List of Chancellors of Germany

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The Chancellor of Germany is the political leader of Germany and the head of the Federal Government. The office holder is responsible for selecting all other members of the government and chairing Cabinet meetings.

The office was created in the North German Confederation in 1867, when Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor. With the Unification of Germany in 1871, the Confederation evolved into a German nation-state and the office became known as the Chancellor of Germany. Bismarck, who was Chancellor until 1890, is the longest-serving Chancellor to this date.

Originally, the Chancellor was only responsible to the Emperor. This changed with the constitutional reform in 1918, when the Parliament was given the right to dismiss the Chancellor. Under the 1919 Weimar Constitution the Chancellors were to be appointed by the President, but were responsible to Parliament. The constitution was set aside during the 1933–1945 Nazi dictatorship. The 1949 German constitution made the Chancellor the most important office in the country, while diminishing the role of the President.

In German, the title was Bundeskanzler (literally, "Chancellor of the (Con)federation") in the North German Confederation and Reichskanzler (literally, "Chancellor of the Realm") from the Unification of Germany until the title Bundeskanzler was adopted again in 1949. The female form is Bundeskanzlerin. The title is often shortened to Kanzler ("Chancellor") or its female form, Kanzlerin.

Since 22 November 2005, the office has been held by Angela Merkel, the current Leader of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.

Revolutions of 1848[edit]

During the failed revolutions of 1848, the Frankfurt Parliament took power and there were three “Ministerpräsidenten” whose duties and powers were exactly equivalent to the later office of Chancellor.

Ministerpräsidenten of the Imperial Government[edit]

(A list of ministers can be found on de:Kategorie:Reichsminister (Provisorische Zentralgewalt).)

North German Confederation (Bundeskanzler) (1867–1871)[edit]

Political Party:       none

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0057, Otto von Bismarck.jpg Count Otto von Bismarck
(1815–1898)
1 July 1867 21 March 1871 1359 Non-partisan

German Empire (Reichskanzler) (1871–1918)[edit]

Political Party:       Zentrum       none

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party
Took Office Left Office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0057, Otto von Bismarck.jpg Prince Otto von Bismarck
(1815–1898)
21 March 1871 20 March 1890 6939 Non-partisan
(considered a conservative[by whom?])
Graf Leopold von Caprivi cropped2.jpg Count Leo von Caprivi
(1831–1899)
20 March 1890 26 October 1894 1681 Non-partisan
(considered a liberal[by whom?])
Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.png Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
(1819–1901)
29 October 1894 17 October 1900 2179 Non-partisan
(considered a liberal conservative[by whom?])
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0098A, Bernhard von Bülow.jpg Prince Bernhard von Bülow
(1849–1929)
17 October 1900 14 July 1909 3192 Non-partisan
(considered a conservative[by whom?])
Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (c. 1916).jpg Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
(1856–1921)
14 July 1909 13 July 1917 2921 Non-partisan
(considered a liberal[by whom?])
Georg Michaelis.jpg Georg Michaelis
(1857–1936)
14 July 1917 1 November 1917 110 Non-partisan
Georg von Hertling.jpg Count Georg von Hertling
(1843–1919)
1 November 1917 30 September 1918 333 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R04103, Prinz Max von Baden.jpg Prince Maximilian of Baden
(1867–1929)
3 October 1918 9 November 1918 37 Non-partisan
(considered a liberal[by whom?])

Revolutionary period (1918–1919)[edit]

On 9 November 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden handed over his office to Friedrich Ebert. Ebert continued to serve as Head of Government during the three months between the end of the German Empire in November 1918 and the first gathering of the National Assembly in February 1919, but did not use the title of Chancellor.

During that time, Ebert also served as Chairman of the Council of the People's Delegates, until 29 December 1918 together with the Independent Social Democrat Hugo Haase.

Political Party:       SPD

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet Reichstag
Took Office Left Office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-00014A, Friedrich Ebert.jpg Friedrich Ebert
(1871–1925)

as "Reichskanzler" and
"Vorsitz des Rates der Volksbeauftragten"

9 November 1918 13 February 1919 96 Social Democrats Council of the People's Deputies
SPDUSPD
13
(1912)

Weimar Republic (Reichskanzler) (1919–1933)[edit]

Political Party:       SPD       Zentrum       DVP       none

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet Reichstag
Took Office Left Office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-29A, Philipp Scheidemann.jpg Philipp Scheidemann
(1865–1939)

as "Reichsministerpräsident"

13 February 1919 20 June 1919 127 Social Democrats Scheidemann
SPDDDPZ
(Weimar Coalition)
Nat.Ass.
(1919)
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J0113-0500-001, Gustav Bauer.jpg Gustav Bauer
(1870–1944)

as "Reichsministerpräsident" until 14 August 1919
(implementation of the Weimar Constitution);
thereafter as "Reichskanzler"

21 June 1919 26 March 1920 279 Social Democrats Bauer
SPDDDPZ
(Weimar Coalition)
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-28A, Hermann Müller.jpg Hermann Müller (1st term)
(1876–1931)
27 March 1920 8 June 1920 73 Social Democrats Müller I
SPDDDPZ
(Weimar Coalition)
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R18733, Konstantin Fehrenbach.jpg Constantin Fehrenbach
(1852–1926)
25 June 1920 4 May 1921 313 Centre Fehrenbach
ZDDPDVP
1
(1920)
Bundesarchiv Bild 146III-105, Joseph Wirth.jpg Joseph Wirth
(1879–1956)
10 May 1921 14 November 1922 553 Centre Wirth I
ZSPDDDP
(Weimar Coalition)
Wirth II
ZSPDDDP
(Weimar Coalition)
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2002-0625-505, Dr. Wilhelm Cuno.jpg Wilhelm Cuno
(1876–1933)
22 November 1922 12 August 1923 263 Non-partisan Cuno
Ind.DVPDDPZBVP
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1982-092-11, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann
(1878–1929)
13 August 1923 30 November 1923 109 German People's Party Stresemann I
DVPSPDZDDP
Stresemann II
DVPSPD[1]ZDDP
Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx.jpg Wilhelm Marx (1st term)
(1863–1946)
30 November 1923 15 January 1925 412 Centre Marx I
ZDVPBVPDDP
Marx II
ZDVPDDP
2
(May 1924)
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-008A-07, Hans Luther.jpg Hans Luther
(1879–1962)
15 January 1925 12 May 1926 482 Non-partisan Luther I
DVPDNVP[2]ZDDPBVP
3
(Dec.1924)
Luther II
DVPZDDPBVP
Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx.jpg Wilhelm Marx (2nd term)
(1863–1946)
17 May 1926 12 June 1928 757 Centre Marx III
ZDVPDDPBVP
Marx IV
ZDNVPDVPBVP
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-28A, Hermann Müller.jpg Hermann Müller (2nd term)
(1876–1931)
28 June 1928 27 March 1930 637 Social Democrats Müller II
SPDDVPDDPZBVP
4
(1928)
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0630-504, Heinrich Brüning.jpg Heinrich Brüning
(1885–1970)
30 March 1930 30 May 1932 792 Centre Brüning I
ZDDPDVPWFBVPKVP
5
(1930)
Brüning II
ZDSPBVPKVP–CLV
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S00017, Franz von Papen crop.jpg Franz von Papen
(1879–1969)
1 June 1932 17 November 1932 169 Centre
until 3 June 1932
Non-partisan
Papen
Ind.DNVP
6
(Jul.1932)
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0527-0001-020, Kurt von Schleicher.jpg Kurt von Schleicher
(1882–1934)
3 December 1932 28 January 1933 57 Non-partisan Schleicher
Ind.DNVP
7
(Nov.1932)

1 The SPD withdrew from the Stresemann II Cabinet on 3 November 1923.

2 The DNVP withdrew from the Luther I Cabinet on 26 October 1925.

Third Reich (Reichskanzler) (1933–1945)[edit]

Political Party:       NSDAP       None

Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet Reichstag
Took Office Left Office Days
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S33882, Adolf Hitler retouched.jpg Adolf Hitler
(1889–1945)
30 January 1933 30 April 1945 4473 National Socialist
German Workers' Party
Hitler
NSDAPDNVP
8 (Mar.1933)
9 (Nov.1933)
10 (1936)
11 (1938)
Führer und Reichskanzler (head of state and government) from 2 August 1934.
DNVP dissolved in 1933, its ministers joining the Nazi Party.
Sought to establish a New Order, leading to World War II. Committed suicide in office.
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0821-502, Joseph Goebbels.jpg Joseph Goebbels
(1897–1945)
30 April 1945 1 May 1945 1 National Socialist
German Workers' Party
(Cabinet nominated in
Hitler's testament

but never convened)
Appointed Chancellor in Hitler's will and testament; committed suicide the following day.
Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk.JPG Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk
(1887–1977)
(leading minister at Flensburg)
2 May 1945 23 May 1945 21 None
(non-partisan conservative)
Schwerin von Krosigk
Ind.NSDAP
Leading minister at Flensburg; sought a truce with the Western Allies. Arrested; government dissolved.

Federal Republic (Bundeskanzler) (since 1949)[edit]

In 1949, three separate German states were established: the Federal Republic of Germany (known as West Germany), the Saar, which joined the Federal Republic in 1956; and the German Democratic Republic (known as East Germany). The list below gives the Chancellors of the Federal Republic; the government of East Germany was headed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. In 1990, the Democratic Republic was dissolved, with its Länder being subsumed into the Federal Republic.

Political Party:       CDU       SPD       FDP

# Portrait Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office Political Party Cabinet Bundestag
Took Office Left Office Days
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078072-0004, Konrad Adenauer.jpg Konrad Adenauer
(1876–1967)
20 September 1949 20 October 1953 5144 Christian Democratic Union
(CDU)
I CDU/CSUFDPDP 1 (1949)
20 October 1953 29 October 1957 II CDU/CSUFDP/FVP[3]
DPGB/BHE[3]
2 (1953)
29 October 1957 14 November 1961 III CDU/CSUDP[4] 3 (1957)
14 November 1961 13 December 1962 IV CDU/CSUFDP 4 (1961)
14 December 1962 11 October 1963 V
The founder of the Federal Republic, Adenauer pursued conservative and pro-western policies.
2 Ludwig Erhard 916-1330.jpg Ludwig Erhard
(1897–1977)
17 October 1963 26 October 1965 1142 No party membership;[1]
affiliated with

Christian Democratic Union
(CDU)
I CDU/CSUFDP[5] 4 ( ···· )
26 October 1965 30 November 1966 II 5 (1965)
As Minister of the Economy, Erhard oversaw the economic miracle, before his three-year term as Chancellor.
3 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (Nürburgring, 1969).jpg Kurt Georg Kiesinger
(1904–1988)
1 December 1966 21 October 1969 1055 Christian Democratic Union
(CDU)
I CDU/CSUSPD
(Grand coalition)
5 ( ···· )
Kiesinger led the Federal Republic's first Grand coalition.
4 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt
(1913–1992)
22 October 1969 15 December 1972 1659 Social Democratic Party of Germany
(SPD)
I SPDFDP 6 (1969)
15 December 1972 7 May 1974 II 7 (1972)
The first SPD Chancellor since 1930, Brandt led a Social-liberal coalition. He pursued a policy of Ostpolitik.
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-047-20, Walter Scheel.jpg Walter Scheel
(born 1919)
(Acting Chancellor)
7 May 1974 16 May 1974 9 Free Democratic Party
(FDP)
FDPSPD 7 ( ···· )
As Vice-Chancellor under Brandt, Scheel served as acting Chancellor following Brandt's resignation.
5 Helmut Schmidt (13.07.1977).jpg Helmut Schmidt
(born 1918)
16 May 1974 14 December 1976 3060 Social Democratic Party of Germany
(SPD)
I SPDFDP[6] 7 ( ···· )
16 December 1976 4 November 1980 II 8 (1976)
6 November 1980 1 October 1982 III 9 (1980)
Schmidt succeeded Brandt at the head of the Social-liberal coalition, until the FDP stood down.
6 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F074398-0021 Kohl (cropped).jpg Helmut Kohl
(born 1930)
1 October 1982 29 March 1983 5870 Christian Democratic Union
(CDU)
I CDU/CSUFDP 9 ( ···· )
30 March 1983 11 March 1987 II 10 (1983)
12 March 1987 18 January 1991 III CDU/CSUFDPDSU[7] 11 (1987)
18 January 1991 17 November 1994 IV CDU/CSUFDP 12 (1990)
17 November 1994 27 October 1998 V 13 (1994)
Kohl held office for the longest period since Bismarck; he oversaw German reunification in 1990.
7 Gerhardschroeder01c.jpg Gerhard Schröder
(born 1944)
27 October 1998 22 October 2002 2583 Social Democratic Party of Germany
(SPD)
I SPDGreen 14 (1998)
22 October 2002 22 November 2005 II 15 (2002)
Schröder marked the arrival to power of the "generation of '68"; he headed a Red-green alliance.
8 Angela Merkel - Juli 2010 - 3zu4 cropped.jpg Angela Merkel
(born 1954)
22 November 2005 28 October 2009 3315 Christian Democratic Union
(CDU)
I CDU/CSUSPD
(Grand coalition)
16 (2005)
28 October 2009 17 December 2013 II CDU/CSUFDP 17 (2009)
17 December 2013 Incumbent III CDU/CSUSPD
(Grand coalition)
18 (2013)
The first female Chancellor and the first from former East Germany, Merkel led a Grand coalition during her first and third term.

3 The FDP withdrew from the Adenauer II Cabinet on 23 February 1956, but its ministers founded the FVP and remained in the cabinet. Following a BHE split, its ministers defected to the CDU in 1956.

4 The DP withdrew from the Adenauer III Cabinet in July 1960.

5 The FDP withdrew from the Erhard II Cabinet on 28 October 1966.

6 The FDP withdrew from the Schmidt III Cabinet on 17 September 1982.

7 Following German reunification, Hans Joachim Walther of the East German DSU joined the Kohl III Cabinet on 3 October 1990.

Timeline[edit]

1867–1945[edit]

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk Joseph Goebbels Adolf Hitler Kurt von Schleicher Franz von Papen Heinrich Brüning Hermann Müller Wilhelm Marx Hans Luther Wilhelm Marx Gustav Stresemann Wilhelm Cuno Joseph Wirth Constantin Fehrenbach Hermann Müller Gustav Bauer Philipp Scheidemann Friedrich Ebert Maximilian of Baden Georg von Hertling Georg Michaelis Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Bernhard von Bülow Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst Leo von Caprivi Otto von Bismarck

Since 1949[edit]

Angela Merkel Gerhard Schroder Helmut Kohl Helmut Schmidt Willy Brandt Kurt Georg Kiesinger Ludwig Erhard Konrad Adenauer

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/cdu-altkanzler-ludwig-erhard-war-nie-cdu-mitglied-587764.html

See also[edit]