US FDA:|
|Molecular mass||1526.74 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Linaclotide (marketed under the trade name Linzess and Constella) is a peptide agonist of the guanylate cyclase 2C. This compound reduces activation of colonic sensory neurons, reducing pain; and activates colonic motor neurons, which increases smooth muscle contraction and thus promotes bowel movements. It was approved by the FDA in August 2012 for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in adults. It was forecast by a market research firm to achieve blockbuster status by 2021.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates that as many as 20% of Americans may experience signs of irritable bowel syndrome, with approximately one-third of those affected experiencing constipation often accompanied by abdominal pain, affecting as many as 10 million Americans. Laxatives can assist with constipation but do not treat pain, while use of opiates to treat pain can aggravate constipation. While low-cost laxatives and pain killers would likely be tried first, linaclotide targets both associated conditions in a once-daily pill.
In Phase I trials reported in January 2009 in The American Journal of Gastroenterology, it was found that 42 patients with chronic constipation who participated in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study experienced relief and that the medication was well tolerated. In results of a first round of Phase III clinical trials announced in September 2010, Ironwood studied approximately 800 patients over 12 weeks who were given linaclotide or a placebo in a randomized double-blind trial. 34% of those receiving linaclotide experienced relief of pain and constipation, compared to 21% of patients who had taken the placebo. 50% of those receiving linaclotide saw a significant reduction in pain, versus 37% with the placebo, with pain reduction starting in the first week on the medication. 6% of patients left the study after experiencing diarrhea, the most commonly reported side effect.
Distribution and licensing
Under a partnership agreement announced in 2007 between Forest Laboratories and Microbia (as Ironwood was then known), Forest would pay $70 million in licensing fees towards the development of linaclotide, with profits shared between the two companies. Distribution rights in the United States will be shared with Forest Laboratories, with Almirall distributing linaclotide in Europe and Astellas Pharma in Asia.
Linaclotide is a peptide consisting of 14 amino acids. The sequence is
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Linzess information Drugs com Retrieved 10-23-2013.