List of heads of state of Greece

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This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.

First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832)[edit]

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)[edit]

Head of State Term of office Title
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Mavrokordatos1.jpg Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
13 January 1822 10 May 1823 1 year, 117 days President of the Executive
2 Petrobey Mavromichalis.jpg Petros Mavromichalis
Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης
(1765–1848)
10 May 1823 31 December 1823 0 years, 235 days President of the Executive
3 GeorgiosKountouriotis.jpg Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
31 December 1823 26 April 1826 2 years, 116 days President of the Executive
4 AνδρέαςΖαΐμης.jpg Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
(1791–1840)
26 April 1826 14 April 1827 0 years, 353 days President of the Government Commission

Hellenic State (1827–1832)[edit]

Governor Term of office Political party
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Kapodistrias2.jpg Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
(1776–1831)
14 April 1827 9 October 1831
(Assassinated)
4 years, 178 days Independent
2 Avgoustinos Kapodistrias.jpg Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
(1778–1857)
9 October 1831 23 March 1832
(Resigned)
0 years, 166 days Independent

Following the resignation of Augustinos Kapodistrias, a series of collective governing councils were established, but their authority was often only nominal.

# Governing Council Term of office Members
Took office Left office Duration
1 First Governing Council 9 April 1832 14 April 1832 0 years, 5 days Theodoros Kolokotronis
Andreas Zaimis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Vasilios Boudouris
2 Second Governing Council 14 April 1832 3 October 1832 0 years, 172 days Georgios Kountouriotis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Andreas Zaimis
Dimitrios Plapoutas
Dimitrios Ypsilantis
Konstantinos Botsaris
(from 25 April 1832)
3 Third Governing Council 3 October 1832 6 February 1833 0 years, 126 days Andreas Zaimis
Andreas Metaxas
Ioannis Kolettis

Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924)[edit]

House of Wittelsbach (1832–1862)[edit]

The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople later that year.

The convention offered the throne to the Bavarian Prince, Otto. They also established the line of succession which would pass the crown to Otto's descendants, or his younger brothers should he have no issue. It was also decided that in no case there would be a personal union of the crowns of Greece and Bavaria.

King Reign Claim
# Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Otto of Greece.jpg Otto I
Όθων
(1815–1867)
27 May 1832
[1]
23 October 1862
(Deposed)
30 years, 149 days 1832 London Conference

House of Glücksburg (1863–1924)[edit]

In October 1862, King Otto was deposed in a popular revolt, but while the Greek people rejected Otto, they did not seem averse to the concept of monarchy per se. Many Greeks, seeking closer ties to the pre-eminent world power, Great Britain, rallied around the idea that Prince Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, could become the next King. British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston believed that the Greeks were "panting for increase in territory", hoping that the election of Alfred as King would also result in the incorporation of the Ionian Islands, which were then a British protectorate, into an enlarged Greek state.

The London Conference of 1832, however, had prohibited any of the Great Powers' ruling families from accepting the crown of Greece, and in any event, Queen Victoria was adamantly opposed to the idea. Nevertheless, the Greeks insisted on holding a plebiscite on the issue of the head of state in November 1862. It was the first referendum ever held in Greece.

Prince Alfred turned down the Kingship and Prince William of Denmark, son of Prince Christian of Denmark, was elected by the National Assembly to become King George I of the Hellenes.

King Reign Claim
# Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
2 King George of Hellenes.jpg George I
Γεώργιος A΄
(1845–1913)
30 March 1863 18 March 1913
(Assassinated)
49 years, 353 days 1862 Referendum
3 Constantine I of Greece.jpg Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
18 March 1913 11 June 1917
(Abdicated)
4 years, 90 days Son of George I
4 Alexander I of Greece.jpg Alexander I
Αλέξανδρος
(1893–1920)
11 June 1917 25 October 1920 3 years, 136 days Son of Constantine I
(3) Constantine I of Greece.jpg Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
19 December 1920 27 September 1922
(Abdicated)
1 year, 282 days Restored throne
5 Georgeiiofgreece.jpg George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
27 September 1922 25 March 1924
(Deposed)
1 year, 180 days Son of Constantine I

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)[edit]

The Second Hellenic Republic was a parliamentary republic which was proclaimed on 25 March 1924 and a referendum was held to abolish the Monarchy. The Second Republic was abolished after the 1935 monarchy referendum.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
President Term of office Political party
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 AlmiranteCoundouritis--inheartofgermani00vaka.jpg Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
25 March 1924 6 April 1926
(Resigned)
2 years, 12 days Military
2 Pangalos.jpg Lieutenant-General Theodoros Pangalos
Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος
(1878–1952)
6 April 1926 18 April 1926 0 years, 138 days Military
18 April 1926 22 August 1926
(Deposed)
(1) AlmiranteCoundouritis--inheartofgermani00vaka.jpg Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
22 August 1926 24 August 1926 3 years, 108 days Military
18 April 1926 10 December 1929
(Resigned)
3 Zamos 7609302552 087d90a72c o.jpg Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
10 December 1929 14 December 1929 5 years, 304 days Independent
14 December 1929 10 October 1935
(Deposed)

Kingdom of Greece (1935–1973)[edit]

House of Glücksburg (1935–1973)[edit]

King Reign Claim
# Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
(5) Georgeiiofgreece.jpg George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
3 November 1935 1 April 1947 11 years, 149 days Restored throne
6 Paul I of Greece.jpg Paul I
Παύλος
(1901–1964)
1 April 1947 6 March 1964 16 years, 340 days Brother of George II
7 King Constantine.jpg Constantine II
Κωνσταντίνος Β΄
(1940– )
6 March 1964 1 June 1973
(Deposed)
9 years, 87 days Son of Paul I

Republic under the Military Junta (1973–1974)[edit]

On 1 June 1973 the junta abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a presidential republic. The abolition of the monarchy was approved by a referendum held on 29 July 1973.

President Term of office Political party
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Georgios Papadopoulos crop.png Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
1 June 1973 25 November 1973
(Deposed)
0 years, 177 days Military
2 Gizikis.jpg General Phaedon Gizikis
Φαίδων Γκιζίκης
(1917–1999)
25 November 1973 17 December 1974 1 year, 22 days Military

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)[edit]

In 1974, the military junta was overthrown and democracy restored. A second referendum, held on 8 December 1974, confirmed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the current parliamentary republic, with the President of the Republic as the head of state.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
President Term of office Political party
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
Stasinopoulos.jpg Michail Stasinopoulos
Μιχαήλ Στασινόπουλος
(1903–2002)
18 December 1974 19 June 1975 0 years, 183 days New Democracy
1 Konstantinos Tsatsos.JPG Konstantinos Tsatsos
Κωνσταντίνος Τσάτσος
(1899–1987)
20 June 1975 15 May 1980 4 years, 330 days New Democracy
2 Karamanlis-konstantinos2.jpg Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Γ. Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
15 May 1980 10 March 1985
(Resigned)
4 years, 299 days New Democracy
No image.png Ioannis Alevras
Ιωάννης Αλευράς
(1912–1995)
10 March 1985 30 March 1985 0 years, 20 days Panhellenic Socialist Movement
3 Christos Sartzetakis (1989) cropped.jpg Christos Sartzetakis
Χρήστος Σαρτζετάκης
(1929– )
30 March 1985 4 May 1990 5 years, 35 days Independent
(2) Karamanlis-konstantinos2.jpg Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Γ. Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
4 May 1990 10 March 1995 4 years, 310 days New Democracy
4 Kostis stephanopoulos.jpg Konstantinos Stephanopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Στεφανόπουλος
(1926– )
10 March 1995 12 March 2005 10 years, 2 days Independent
5 Karolos Papoulias .jpg Karolos Papoulias
Κάρολος Παπούλιας
(1929– )
12 March 2005 Incumbent 9 years, 36 days Panhellenic Socialist Movement

Living former heads of state[edit]

Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
Constantine II 1964–1973 King of the Hellenes 2 June 1940
Christos Sartzetakis 1985–1990 President of Greece 6 April 1929
Konstantinos Stephanopoulos 1995–2005 President of Greece 15 August 1926

Head of State titles[edit]

State Years Title
 Greece 1827–1832 Governor
 Greece
(Under Wittelsbach dynasty)
1832–1862 King of Greece
 Greece
(Under Glücksburg dynasty)
1863–1924 King of the Hellenes
 Greece 1924–1935 President
 Greece
(Restored Glücksburg dynasty)
1935–1973 King of the Hellenes
 Greece
(Military Junta)
1973–74 President
 Greece 1974–Present President

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Protocol signed in 1832 but landed in Greece on 6 February 1833

External links[edit]