List of retired Pacific typhoon names (JMA)

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Typhoon Maemi near peak intensity

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 25 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $61 billion in damage (2014 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

General information[edit]

In 2000, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began naming tropical cyclones from a list of 140 names, submitted by 14 countries. Previously, the JMA labeled storms with numbers, but not names. The JMA has been the official warning agency of the western Pacific Ocean since 1981, though other organizations have also tracked typhoons. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially named tropical cyclones from 1947 to 1999.[1] During this time period, there were several pre-determined tropical cyclone lists, in which many names were removed and replaced with others.[2] The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) names tropical cyclones using a separate list, which is adjusted periodically.[3]

Several names were removed from the list. In 2002, the name Hanuman was replaced prior to being used, due to objection by the India Meteorological Department for reason of religion.[4] Additionally, the name Kodo was replaced in 2002 without being used.[5] In 2004, the names Yanyan and Tingting were removed at the request of the Hong Kong Observatory.[5][6] A total of nine names on the list had their spellings changed.[5] In February 2014, the name Sonamu was removed at the request from Malaysia due to causing unprecedented panic by the similar pronunciation to tsunami.[7]

List of retired typhoons[edit]

Listed by chronological order[edit]

Name Replacement
Name
Season Areas
Affected
Vamei Peipah 2001 Malaysia
Chataan Matmo 2002 Guam, Chuuk
Rusa Nuri 2002 South Korea
Pongsona Noul 2002 Guam
Imbudo Molave 2003 Luzon (Philippines), China
Maemi Mujigae 2003 South Korea
Sudal Mirinae 2004 Yap
Rananim Fanapi 2004 China
Matsa Pakhar 2005 China
Nabi Doksuri 2005 Japan
Longwang Haikui 2005 China, Taiwan
Chanchu Sanba 2006 China
Bilis Maliksi 2006 China, Taiwan
Saomai Son Tinh 2006 China
Xangsane Leepi 2006 Philippines, Vietnam
Durian Mangkhut 2006 Philippines, Vietnam
Morakot Atsani 2009 Philippines, Taiwan, China
Ketsana Champi 2009 Philippines, Vietnam
Parma In-fa 2009 Philippines
Fanapi Rai 2010 Taiwan, China
Washi Hato 2011 Philippines
Bopha Ampil 2012 Micronesia, Palau, Philippines
Utor TBA 2013 Philippines, China
Fitow TBA 2013 China, Japan
Haiyan TBA 2013 Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, China
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency — Best Track 1951-2014[8]
List of Names for Tropical Cyclones adopted by the typhoon committee
for the Western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea[5]

Listed by intensity[edit]

Typhoon Haiyan making landfall over the Philippines

This lists all retired typhoon by their peak intensity, which is determined by measurements of the minimum central pressure.

Name 10-minute maximum
sustained winds
Lowest
Pressure
Knots Km/h Mph Mbar (hPa)
Vamei 45 85 50 1006
Washi 50 95 60 992
Bilis 60 110 70 970
Ketsana 70 130 80 960
Fitow 75 140 85 960
Morakot 75 140 85 945
Matsa 80 150 90 950
Rusa 80 150 90 950
Rananim 80 150 90 950
Xangsane 85 155 100 940
Pongsona 90 165 105 940
Sudal 90 165 105 940
Imbudo 90 165 105 935
Chataan 95 175 110 930
Longwang 95 175 110 930
Chanchu 95 175 110 930
Fanapi 95 175 110 930
Nabi 95 175 110 925
Parma 100 185 115 930
Bopha 100 185 115 930
Saomai 105 195 120 925
Utor 105 195 120 925
Durian 105 195 120 915
Maemi 105 195 120 910
Haiyan 125 230 145 895
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency — Best Track 1951-2014[8]

Listed by damage[edit]

Damage from Typhoon Pongsona in Guam

This lists all retired Pacific typhoons by their total damages (in 2014 USD). Typhoon names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. Some data may be incomplete and account for damages in only one location while the storm affected several areas. Calculation of modern-day damage amounts is done using the Consumer Price Index.[9]

Name Season Damage
Unadjusted USD 2014 USD
Vamei 2001 $3.6 million $4.79 million[10]
Chataan 2002 $59.9 million $78.5 million[11]
Rusa 2002 $6.6 billion $8.65 billion[12]
Pongsona 2002 $730 million $957 million[13][14]
Imbudo 2003 $340 million $436 million[15][16]
Maemi 2003 $4.8 billion $6.15 billion[12]
Sudal 2004 $14 million $17.5 million[17]
Rananim 2004 $2.4 billion $3 billion[18]
Matsa 2005 $2.23 billion $2.69 billion[19]
Nabi 2005 $535 million $646 million[19]
Longwang 2005 $980 million $1.18 billion[20]
Chanchu 2006 $875 million $1.02 billion[21]
Bilis 2006 $4.4 billion $5.15 billion[22]
Saomai 2006 $1.5 billion $1.75 billion[23]
Xangsane 2006 $747 million $874 million[24][25]
Durian 2006 $508 million $594 million[26][27]
Ketsana 2009 $1.18 billion $1.3 billion[28]
Parma 2009 $6.49 billion $7.14 billion
Morakot 2009 $7.69 billion $8.46 billion
Fanapi 2010 $1 billion $1.08 billion
Washi 2011 $31.5 million $33.1 million
Bopha 2012 $1.04 billion $1.07 billion
Utor 2013 $2.6 billion $2.63 billion
Fitow 2013 $10.4 billion $10.5 billion
Haiyan 2013 $2.86 billion $2.9 billion

Listed by deaths[edit]

Typhoon Haiyan caused over 2,600 deaths in Tacloban, Philippines

This lists retired Pacific typhoons by the number of deaths they caused. Typhoons names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. Most storms cause fatalities not by their high winds but rather through flooding—either storm surge or inland flooding due to rainfall. Storm surge has the highest potential for deaths. With modern forecasting, warning, and evacuations, storm surge deaths can be nearly eliminated; however, the potential is still very high for catastrophe in places where warning systems are not in place or if warnings are ignored. Inland flooding, by contrast, is unpredictable because it depends heavily on the system's interaction with the terrain and with other nearby weather systems.

Name Season Deaths
Sudal 2004 None[17]
Pongsona 2002 1 indirect[13]
Vamei 2001 5 direct[10]
Fitow 2013 12 total
Matsa 2005 29 total[19][29]
Nabi 2005 32 total[19]
Chataan 2002 54 total[30][31]
Imbudo 2003 64 total[32]
Utor 2013 97 total
Fanapi 2010 105 total[33]
Rusa 2002 113 total[12]
Maemi 2003 117 total[12]
Longwang 2005 148 total[34][35]
Rananim 2004 188 total[36]
Chanchu 2006 268 total[37]
Xangsane 2006 312 total[25][38][39]
Saomai 2006 458 total[22]
Parma 2009 500 total
Morakot 2009 789 total
Ketsana 2009 710 total
Bilis 2006 859 total[40][41]
Bopha 2012 1,146 total
Washi 2011 1,268 total [1]
Durian 2006 1,497 total[42][43]
Haiyan 2013 6,340 total

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tropical Cyclones in 2006". Hong Kong Observatory. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  2. ^ Digital Typhoon (2006). "Typhoon List View". Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  3. ^ Chris Landsea (2007). "How are Tropical Cyclones Named?". Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  4. ^ Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (2001). "Report of the Typhoon Committee on its Thirty-Fourth Session" (DOC). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tropical Cyclone Programme (2008). "Typhoon Committee Operational Manual — Meteorological Component" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  6. ^ "Change of Tropical Cyclone Names : "Dolphin" and "Lionrock" to replace "Yanyan" and "Tingting"". Hong Kong Observatory. 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  7. ^ "Retirement of Names from the List of Names of Tropical Cyclones for the Typhoon Committee Region". Typhoon Committee. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Western North Pacific Typhoon Best Track File 1951-2014". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  9. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (2008). "What is a dollar worth?". Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  10. ^ a b Dr. Mahathir Told (2002-01-08). "Recent Floods Claimed Five Lives and Caused Substantial Damage". Bernama: The Malaysian National News Agency. 
  11. ^ Mark-Alexander Pieper (2002-07-19). "Typhoon Chataan Guam public damage hits $59.9 million". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  12. ^ a b c d Qian Ye (2004). "Typhoon Rusa and Super Typhoon Maemi in Korea" (PDF). The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  13. ^ a b John J. Kelly Jr. (2003). "Super Typhoon Pongsona Service Assessment" (PDF). United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  14. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Typhoon Pongsona". Retrieved 2006-10-10. 
  15. ^ Gary Padgett (2003). "Worldwide Tropical Cyclone Summary for August 2003". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  16. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2003). "Philippines Food Shortage due to Typhoon Imbudo". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  17. ^ a b National Climatic Data Center (2004). "Event Report for Typhoon Sudal". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  18. ^ Gary Padgett (2004). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: July 2004". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  19. ^ a b c d Gary Padgett (2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: August 2005". Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  20. ^ Gary Padgett (2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: September 2005". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  21. ^ Hong Kong Observatory (2007). "Typhoon Chanchu: May 9–18, 2006". Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  22. ^ a b Typhoon Committee (2006-12-04). "Review of the 2006 Typhoon Season" (DOC). World Meteorological Organization. 
  23. ^ "Death toll from Saomai rises to 106, 191 still missing". Xinhua News Agency. 2006-08-12. Retrieved March 6, 2008. 
  24. ^ Government of the Philippines (2006-10-04). "NDCC media update effects of Typhoon "Milenyo" (Xangsane) - 04 Oct 2006". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  25. ^ a b Xinhua News Agency (2006-10-06). "Typhoon, flood claim 71 lives in central Vietnam". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2006-10-08. 
  26. ^ Government of the Philippines (2006). "NDCC media update — Typhoon "Seniang" (Utor) 14 Dec 2006". Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  27. ^ United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2006). "Vietnam: Typhoon Durian OCHA Situation Report No. 2". Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  28. ^ "LAOS: Hunger looms three months after Ketsana storm". United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2010-02-06. [dead link]
  29. ^ Jane Cai and Vivian Wu (2005-08-09). "Beijing escapes downpour as killer storm loses power". South China Morning Post. 
  30. ^ NWS Focus (2002). "Typhoon Chata`an Wreaks Havoc in the Western Pacific: Chuuk Office Loses Instruments, New Guam Office Weathers the Storm". NOAA. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  31. ^ Motoyuki Ushiyama (2003). "Heavy Rainfall Disaster in Eastern Japan Caused by Typhoon 0206 from July 9 to 12, 2002" (PDF). Japan Disaster Control Research Center. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  32. ^ Hong Kong Observatory (2003). "Typhoon Imbudo (0307) : 17–25 July 2003". Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  33. ^ "Fanapi death toll hits 100". The Straits Times. September 28, 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  34. ^ Yang Lei (2006). "CMA solicits new typhoon name". Xinhua. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  35. ^ Associated Press (2005-10-04). "Typhoon Longwang Death Toll Hits 50". Fox News. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  36. ^ International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (2004). "China: Floods and Landslides Information Bulletin No. 6/2004". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  37. ^ Reuters (2006-05-25). "Asian typhoon kills 104". Archived from the original on 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  38. ^ Agence France-Presse (2006-10-04). "Philippines still assessing damage from typhoon Xangsane". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2006-10-08. 
  39. ^ Agence France-Presse (2006-10-03). "Typhoon death toll nears 250 in Vietnam, Philippines". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2006-10-08. 
  40. ^ "Typhoon Bilis leaves Philippines after killing at least 14". Xinhua News Agency. 2006-07-14. 
  41. ^ "Tropical Storm Bilis swirls into China after battering Taiwan, Philippines". Associated Press. 2006-07-16. 
  42. ^ Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (2007). "Disaster data: A balanced perspective — Mar 2007". Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  43. ^ International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (2007). "Viet Nam: Typhoons Revised Appeal No. MDRVN001 Operation Update No. 3". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 

External links[edit]