Parliamentary elections were held in Lithuania in two stages on 25 October and 15 November 1992. This first round of this parliamentary election was held simultaneously with a referendum on the adoption of the 1992 Constitution of Lithuania. The members of the new Seimas would replace the Supreme Council of Lithuania. The elections were held under the terms of the new Electoral Law adopted in July 1992, which provided for a mixed system and run-off elections in constituencies where the required majority was not attained. The election date had been set on 19 June.
70 MPs were elected on proportional party lists and 71 MPs in single member constituencies; in those constituencies where no candidate gained more than 50% of the vote on 25 October, a run-off was held on 15 November.
The main challenger to the ruling Sajudis nationalist movement, led by outgoing President of the Republic Vytautas Landsbergis, was the (ex-communist) Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania (DLP) headed by Algirdas Brazauskas. Sajudis – which had controlled the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania since February 1990 and spearheaded the move to independence – was criticized for the country’s economic woes, while the DLP called for a slowdown in the pace of change to a free-market system and improved relations with the Russian Federation. Altogether 24 parties and political movements contested the Seimas seats. Polling procedures were witnessed by international observers. As opposed to Estonia, for example, suffrage was granted to Lithuania’s ethnic Russian minority.
The election was won by the Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania, which gained 73 seats and was itself surprised by the decisive outcome. Analysts attributed this victory, among other things, to the party’s support by the Russian and Polish minorities, farmers, as well as to popular anger about the economic crisis, in particular the fuel shortage since Russia, the main supplier, had cut off imports. Brazauskas assumed the title of Chairman of the Seimas. Brazauskas would go on to be elected President of Lithuania on 14 February 1993 in Lithuania's first presidential election. Sajudis received 30 seats. On 1 December 1992, Bronislovas Lubys was appointed Prime Minister.