List of Storm Prediction Center high risk days

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Progression of a well-anticipated high risk event across the Central Plains on April 14, 2012. This event ultimately produced 85 tornadoes that day, one of which killed six people.

A high risk severe weather event is the greatest threat level issued by the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) for convective weather events in the United States. High risks are issued only a few times a year when forecasters at the SPC are confident that a major severe weather outbreak, namely tornadoes and occasionally derechoes, will occur on the given day. These are typically reserved for the most extreme events.[1]

Limited details are available for days before the late 1990s, and it is probable that there were additional High Risk days with no online documentation, especially in the 1980s.

High Risk days[edit]

1980s–1999[edit]

Prior to 1997, data on high risk events is relatively scarce due to a lack of online documentation by the Storm Prediction Center. Most of the listed events from 1984 to 1997 are constructed from case studies on certain outbreak, namely for those in North Carolina, as well as storm chaser accounts.[2] During this time period, at least 41 high risk outlooks were issued for the United States.

Storm Prediction Center High Risk Events – 1980s–1999[nb 1]
Date Year Region Tornadoes Peak gust Fatalities Outlook Notes
March 28 1984 East-Central Alabama, Central Georgia, South Carolina, and eastern North Carolina[3] 29 57 March 28, 1984 SLSWC High Risk.jpg 1984 Carolinas tornado outbreak – Twenty-nine tornadoes touched down; seven were rated F4. In addition to the 57 tornadic deaths, 1,249 people were injured.[4]
May 3 1984 North Carolina[5] 38 5 Full extent of high risk is unknown, though likely included areas further southeast where most tornadoes occurred.[5] Thirty-eight tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[6]
May 7 1988 Oklahoma[2] 5 0 Severe weather outbreak did not consolidate and event "busted."[2] Five tornadoes touched down; two were rated F2.[7]
November 15 1989 Southern U.S.[2] 17 21 November 15, 1989 NSSFC High Risk.jpg November 1989 Tornado Outbreak – Seventeen tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[8]
March 13 1990 Central U.S.[2] 59 2 Central US Tornado Outbreak of 1990 – Uncertainty in risk-level; assumed to have been high due to tornadic activity.[2] Fifty-nine tornadoes touched down; two were rated F5.[9]
May 15 1990 Oklahoma[2] 17 1 Seventeen tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[10]
June 2 1990 Ohio Valley[2] 68 9 Lower Ohio Valley tornado outbreak of June 1990 – Sixty-eight tornadoes touched down; seven were rated F4.[11]
March 29 1991 North Carolina[5] 21 0 The extent of the high risk is unknown outside of North Carolina.[5] Twenty-one tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[12]
April 11 1991 Oklahoma, Kansas, and the Texas Panhandle[13] 7 0 Severe weather outbreak did not consolidate due to a lack of moisture and instability anticipated to develop.[2] Seven tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[14]
April 12 1991 Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas[2] 24 0 Twenty-four tornadoes touched down; two were rated F3.[15]
April 26 1991 Central U.S.[2] 53 24 April 26, 1991 SWODY1 07Z.jpg April 26, 1991 tornado outbreak – Fifty-three tornadoes touched down; one was rated F5.[16]
April 28 1991 Eastern Oklahoma and Kansas[2] 13 0 Thunderstorm complex early in the day prevented significant moisture from moving into the region and ultimately limited severe weather activity.[17] Thirteen tornadoes touched down; two were rated F2.[18]
June 16 1992 Midwest [19] 67 1 Mid-June 1992 tornado outbreak – Sixty-seven tornadoes touched down; one was rated F5.[20]
June 17 1992 Great Lakes 28 0 Mid-June 1992 tornado outbreak – Twenty-eight tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[21]
June 7 1993 Upper Midwest 40 0 Forty tornadoes touched down; two were rated F4.[22]
March 27 1994 Southern U.S. 29 40 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1994 – Twenty-nine tornadoes touched down; two were rated F4.[23]
April 25 1994 Central U.S. 28 3 Numerous hail reports.[citation needed] Twenty-eight tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[24]
August 27 1994 Upper Midwest 12 4 Twelve tornadoes touched down; two were rated F3.[25]
November 27 1994 Southern U.S. 18 6 Eighteen tornadoes touched down; four were rated F3.[26]
April 17 1995 Oklahoma, Texas 21 0 Primarily a derecho event[citation needed]
May 7 1995 Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas 32 3 May 1995 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Day one of a 5 day event
May 12 1995 Kansas 13 0 May 1995 Tornado Outbreak Sequence
May 13 1995 Ohio Valley 27 3 May 1995 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Included a major derecho[citation needed]
May 17 1995 Kansas 8 0 May 1995 Tornado Outbreak Sequence
April 19 1996 Illinois, Indiana 74 7002104000000000000104 mph (167 km/h) 1 April 1996 Tornado Outbreak Sequence
May 26 1996 Kansas, Oklahoma 7002119000000000000119 mph (192 km/h) 0 Also a derecho[citation needed]
May 2 1997 Mississippi, Alabama 8 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 1 Also a derecho event[citation needed]
July 1 1997 Upper Mississippi Valley 7002109000000000000109 mph (175 km/h) 0 Moderate tornado outbreak reorganized into a progressive derecho[citation needed]
February 10 1998 Texas, Louisiana 25 7002135000000000000135 mph (217 km/h) 0 Rare winter serial derecho[citation needed]
April 8 1998 Alabama[27] 15 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 41 April81998day1.jpg Birmingham Tornado of April 1998 – F5 damage in suburban Birmingham
April 15 1998 Middle Mississippi Valley 23 700175000000000000075 mph (121 km/h) 4 Day1otlk 19980415 1200.gif 1998 Nashville tornado outbreak – Day 1 of outbreak
April 16 1998 Tennessee 38 700198000000000000098 mph (158 km/h) 8 1998 Nashville tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak
May 31 1998 Northeastern U.S.[28][29][30][31] 39 7002128000000000000128 mph (206 km/h) 7 Day1may3198.gif Late-May 1998 Tornado Outbreak and Derecho – Only High Risk ever issued in the Northeast[citation needed]
June 14 1998 Ohio Valley 22 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 0 Followed by a progressive derecho[citation needed]
January 21 1999 Arkansas[32][33] 99 9 Jan1999day1outlookgraph.gif January 21–23, 1999 tornado outbreak – Only High Risk ever issued in January[citation needed]
March 8 1999 Arkansas, Louisiana 0 Few tornadoes with some scattered hail and wind[citation needed]
April 8 1999 Iowa, Missouri, Illinois 56 6 April 8, 1999 Day 1 Convective Outlook Graphic.png Cincinnati Tornado of April 1999
May 3 1999 Oklahoma, Kansas[34] 61 48 May 3, 1999 300 PM CDT Day 1 Convective Outlook.gif 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak – Highest winds ever recorded in a tornado, 301 mph (484 km/h)[35]
May 4 1999 Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas[34] 39 1 Day1otlk 19990504 0600 (1).gif 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak
May 5 1999 Southern U.S. 18 3 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak – First and only occurrence of three consecutive High Risk days. Major derecho event[citation needed]
June 5 1999 South Dakota, Nebraska[36] 0 June 5, 1999 Day 1 Convective Outlook Graphic.jpg Event failed to consolidate with only isolated tornadoes and scattered severe wind reported. A shortwave ridge maintained a capping inversion.[37]

2000–2009[edit]

There were no high risk days in 2000.

Storm Prediction Center High Risk Events – 2000–2009[nb 1][nb 2]
Date Year Region Tornadoes Peak gust Fatalities Outlook Notes
April 6 2001 Texas Panhandle, Western Oklahoma, much of Kansas, and extreme southern Nebraska[38] 6 7002124000000000000124 mph (200 km/h) 1 April 6, 2001 SPC High Risk.png Serial derecho with widespread wind damage[citation needed] One person was killed by lightning in Ohio.[39] Six tornadoes touched down; two were rated F2.[40]
April 11 2001 Eastern Iowa, Southern Wisconsin, and northwest Illinois[41] 50 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 3 April 11, 2001 SPC High Risk.png April 10–11, 2001 tornado outbreak – Three people were killed by tornadoes.[42] Fifty tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[43]
June 11 2001 Southern Minnesota, Northeastern Iowa, and West-Central Wisconsin[44] 29 7002120000000000000120 mph (190 km/h) 2 June 11, 2001 SPC High Risk.gif Progressive derecho with widespread wind damage. Measured thunderstorm wind gust of 120 miles per hour (193 km/h) near Atwater, Minnesota.[45] Twenty-nine tornadoes touched down; one was rated F2.[46]
October 13 2001 U.S. Gulf Coast[47] 32 7002112000000000000112 mph (180 km/h) 1 October 13, 2001 SPC High Risk.gif One person was killed by straight-line winds in Illinois.[48] Thirty-two tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[49]
October 24 2001 Midwest[50] 25 7002104000000000000104 mph (167 km/h) 3 October 24, 2001 SPC High Risk.gif North Central Indiana-Michigan Tornado Outbreak – Plus a major serial derecho.[citation needed] One person was killed by straight-line winds in Michigan.[51] Twenty-five tornadoes touched down; two were rated F3.[52]
April 16 2002 Upper Midwest[53] 14 700185000000000000085 mph (137 km/h) 1 April 16, 2002 SPC High Risk.png One person was killed by straight-line winds in Kansas.[54] Fourteen tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[55] High risk removed at 2000 UTC outlook update, prior to the initiation of the most intense severe weather.
July 31 2002 Minnesota, Wisconsin[56] 3 700175000000000000075 mph (121 km/h) 0 July 31, 2002 SPC High Risk.gif No fatalities took place.[57] Three weak tornadoes touched down.[58] Only the 0600 UTC outlook included a high risk, the only known time in which a high risk was issued in the early morning outlook and then removed from all subsequent outlooks.
November 10 2002 Midwest and Southern U.S.[59] 64 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 34 November 10, 2002 SPC High Risk.gif Veterans Day Weekend Outbreak – No non-tornadic death took place.[60] Sixty-four tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4. Thirty-four people were killed by the outbreak.[61]
December 23 2002 Texas, Louisiana[62] 15 700170000000000000070 mph (110 km/h) 0 December 23, 2002 SPC High Risk.gif Only High Risk ever issued in December[citation needed] and latest in the year by over a month a high risk has been issued since 2000 (second latest November 17, 2013). No fatalities took place.[63] Fifteen tornadoes touched down; three were rated F1.[64]
April 6 2003 Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi[65] 18 700183000000000000083 mph (134 km/h) 0 April 6, 2003 SPC High Risk.png Eighteen tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[66]
May 4 2003 Central U.S.[67] 81 700189000000000000089 mph (143 km/h) 38 May 4, 2003 SPC High Risk.gif May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence – Eighty-one tornadoes touched down; four were rated F4.[68]
May 5 2003 Southern U.S.[69] 25 7002104000000000000104 mph (167 km/h) 0 May 5, 2003 SPC High Risk.gif May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence – Twenty-five tornadoes touched down; one was rated F3.[70]
May 8 2003 Kansas, Oklahoma[71] 47 7002104000000000000104 mph (167 km/h) 0 May 8, 2003 SPC High Risk.gif May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence – Forty-seven tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[72]
May 10 2003 Central U.S.[73] 51 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 0 May 10, 2003 SPC High Risk.gif May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence – Fifty-one tornadoes touched down; three were rated F3.[74] Also included 35% tornado probability area, above the 25% minimum threshold for a high risk.
May 15 2003 Texas, Oklahoma[75] 47 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 0 May 15, 2003 SPC High Risk.gif Forty-seven tornadoes touched down; seven were rated F2.[76]
March 4 2004 Texas, Oklahoma[77] 25 700191000000000000091 mph (146 km/h) 0 March 4, 2004 SPC High Risk.gif Reorganized into a large serial derecho[citation needed] Twenty-five tornadoes touched down; two were rated F2.[78]
May 22 2004 Nebraska, Iowa[79] 65 7002106000000000000106 mph (171 km/h) 1 May 22, 2004 SPC High Risk.png May 2004 tornado outbreak sequence – Sixty-five tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[80] First of only two known times a high risk was not issued until 0100 UTC (the other is April 30, 2010).
May 24 2004 Nebraska, Iowa[81] 53 7002104000000000000104 mph (167 km/h) 1 May 24, 2004 SPC High Risk.png May 2004 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Also a major derecho event.[citation needed] Fifty-three tornadoes touched down; two were rated F2.[82]
May 29 2004 Central U.S.[83] 78 700190000000000000090 mph (140 km/h) 3 May 29, 2004 SPC High Risk.png May 2004 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Seventy-eight tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[84]
May 30 2004 Central U.S.[85] 81 7002120000000000000120 mph (190 km/h) 2 May 30, 2004 SPC High Risk.gif May 2004 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Eighty-one tornadoes touched down; two were rated F3.[86] Included 35% tornado risk area above minimum threshold of 25%.
April 11 2005 Louisiana, Mississippi[87] 3 700186000000000000086 mph (138 km/h) 0 April 11, 2005 SPC High Risk.png Three weak tornadoes touched down.[88]
June 4 2005 Central U.S.[89] 44 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) 0 June 4, 2005 SPC High Risk.gif Forty-four tornadoes touched down; one was rated F2.[90]
November 15 2005 Midwest and Southern U.S.[91] 49 700198000000000000098 mph (158 km/h) 1 November 15, 2005 SPC High Risk.gif Mid-November 2005 Tornado Outbreak – Forty-nine tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[92]
March 12 2006 Midwest[93] 55 7002107000000000000107 mph (172 km/h) 8 March 12, 2006 SPC High Risk.gif March 2006 Tornado Outbreak Sequence – Fifty-five tornadoes touched down; one was rated F4.[94] One supercell storm tracked nearly 800 miles from Oklahoma to Michigan, producing many tornadoes along its path.
April 6 2006 Nebraska, Kansas[95] 12 700182000000000000082 mph (132 km/h) 0 April 6, 2006 SPC High Risk.png April 6–8, 2006 Tornado Outbreak – Twelve tornadoes touched down; one was rated F2.[96]
April 7 2006 Southern U.S.[97] 47 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h) 10 April 7, 2006 SPC High Risk.png April 6–8, 2006 Tornado Outbreak – Outlook included a 60 percent probability of tornadoes, the highest level issued by the SPC.[98] Forty-seven tornadoes touched down; two were rated F3.[99] Also is the first of only two known occurrences (the other April 14, 2012) in which a Day 2 high risk outlook was issued.
March 1 2007 Southern U.S.[100] 39 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) 20 March 1, 2007 SPC High Risk.gif February–March 2007 Tornado Outbreak – Thirty-nine tornadoes touched down; two were rated EF4.[101]
April 13 2007 Texas[102] 7 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) 1 April 13, 2007 SPC High Risk.png Busted,Seven tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF1.[103]
April 24 2007 Texas[104] 23 700190000000000000090 mph (140 km/h) 7 April 24, 2007 SPC High Risk.png Twenty-three tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF3.[105]
May 5 2007 Nebraska, Kansas[106] 90 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 1 May 5 2007 1300 UTC day one convective outlook.gif May 2007 Tornado Outbreak – Ninety tornadoes touched down; two were rated EF3.[107]
June 7 2007 Upper Midwest[108] 12 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) 0 June 7, 2007 SPC High Risk.gif Reorganized into a moderate wind event[citation needed] Twelve tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF3.[109]
February 5 2008 Middle Mississippi Valley[110] 62 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 56 2-5-08CO.png 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak – Eighty-five tornadoes touched down; five were rated EF4.[111] One EF4 tornado in Arkansas tracked over 120 miles. Only high risk issued in January or February since January 21, 1999 continuing to present.
March 15 2008 Georgia, South Carolina[112] 46 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 2 March 15, 2008 SPC High Risk.gif 2008 Atlanta tornado outbreak – Forty-six tornadoes touched down; three were rated EF3.[113]
May 22 2008 Kansas[114] 28 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 1 May 22, 2008 SPC High Risk.gif Late-May 2008 tornado outbreak sequence – Twenty-eight tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF3.[115]
May 29 2008 Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota[116] 38 700185000000000000085 mph (137 km/h) 0 May 29, 2008 SPC High Risk.gif Late-May 2008 tornado outbreak sequence – Thirty-eight tornadoes touched down; two were rated EF3.[117]
June 5 2008 Midwest[118] 40 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 0 June 5, 2008 1300 outlook.jpg June 2008 tornado outbreak sequence – Forty tornadoes touched down; three were rated EF2.[119] Also including a 60% significant severe wind probability which meets high risk standards.
April 10 2009 Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee [120] 64 700196000000000000096 mph (154 km/h) 2 Convective Outlook April 10.gif April 2009 tornado outbreak – Sixty-four tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF4.[121]
April 26 2009 Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas [122] 11 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) April 26, 2009 SPC High Risk.png Eleven tornadoes touched down; one was rated EF2.[123] Despite the maintenance of the high risk through the day, the outbreak busted as a whole.
† – Value is estimated

2010–present[edit]

Storm Prediction Center High Risk Events – 2010–2014[nb 1]
Date Year Region Tornadoes Peak gust Fatalities Outlook Notes
April 24 2010 Southern U.S. [124] 39 7002120000000000000120 mph (190 km/h) 10[125] April 24 2010 High risk storm.png April 2010 tornado outbreak
April 30 2010 Arkansas[126] 27 700175000000000000075 mph (121 km/h) 1[127] April 30, 2010 High Risk.png April–May 2010 tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak. For only the second known time a high risk was not issued until 0100 UTC (the first such occurrence was May 22, 2004).
May 1 2010 Middle Mississippi Valley[128] 35 700183000000000000083 mph (134 km/h) 4 May 1, 2010 High Risk.gif April–May 2010 tornado outbreakMajor flood disaster also occurred from the same storm
May 10 2010 Oklahoma, Kansas [129] 67 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 3 May 10, 2010 High Risk.gif May 2010 Oklahoma tornado outbreak
May 19 2010 Oklahoma [130] 13 700170000000000000070 mph (110 km/h) 0 May 19, 2010 High Risk.gif Mid-May 2010 tornado outbreak
October 26 2010 Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan[131] 68 700185000000000000085 mph (137 km/h) 0 October 26, 2010 High Risk.gif October 2010 North American storm complex – Event set record for the deepest extratropical low over the continental US, major derecho event.[citation needed] High risk was based on 60% significant severe wind probability, with a tornado probability of 15% falling short of high risk standards.
April 16 2011 North Carolina, Virginia [132] 52 700181000000000000081 mph (130 km/h) 26 April 16, 2011 SPC High Risk.png April 14–16, 2011 tornado outbreak
April 26 2011 South-Central U.S.[133] 58 7002110000000000000110 mph (180 km/h) 0 April 26, 2011 High Risk.png April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak, mostly weak and short lived tornadoes[citation needed]
April 27 2011 Southern U.S.[134] 205 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 319 April 27, 2011 High Risk.png April 25–28, 2011 tornado outbreak – Day 3 of outbreak; Deadliest High Risk day; event set record for most tornadoes in a 24-hour period[citation needed]. Included a 45% tornado area which is above the minimum thresholds for a high risk. Also produced only known watch (PDS tornado watch 235) with a >95% probability for all severe and significant severe hazards.
May 24 2011 Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas[135] 34 700192000000000000092 mph (148 km/h)* 17 May 24, 2011 High Risk.gif May 21–26, 2011 tornado outbreak sequence – Day 4 of outbreak. Included a 45% tornado area, above minimum high risk threshold.
May 25 2011 Midwest [136] 73 7002100000000000000100 mph (160 km/h) 0 May 25, 2011 High Risk.gif May 21–26, 2011 tornado outbreak sequence – Day 5 of outbreak
March 2 2012 Midwest and Southern U.S.[137] 64 700186000000000000086 mph (138 km/h) 42 March 2, 2012 High Risk.gif March 2–3, 2012 tornado outbreak Second earliest in the year a high risk has been issued since 2000 (the earliest is February 5, 2008).
April 14 2012 Central U.S. [138] 83 700197000000000000097 mph (156 km/h) 6 April 14, 2012 High Risk.png April 13–16, 2012 tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak; Second High Risk to be issued on Day 2 (the day before the event; first Day 2 high risk was for April 7, 2006) and the first/only to date ever issued on the initial (0600 UTC) Day 2 outlook.[138][not in citation given] Included 45% tornado probability above minimum threshold of 30%.
June 12 2013 Midwest [139] 21 700195000000000000095 mph (153 km/h) 0 June 12, 2013 High Risk.gif June 12–13, 2013 derecho series High risk driven by 60% significant severe wind probability, with maximum tornado probability of 15%.
November 17 2013 Midwest [140] 73 700185000000000000085 mph (137 km/h) 8[141] November 17, 2013 High Risk.gif November 17, 2013 tornado outbreak - An unusually far north tornado outbreak; One of five high risk days during the month of November in recorded history.[142] Second latest date in the year a high risk has been issued since 2000 (the latest was December 23, 2002 in the Deep South), and latest date a high risk has been issued in the Midwest, surpassing previous latest of November 15, 2005. Also included a high risk level (60% significant severe) wind probability in 2000 UTC outlook.
April 27 2014 Southwestern Arkansas [143] 14 700190000000000000090 mph (140 km/h) 19 April 27, 2014 High Risk.gif April 27–30, 2014 tornado outbreak – Day 1 of outbreak. Small high risk area that included the cities of Little Rock, Camden, and Danville. Only one tornado touched down in the area before the high risk was discontinued in a special outlook update at 0230 UTC.[144]
April 28 2014 Alabama, Mississippi [145] 49 700170000000000000070 mph (110 km/h) 16 April 28, 2014 High risk.gif April 27–30, 2014 tornado outbreak – Day 2 of outbreak. Numerous long-tracked and strong to violent tornadoes across Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee. Largest tornado outbreak in central Alabama since April 27, 2011.[146]
June 3 2014 Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri [147] TBD TBD 0 June 3, 2014 High risk.gif Issued for 60% wind probability and potential derecho; tornado probability was 10%, well short of high risk level. Extreme hail/wind and some tornadoes reported. High Risk discontinued at 01Z.
† – Value is estimated
* – Peak wind gust of 151 mph (243 km/h) measured during the EF5 El Reno tornado

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c All values include events that took place outside the high risk area. Fatality totals encompass all storm-related events.
  2. ^ Starting on February 1, 2007, the Fujita Scale was replaced with the Enhanced Fujita Scale for rating tornadoes.

References[edit]

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  4. ^ "March 28, 1984 Tornado List". National Climatic Data Center. Tornado History Project. 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d Terry Click, Darin Figurskey, Gail Hartfield, Bradley McLamb, Jeff Orrock, Scott Sharp, Barrett Smith, Brandon Vincent, Jonathan Blaes, Rachel Wrenn, and Lindsey Andersen (February 3, 2012). "April 16, 2011 North Carolina Tornado Outbreak". National Weather Service Office in Raleigh, North Carolina. North Carolina State University. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
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  27. ^ NOAA's National Weather Service - Birmingham, Alabama
  28. ^ Derecho - May 31, 1998
  29. ^ The Southern Great Lakes Derecho of 1998
  30. ^ Storm Prediction Center May 31, 1998 0600 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook
  31. ^ Storm Prediction Center May 31, 1998 1500 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook
  32. ^ http://www.targetarea.net/pic3/high21.jpg
  33. ^ Front Page Display and Description-Example
  34. ^ a b Eric Nguyen's 1999 Chase Documents!
  35. ^ "Doppler On Wheels". 3 May 1999. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  36. ^ http://www.nwas.org/ej/2007-EJ3/figure_1.htm
  37. ^ Identification of Inhibiting Factors of a Null Significant Tornado Event
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  50. ^ Storm Prediction Center (2001). "Severe weather outlook for October 24, 2001". Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
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External links[edit]