List of undated Roman consuls

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This is a list of Roman consuls, individuals who were either elected or nominated to the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, or a high office of the Empire, but for whom an exact date of when they served in office is absent. Most are reckoned to be suffect consuls, but occasionally it encompasses an ordinary consul.

3rd century BC[edit]

Approximate Year Consul(s) Consul type
Between 222 and 218 Marcus Aemilius Lepidus[1] suffectus

1st century AD[edit]

Approximate Year Consul(s) Consul type
21 or 22 Vibius Rufinus[2] suffectus
21 or 22 Gaius Asinius Pollio[note 1][3] suffectus
(?) Between 37 and 41 Lucius Annius Vinicianus[3] suffectus
c. 40 Gaius Ummidius Durmius Quadratus[4] suffectus
c. 43 Publius Suillius Rufus[2] suffectus
Between 41 and 45 Publius Ostorius Scapula[5] suffectus
45 or 47 Marius Cordus[6] suffectus
Between 45 and 52 Tampius Flavianus[7] suffectus
c. 54 Pompeius Paullinus[8] suffectus
c. 55 Marcus Aponius Saturninus[9] suffectus
(?) 62 Lucius Junius Quintus Vibius Crispus[10] suffectus
c. 65 Gaius Licinius Mucianus[11] suffectus
c. 70 Quintus Petillius Cerialis Caesius Rufus[12] suffectus
c. 70 Lucius Sergius Paullus[13] suffectus
(?) 71 Gaius Laecanius Bassus Caecina Paetus[14] suffectus
70 or 71 Gaius Rutilius Gallicus[15] suffectus
70 or 71 Lucius Cornelius Pusio[16] suffectus
c. 71 Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas[17] suffectus
c. 72 Titus Vestricius Spurinna[18] suffectus
c. 72 Gnaeus Pompeius Collega[19] suffectus
c. 72 Gnaeus Pinarius Cornelius Clemens[20] suffectus
c. 73 Sextus Julius Frontinus[18] suffectus
(?) 76 (Plot)tius Pegasus[21][22] suffectus
Before 78 Neratius Pansa[23] suffectus
c. 78 Quintus Corellius Rufus[24] suffectus
c. 78 Gnaeus Domitius Lucanus[25] suffectus
Before 80 Aulus Caesennius Gallus[26] suffectus
Before 82 Titus Atilius Rufus[27] suffectus
c. 83 Lucius Junius Quintus Vibius Crispus III[7] suffectus
Before 87 Salvidienus Orfitus[28] suffectus
(?) 93 Lucius(?) Julius Mar(inus)?[29] suffectus
Before 100 Aufidius Umber[30] suffectus
Late 1st to early 2nd century Lucius Julius Proculeianus[31] suffectus

2nd century[edit]

Approximate Year Consul(s) Consul type
101 or 102 Lucius Arruntius Stella[32] suffectus
123 or 124 Publius Metilius Secundus[33] suffectus
c. 126 Sextus Iulius Maior[34] suffectus
129 or 130 Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon suffectus
(?) 136 Lucius Roscius Paculus[35] suffectus
(?) 138 Gaius Julius Severus[36] suffectus
Between 138 and 143 Lucius Pomponius Bassus Cascus Scribonianus[37] suffectus
(?) c. 145 Lucius Venuleius Apronianus[38] suffectus
Before 147 Sulpicius Julianus[39] suffectus
(?) 151 Lucius Seius Fuscianus[40] suffectus
Before 155 Claudius Agrippinus[41] suffectus
c. Between 155 and 160 Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Aemilianus[42] suffectus
(?) Mid 2nd Century Accius Julianus[43] suffectus
(?) 162 Gaius Allius Fuscianus[44] suffectus
(?) 162 Lucius Pullaienus Gargilius suffectus
163 or 164 Publius Julius Scapula Tertullus[45] suffectus
166[46] or 167[47] Gaius Avidius Cassius suffectus
(?) 167 Quintus Antistius Adventus Postumius Aquilinus suffectus
Between 161 and 168 Publius Calpurnius Proculus suffectus
c. 170 Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus suffectus
(?) 173 Gaius Arrius Antoninus suffectus
c. 174 Publius Cornelius Anullinus[48] suffectus
(?) 175 Gaius Vettius Sabinianus Julius Hospes suffectus
c. Between 170 and 174 Pollienus Auspex (maior) suffectus
c. 175/176 (?) Gaius Pantuleius Graptiacus[49] suffectus
c. 175/176 Sulpicius Crassus[50] suffectus
c. 176 Lucius Vespronius Candidus Sallustius Sabinianus suffectus
(?) 170's Lucius Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus[51] suffectus
c. 180 Asellius Aemilianus[52] suffectus
(?) Shortly after 180 Marcus Helvius Clemens Dextrianus suffectus
(?) After 181 Quintus Larcius Euripianus[44] suffectus
c. 182 Lucius Ragonius Urinatius Larcius Quintianus[53] suffectus
(?) 182 Egnatius Capito[54] suffectus
Before 183 Gaius Domitius Dexter[55] suffectus
Before 183 Severus[56] suffectus
Before 183 Cingius Severus[57] suffectus
Before 183 (? Marcus) Antonius (? Ivvenis)[58] suffectus
Between 180 and 183 Gaius Pescennius Niger[49] suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 183 Quintus Larcius Euripianus suffectus
c. 185 Marcus Valerius Maximianus[59] suffectus
(?) 185 Pollienus Auspex (minor)[60] suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 185 (Marcus Gavius) Gallicanus[61] suffectus
c. 185 or 186 Marcus Umbrius Primus[62] suffectus
Before 186 Gaius Julius Saturninus suffectus
c. 186-188 Quintus Hedius Rufus Lollianus Gentianus suffectus
(?) 186 Lucius Annius Ravus[63] suffectus
c. 187 Minicius Opimianus suffectus
c. between 185 and 188 Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus suffectus
c. Between 186 and 190 Lucius Calpurnius Proculus suffectus
c. 188 and 190 Quintus Aurelius Polus Terentianus suffectus
Between 184 and 190 Appius Cl(audius) Lateranus suffectus
c. 190 Titus Flavius Carminius Athenagoras Claudianus[64] suffectus
c. 190 Claudius Stratonicus suffectus
c. 190 Marcus Iuventius Caesianus suffectus
c. 191 Publius Septimius Geta[65] suffectus
c. 192 Tiberius Claudius Gordianus suffectus
Between 161 and 192 Junius Macr(---) (? Macer) suffectus
Between 161 and 192 Lucius Junius Rufinus Proculianus suffectus
Between 180 and 192 Marcus Antius Crescens Calpurnianus[66] suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 192 Gaius Allius Fuscus[67] suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 192 Gaius Julius Asper suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 192 Gaius Claudius Clemens Licinianus suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 192 Flavius Rufinianus suffectus
Between 185 and 192 Clarus suffectus
Before 193 (Aulus) Sellius Clodianus[68] suffectus
Before 193 Cornelius Repentinus suffectus
(?) 193 Gaius Pomponius Bassus Terentianus[69] suffectus
Between 188 and 193 Gaius Mat(t)ius Sabinius Sullin(us) Vatinian(us) Anicius Maximus Caesulon(us) Martialis Pisibanus Lepidus[70] suffectus
c. 193 or 194 Titus Flavius Decimus suffectus
c. 194 Gaius Valerius Pudens suffectus
c. 194 (?) Publius Aelius Severianus Maximus suffectus
195 or 196 Tiberius Claudius Candidus[71] suffectus
(?) Between 195 and 197 Gaius Julius Scapula Lepidus Tertullus suffectus
Between 183 and 196 M(---) Pin(---) Tiliu(---) suffectus
Before 197 Cosconius Gentianus suffectus
Before 198 Ofilius Valerius Macedo suffectus
Before 198 Gaius Ovinius Tertullus suffectus
197 or 198 Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus suffectus
197 or 198 Quintus Venidius Rufus Marius Maximus L. Calvinianus suffectus
Between 198 and 199 Mevius Surus[72] suffectus
(?) c. 198 Marcus Junius Concessus Aemilianus (?) suffectus
c. 199 Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus suffectus
198 or 199 Titus Statilius Barbarus[73] suffectus
Before 199 Titus Arrius Bassianus suffectus
(?) Before 200 Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus suffectus
c. 200 Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus[74] suffectus
c. 200 (?) Claudius Hieronymianus suffectus
(?) Between 198 and 204 Quintus Aiacius Modestus Crescentianus suffectus
Between 161 and 211 Junius Paulinus suffectus
Between 180 and 211 Marcus Aemilius (Macer) Saturninus suffectus
Between 180 and 211 Marcus Claudius Demetrius suffectus
Between 180 and 211 Marcus Ulpius Arabianus suffectus
Between 180 and 211 (Marcus ? Ulpius) Carminius Athenagoras suffectus
Between 180 and 211 Marcus Iuventius Secundus suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 217 (Tiberius) Claudius Attalus (Paterculianus) (?) suffectus
(?) Between 180 and 235 (Publius Aelius) Secundinus (?) suffectus
Between 193 and 211 Betitius Pius Maximillianus[75] suffectus
Between 193 and 211 Quintus Licinius Nepos[76] suffectus
Between 193 and 211 Gaius Asinius (Protimus) Quadratus suffectus
(?) Between 193 and 211 Gaius Julius Philippus suffectus
Late 2nd century Lucius Aemilius (---) suffectus

3rd century[edit]

Approximate Year Consul(s) Consul type
Late 2nd to early 3rd century Lucius Cestius Gallus Cerrinius Justus Lutatius Natalis[77] designatus
Late 2nd to early 3rd century Cossinius Rufinus suffectus
Late 2nd to early 3rd century Gaius Bultius Geminius Titianus suffectus
Late 2nd to early 3rd century Aulus Egnatius Proculus suffectus
Between 193 and 217 Gaius Claudius Attalus Paterculianus suffectus
Between 193 and 217 Tiberius Claudius Severus suffectus
Between 193 and 217 Ulpius Levrus suffectus
Between 193 and 235 Publius Attius Clementinus Rufinus[78] suffectus
Between 193 and 235 Gaius Asinius Nicomachus Julianus suffectus
Early 3rd century Lucius Calpurnius Reginianus suffectus
Early 3rd century Tiberius Claudius Telemachus suffectus
Early 3rd century Titus Flavius Damianus suffectus
c. 200 Titus Flavius Titianus[79] suffectus
(?) 203 or 204 Calpurnius Maximus suffectus
(?) c. 203 to 205 Quintus Sicin(n)ius Clarus Pon(tianus?)[80] suffectus
204 or 205 Gaius Junius Faustinus (Pl)a(ci)dus Postumianus suffectus
204 or 205 (?) Ulpius Soter suffectus
Before 205 Lucius Alfenus Senecio[81] suffectus
Before 205 Mevius Surus suffectus
c. (?) 205 Lucius Claudius Cassius Dio Cocceianus[82] suffectus
Before 207 Lucius Egnatius Victor suffectus
(?) 207 Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus[83] suffectus
c. between 208 and 210 Publius Catius Sabinus suffectus
Before 210 Aelius Romanus suffectus
Between 203 and 214 Lucius Marius Perpetuus[84] suffectus
Between 200 and 210 Appius Claudius Julianus suffectus
210 or 211 Tiberius Claudius Subatianus Proculus[85] suffectus
Between 202 and (?) 211 (?) L. P. Postumus suffectus
212 or 213 Gaius Julius Septimius Castinus[86] suffectus
Before 213 Quintus Junius (---) Quintianus suffectus
Before 213 Gaius Jul(ius) Titi(anus) suffectus
After 213 Armenius Peregrinus suffectus
213 or 214 Sextus Furnius Julianus[87] suffectus
Between 210 and 220 Lucius Alfenus Avitianus[88] suffectus
Between 211 and 217  ? Marcus Valerius Senecio suffectus
215 or 216 Amicus[89] suffectus
(?) Before 217 Gaius Betitius Pius suffectus
c. 217 Marcus Antonius Balbus[90] suffectus
Before 218 Fulvius Diogenianus suffectus
c. 219 Quintus Egnatius Proculus[91] suffectus
Between 211 and 222 Quintus Flavius Balbus[92] suffectus
Between 212 and 222 Tiberius Julius Pollienus Auspex[60] suffectus in absentia
c. 222 Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus[93] suffectus
c. 222 Titus Flavius Aper Commodianus[94] suffectus
Before 222 Fulvius suffectus
Before 222 Ignotus[95] suffectus
Before 223 Severus suffectus
Before c. 222 and 226 Asinius Lepidus suffectus
c. 228 Flavius Aelianus[96] suffectus
Before 229 Maximus Attianus suffectus
c. 230 Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus Leurus[97] suffectus
Before 230 (? Quintus or Sextus) Anicius Faustus Paulinus suffectus
Between 220 and 230 (? Quintus or Claudius) Valerius Rufrius Justus suffectus
Between 226 and 229 Lucius Caesonius Lucillus Macer Rufinianus suffectus
Between 225 and 230 Lucius Egnatius Victor Lollianus[98] suffectus
Between 211 and 235 Gaius Asinius (Protimus) Quadratus designatus
(?) 222 or 235 Lucius Fulvius Gavius N[umisius] Aemilianus[70] suffectus
Between 222 and 235 Claudius Sollemnius Pacatianus suffectus
Between 222 and 235 Gaius Arrius Calpurnius Frontinus Honoratus suffectus
(?) Between 222 and 235 Ostor(ius) suffectus
(?) Between 222 and 235 Lucius Julius Apronius Maenius Pius Salamallianus designatus
c. 230 Egnatius Victor Marinianus[99] suffectus
(?) Before 230 Iasdius Domitianus[100] suffectus
Between 231 and 235 Marcus Marius Titius Rufinus suffectus
c. 235 Tiberius Clodius Pupienus Pulcher Maximus[101] suffectus
c. 235 Gaius Catius Clemens suffectus
Between 234 and 238 Rutilius Pudens Crispinus suffectus
Before 238 Publius Licinius Valerianus suffectus
Early to mid 3rd century Quintus Egnatius Proculus[102] suffectus
Between 238 and 244 Gaius Arrius Calpurnius Longinus suffectus
c. 240 Publius Cornelius Saecularis[103] suffectus
(?) c. 240 Marcus Nummius Albinus suffectus
c. 241 Lucius Catius Celer suffectus in absentia
c. 246 Aspasius Paternus suffectus
c. 250 Titus Flavius Postumius Varus suffectus
c. 250/252 Marcus Cocceius Anicius Faustus Flavianus suffectus
Before 257 Gaius Iunius Donatus suffectus
Before 258 Lucius Septimius Odaenathus suffectus
c. 260 Lucius Caesonius Ovinius Manlius Rufinianus Bassus suffectus
(?) During 260s (before 275) Virius Lupus suffectus
Between 253 and 264 Licinius Valerianus suffectus
Between 260 and 268 Naulobatus suffectus
Before 260/268 Sextus Cocceius Anicius Faustus Paulinus suffectus
Before 262 Gaius Julius Sallustius Saturninus Fortunatianus suffectus
Between 262 and 266 Censor II (with) Lepidus II[104] consul ordinarius (Gaul)
Dialis (with) Bassus consul ordinarius (Gaul)
Apr... (with) Ruf... consul ordinarius (Gaul)
C. 265 Gaius Junius Tiberianus suffectus
Before 267 Gaius Servilius Marsus suffectus
Mid 3rd century Gaius Memmius Caecilianus Placidus suffectus
Before 269 Velleius Macrinus suffectus
Between 267 and 270 Flavius Antiochianus suffectus
c. 270 Lucius Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus suffectus
Before 275 Postumius Suagrus[79] suffectus
Before 275 Maecius Faltonius Nicomachus suffectus
Mid to late 3rd century Lucius Publius Petronius Volusianus suffectus
Mid to late 3rd century Marcus Pontius Eclectus Archelaus suffectus
(?) Mid to late 3rd century Lucius Turcius Faesasius Apronianus suffectus
Mid 3rd to early 4th century Lucius Suanius Victor Vitellianus suffectus
(?) Late 3rd century Aulus Caecina Tacitus suffectus
(?) Late 3rd century Gaius Lieurius Tranquillius Tocius Soaemus suffectus
(?) Late 3rd to early 4th century Titus Campanius Priscus Maximianus suffectus
Late 3rd to early 4th century Lucius Turcius Secundus suffectus
Between 270 and 280 Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus suffectus
c. 280 Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus suffectus
Before 286 Marcus Junius Maximus suffectus
(?) 287 Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius[105] consul ordinarius (Britain)
Before c. 291 Titus Flavius Postumius Titianus suffectus
Before 294 Gaius Macrinius Sossianus suffectus
(?) Late 3rd to early 4th century Egnatius Caeci... Antistius Luce. signo Aerius suffectus
Unknown date 3rd century Accius Iulianus Asclepianus[106] suffectus
End 3rd century Ostorius Euhodianus[49] designatus

4th century[edit]

Approximate Year Consul(s) Consul type
Before 307 Attius Insteius Tertullus suffectus
Before c. 335 Lucius Crepereius Madalianus suffectus
Before 337 Gaius Caelius Censorinus suffectus
Before 345 Marcus Nummius Albinus suffectus
Before 350 Memmius Vitrasius Orfitus suffectus
c. 378 Meropius Pontius Paulinus suffectus
c. 386 Ragonius Vincentius Celsus suffectus
Before 395/6 Quintilius Laetus suffectus
During 4th century Insteius Pompeianus suffectus

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ This is not the consul ordinarius of 23 AD, Gaius Asinius Pollio

References[edit]

  1. ^ T. Robert S. Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol I, 1.225
  2. ^ a b University of Auckland. Dept. of Classics and Ancient History, University of Auckland. Dept. of Philosophy, Prudentia, Volumes 21-23 (1994), pg. 38
  3. ^ a b Wiedemann, T. E. J., Tiberius to Nero in The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. X: The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69 (1996), pg. 219
  4. ^ Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in late antiquity (2004), pg. 86
  5. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 1039
  6. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pg. 121
  7. ^ a b Sextus Julius Frontinus, Robert Howard Rodgers, De aquaeductu urbis Romae (2004), pg. 279
  8. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pg. 34
  9. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pg. 119
  10. ^ R. H. Rodgers, Curatores Aquarum in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 86 (1982), pg. 173
  11. ^ Kenneth Wellesley, Year of the Four Emperors (2003), pg. 115
  12. ^ Anthony Richard Birley, The Roman government of Britain (2005), pg. 62
  13. ^ Tonnes Bekker-Nielsen, Classica Et Mediaevalia Vol 57: Revue Danoise de Philologie Et D'Histoire (2006), pg. 160
  14. ^ R. H. Rodgers, Curatores Aquarum in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 86 (1982), pg. 178
  15. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 988
  16. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pgs. 119-120
  17. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 990
  18. ^ a b John D. Grainger, Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis of AD 96-99 (2004), pg. 14
  19. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 998
  20. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pgs. 87-88
  21. ^ Bruce W. Frier, Early Classical Private Law in The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. X: The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69 (1996), pg. 978
  22. ^ Brian Jones, The Emperor Domitian (1993) pg. 54
  23. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 1001
  24. ^ Tim G. Parkin, Old age in the Roman world: a cultural and social history (2003), pg. 72
  25. ^ Ronald Syme; Anthony Richard Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80 BC - AD 14 (1999), pg. 224
  26. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 1004
  27. ^ Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in late antiquity (2004), pg. 88
  28. ^ Brian Jones, The Emperor Domitian (1993) pg. 183
  29. ^ Julian Bennett, Trajan: optimus princeps : a life and times (1997), pg. 82
  30. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 1016
  31. ^ Robert K. Sherk, Roman Galatia in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (1980), pg. 1045
  32. ^ Publius Papinius Statius, Statius: Silvae (2003), pg. 24
  33. ^ Ronald Syme, Ten studies in Tacitus (1970), pg. 112
  34. ^ Peter Thonemann, The Maeander Valley: A Historical Geography from Antiquity to Byzantium (2011), pg. 217
  35. ^ Leunissen, pg. 108
  36. ^ Leunissen, pg. 460
  37. ^ Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011) pg. 119
  38. ^ Leunissen, pg. 468
  39. ^ Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in late antiquity (2004), pg. 91
  40. ^ Leunissen, pg. 307
  41. ^ Shelagh Jameson, "Two Lycian Families", Anatolian Studies, 16 (1966), p. 125
  42. ^ Leunissen, pg. 109
  43. ^ Sarah Emily Bond, Ob Merita: The epigraphic rise and fall of the civic patrona in Roman North Africa (2007), pg. 40
  44. ^ a b Leunissen, pg. 145
  45. ^ Leunissen, pg. 372
  46. ^ Birley, Anthony, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2001, pg. 301
  47. ^ Timothy Venning, John Drinkwater Chronology of the Roman Empire (2011), pg. 542
  48. ^ Leunissen, pg. 214
  49. ^ a b c Leunissen, pg. 463
  50. ^ Leunissen, pg. 222
  51. ^ Leunissen, pg. 205
  52. ^ Linda Jones Hall, Roman Berytus: Beirut in late antiquity (2004), pg. 119
  53. ^ Leunissen, pg. 63
  54. ^ Leunissen, pg. 456
  55. ^ Leunissen, pg. 262
  56. ^ Leunissen, pg. 466
  57. ^ Leunissen, pg. 215
  58. ^ Leunissen, pg. 313
  59. ^ Philip A. G. Sabin, Hans van Wees, Michael Whitby, The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare: Rome from the late Republic to the late Empire (2007), pg. 607
  60. ^ a b Leunissen, pg. 373
  61. ^ Leunissen, pg. 228
  62. ^ Mennen, pg. 114
  63. ^ Leunissen, pg. 35
  64. ^ Peter Thonemann, The Maeander Valley: A Historical Geography from Antiquity to Byzantium (2011), pg. 233
  65. ^ Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider, David E. Orton, Brill's New Pauly: encyclopaedia of the ancient world (2008), pg. 189
  66. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 57-58
  67. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 145-146
  68. ^ Leunissen, pg. 402
  69. ^ Leunissen, pg. 55
  70. ^ a b Leunissen, pgs. 35-36
  71. ^ Leunissen, pg. 52
  72. ^ Rusu-Bolindeț, Viorica; Strâmbu, Iulia; Muntean, Teodor; Varga, Rada; Bounegru, George (2011). Palatul guvernatorului Daciei romane de la Apulum - O redescoperire a patrimoniului. Cluj-Napoca: Mega. p. 44. ISBN 978-606-543-115-7. 
  73. ^ Leunissen, pg. 246
  74. ^ Leunissen, pg. 225
  75. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 147-148
  76. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 149-150
  77. ^ Anthony Richard Birley, The Roman government of Britain, (2005) pg. 259
  78. ^ Leunissen, pg. 369
  79. ^ a b Mennen, Inge, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011), pg. 122
  80. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 160-161
  81. ^ Leunissen, pgs. 231-232
  82. ^ Leunissen, pg. 367
  83. ^ Robin Mc Mahon,Pupienus (238 A.D.) and Balbinus (238 A.D.), De Imperatoribus Romanis (2001)
  84. ^ Leunissen, pg. 255
  85. ^ Leunissen, pg. 455
  86. ^ Leunissen, pg. 403
  87. ^ Leunissen, pg. 268
  88. ^ Leunissen, pg. 450
  89. ^ Leunissen, pg. 174
  90. ^ Leunissen, pg. 167
  91. ^ A. D. Rizakēs, S. Zoumbaki, Suomen Ateenan-instituutin säätiö, Kentron Hellēnikēs kai Rōmaikēs Archaiotētos, Roman Peloponnese. 2. Laconia and Messenia (1996), pg. 222
  92. ^ Leunissen, pg. 176
  93. ^ Tim G. Parkin, Old age in the Roman world: a cultural and social history (2003), pg. 111
  94. ^ Leunissen, pg. 457
  95. ^ Leunissen, pg. 244
  96. ^ Leunissen, pg. 181
  97. ^ Christian Settipani, Continuité gentilice et continuité familiale dans les familles sénatoriales romaines à l'époque impériale: mythe et réalité (2000), pgs. 121-124
  98. ^ Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Volume 43 (1981) pgs. 170-171
  99. ^ Leunissen, pg. 360
  100. ^ Leunissen, pg. 186
  101. ^ Encyclopedia of Roman Empire (2008)
  102. ^ Mireille Corbier, L& aerarium Saturni et l&aerarium militare (1974), pg. 313
  103. ^ Christol, Michel, Essai sur l'évolution des carrières sénatoriales dans la seconde moitié du IIIe siècle ap. J.C. (1986), pg. 188
  104. ^ Prior to this they were either suffect consuls, or perhaps ordinary consuls with Postumus between 259 and 261 - see Jones & Martindale, pg. 1046
  105. ^ Bagnall, Roger S. Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (1987), pg. 109
  106. ^ Sarah Emily Bond, Ob Merita: The epigraphic rise and fall of the civic patrona in Roman North Africa (2007), pg. 63

Sources[edit]

  • Jones, A. H. M.; Martindale, J. R.; Morris, J, The Prosopography of the later Roman Empire, Vol. I, AD 260-395 (1971), pgs. 1046-1047
  • Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln Und Konsulare in Der Zeit Von Commodus Bis Severus Alexander (1989)