Climate of Puerto Rico

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Moisture regimes of Puerto Rico

The climate of Puerto Rico falls into the tropical climatic zone. Temperatures are moderate year round, averaging near 80 °F (27 °C) in lower elevations and 70 °F (21 °C) in the mountains. Easterly trade winds pass across the island year round. Puerto Rico has a rainy season which stretches from April into November.[1] The mountains of the Cordillera Central are the main cause of the variations in the temperature and rainfall that occur over very short distances. The mountains can also cause wide variation in local wind speed and direction due to their sheltering and channeling effects adding to the climatic variation. About a quarter of the annual rainfall for Puerto Rico, on average, occurs during tropical cyclones, which are more frequent during La Niña events.

Temperature[edit]

Temperatures range from 70 to 90 °F (21 to 32 °C) in the lower
elevations, while higher elevations in the central part of the island experience temperatures between 61 and 80 °F (16 and 27 °C) year round. The temperature in the south is a few degrees higher than the north. Between winter and summer, there is only a temperature swing of around 6 °F (3.3 °C). This is mainly due to the warm waters of the tropical Atlantic ocean, which significantly modify cooler air moving in from the north and northwest,Costal Waters Temperatures around the years is about 75°F in February to 85°F in August. The highest temperature ever recorded was 103 °F (39 °C) at San Lorenzo, while the lowest temperature ever recorded was 38 °F (3 °C) at Aibonito.

Climate data for Adjuntas Substation
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 79
(26)
80
(27)
81
(27)
81
(27)
83
(28)
84
(29)
85
(29)
85
(29)
85
(29)
84
(29)
82
(28)
80
(27)
82.4
(27.9)
Average low °F (°C) 55
(13)
54
(12)
55
(13)
60
(16)
66
(19)
68
(20)
69
(21)
69
(21)
69
(21)
66
(19)
60
(16)
57
(14)
62.3
(17.1)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Aibonito
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 74
(23)
75
(24)
77
(25)
78
(26)
79
(26)
80
(27)
81
(27)
81
(27)
81
(27)
80
(27)
78
(26)
75
(24)
78.3
(25.8)
Average low °F (°C) 61
(16)
61
(16)
61
(16)
63
(17)
65
(18)
66
(19)
67
(19)
67
(19)
67
(19)
66
(19)
65
(18)
63
(17)
64.3
(17.8)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Cerro Maravilla
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 65
(18)
67
(19)
69
(21)
69
(21)
71
(22)
73
(23)
75
(24)
75
(24)
73
(23)
72
(22)
71
(22)
68
(20)
70.7
(21.6)
Average low °F (°C) 45
(7)
45
(7)
49
(9)
55
(13)
59
(15)
61
(16)
62
(17)
62
(17)
61
(16)
61
(16)
59
(15)
50
(10)
55.8
(13.2)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Lajas Substation
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 84
(29)
86
(30)
87
(31)
88
(31)
89
(32)
91
(33)
92
(33)
93
(34)
93
(34)
90
(32)
89
(32)
87
(31)
89.1
(31.8)
Average low °F (°C) 60
(16)
61
(16)
62
(17)
65
(18)
70
(21)
72
(22)
74
(23)
75
(24)
74
(23)
71
(22)
66
(19)
62
(17)
67.7
(19.8)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for Ponce 4 E
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 86
(30)
86
(30)
87
(31)
87
(31)
88
(31)
90
(32)
90
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
89
(32)
88
(31)
87
(31)
88.3
(31.3)
Average low °F (°C) 67
(19)
66
(19)
67
(19)
69
(21)
72
(22)
74
(23)
74
(23)
73
(23)
73
(23)
72
(22)
70
(21)
68
(20)
70.4
(21.3)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]
Climate data for San Juan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 81
(27)
84
(29)
85
(29)
86
(30)
87
(31)
89
(32)
88
(31)
89
(32)
89
(32)
88
(31)
86
(30)
84
(29)
86.3
(30.3)
Average low °F (°C) 70
(21)
71
(22)
71
(22)
73
(23)
75
(24)
76
(24)
77
(25)
79
(26)
78
(26)
75
(24)
74
(23)
72
(22)
74.3
(23.5)
Source: Southeast Regional Climate Center [2]

Temperature records[edit]

Climate data for Puerto Rico
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
(98.1)
37.6
(99.7)
37.5
(99.5)
39.2
(102.6)
40.0
(104)
39.4
(102.9)
40.4
(104.7)
40.0
(104)
39.5
(103.1)
40.3
(104.5)
37
(99)
36.1
(97)
40.4
(104.7)
Record low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
4.2
(39.6)
4.0
(39.2)
6.2
(43.2)
9.6
(49.3)
10.1
(50.2)
13.0
(55.4)
13.1
(55.6)
9.3
(48.7)
7.7
(45.9)
5.5
(41.9)
4.5
(40.1)
4.0
(39.2)
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Monitor[3]
Source #2: Meteo.ru - Baseline Climatological Data Sets[4]

Wind[edit]

Persistent 19-knot (35 km/h; 22 mph) trade winds move from east to west across the island year round. In lighter wind regimes, sea breeze and land breeze circulations dominate.[5] Higher winds occur in the vicinity of tropical cyclones, which pass by every five years.[6]

Rainfall[edit]

There is a pronounced rainy season from April to November. Due to the commonwealth's topography, rainfall varies greatly across the island. Pico del Este averages 171.09 inches (4,346 mm) of rainfall yearly while Magueyes Island averages only 29.32 inches (745 mm) a year.[7][8]

Severe weather[edit]

  • Puerto Rico experiences the Atlantic hurricane season, similar to the remainder of the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic oceans. On average, a quarter of its annual rainfall is contributed from tropical cyclones, which is more prevalent during periods of La Niña than El Niño.[9] A cyclone of tropical storm strength passes near Puerto Rico, on average, every 5 years.[6] A hurricane passes in the vicinity of the island, on average, every 11 years. Only one Category 5 hurricane has struck the island since 1851, the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of September 1928.[10]
Wettest tropical cyclones on Puerto Rico
Highest known recorded totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1058.7 41.68 T. D. #19 1970 Jayuya 1 SE [11]
2 846.6 33.29 Eloise 1975 Dos Bocas [11]
3 804.4 31.67 Isabel 1985 Toro Negro Forest [12]
4 776.0 30.51 Georges 1998 Jayuya [11]
5 662.2 26.07 Hazel 1954 Toro Negro Tunnel [13]
6 652.5 25.69 Klaus 1984 Guavate Camp [11]
7 596.4 23.48 Hortense 1996 Cayey 1 NW [11]
8 584.2 23.00 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane Adjuntas [14]
9 560.1 22.05 Irene 2011 Gurabo Abajo [15]
10 504.4 19.86 David 1979 Cidra 3E [11]
11 453.6 17.86 Otto 2010 Ponce 7N [16]

Weather by Season[edit]

Summer is hot and humid, with Thunderstorms in the afternoon, especially in August and September, trade winds bring cool summer breezes in the north and east of Puerto Rico, but due to the topography of the island, these winds do not reach the coast south and west, causing temperatures much higher than the north. during humid summer days the heat index reach 115 °F (47 °C) and Temperature reah 100 °F (38 °C). sometimes the wind shifts from the south, causing an inverse, heat of the south of the island moves to the north, causing temperatures in the mid 90s (35 °C) in San Juan and low humidity. The month of June is usually the driest month of the summer. During June and July the precipitation is mostly caused by the effects of humidity and heat of the island.

Autumn Is the peak of the hurricane season, especially in September. It is very rainy in the autumn months, with frequent strong thunderstorms on the west coast and a lot of tropical waves and low pressure. This season is hot and humid. On October 9, 1981 temperatures reach to 98 °F (37 °C) in San Juan International Airport.


Winter, in December cold fronts from the north cooling down temperatures and humidity, giving way to a more dry and pleasant climate. In San Juan in the winter months high temperature up to 77 °F (25 °C) to 87 °F (30 °C) giving an average of 83 °F and low down to 66 °(19 °C) to 76 °F (24°C) giving an average of 71 °F (22 °C). in the central area of the island, the elevation and less influence of the sea, the minimum temperatures drop to 55 °F (13 °C) to 65 °F(18°C) on average, after cold fronts drops to the 40s (4 °C to 9 °C) in the Mountains, in the 50s (10 °C to 15 °C) in the Valleys and in the 60s (16 °C to 20 °C) in the coastal zone.

Spring The Spring time usually start Dry and pleasant, March is the driest month in Puerto Rico with little precipitation in some part of the Island. In May starts the rainy season again, with frequent showers and thunderstorms.

Sun[edit]

The sunrise varies from 5:30 am in summer and 7:00 am in winter. Sunset varies between 5.40 pm in winter and 7:10 pm in summer. Puerto Rico does not use the daylight saving time. Ultraviolet index or UV index vary from 10+ UV index in the summer and a maximum of 7 UV index in winter.

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Matt Carter and J.B. Elsner. Monthly Rainfall Climatology for Puerto Rico. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Historical Climate Data For Puerto Rico.". Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Meteo.ru" (in English). Retrieved May 7, 2013. 
  5. ^ Shawn P. Bennett, Vanda Grusbisic, and Roy M. Rasmussen. GRAVITY WAVES, RAINBANDS, AND DEEP CONVECTION INDUCED BY TRADE WIND FLOW PAST PUERTO RICO. Retrieved on January 24, 2008.
  6. ^ a b Alexa J. Andrews. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Tropical Storm and Hurricane Strikes in the Bahamas, and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  7. ^ Southern Region Climate Center. Pico del Este Climatology. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.
  8. ^ Southern Region Climate Center. Magueyes Island Climatology. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.
  9. ^ Edward B. Rodgers, Robert F. Adler, Harold F. Pierce. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Atlantic Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites.
  10. ^ Aurelio Mercado and Harry Justiniano. Coastal Hazards of Puerto Rico. Retrieved on January 23, 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (November 16, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 
  12. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (June 27, 2007). "Tropical Storm Isabel – October 4 – 16, 1985". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved May 1, 2012. 
  13. ^ Higgs, Ralph L (1954). "Severe Floods of October 12–15, 1954 in Puerto Rico" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 82 (10): 301. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1954)082<0301:SFOOIP>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved January 8, 2008. 
  14. ^ Geddings, R. M. (August 1899), Climatological Data, Puerto Rico 
  15. ^ Avila, Lixion A.; Cangialosi, John P; National Hurricane Center (December 14, 2011) (PDF). Hurricane Irene (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 14. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL092011_Irene.pdf. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  16. ^ Cangialosi, John P; National Hurricane Center (November 17, 2010) (PDF). Hurricane Otto (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 14. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL172010_Otto.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2012.

External links[edit]