The Little Drummer Boy
|"The Little Drummer Boy"|
|Single by Harry Simeone Chorale|
|B-side||"Die Lorelei" (20th Fox)
"O' Holy Night" (20th Century-Fox)
"O' Bambino (One Cold and Blessed Winter)" (Kapp Winners Circle; MCA)
|Label||20th Fox 45-121
20th Century-Fox 429
20th Century-Fox 6429
Kapp Winners Circle 86
"The Little Drummer Boy" (originally known as "Carol of the Drum") is a popular Christmas song written by the American classical music composer and teacher Katherine Kennicott Davis in 1941. It was recorded in 1955 by the Trapp Family Singers and further popularized by a 1958 recording by the Harry Simeone Chorale. This version was re-released successfully for several years and the song has been recorded many times since.
In the lyrics the singer relates how, as a poor young boy, he was summoned by the Magi to the nativity where, without a gift for the infant Jesus, he played his drum with the Virgin Mary's approval, remembering "I played my best for Him" and "He smiled at me".
The song was originally titled "Carol of the Drum" and was published by Davis as based upon a traditional Czech carol. Davis's interest was in producing material for amateur and girls' choirs: her manuscript is set as a chorale, the tune in the soprano with alto harmony, tenor and bass parts producing the "drum rhythm" and a keyboard accompaniment "for rehearsal only". It is headed "Czech Carol freely transcribed by K.K.D", these initials then deleted and replaced with "C.R.W. Robinson", a name under which Davis sometimes published.
Although Davis did search far and wide for suitable material, the Czech original has never been identified, though the style is comparable with the Czech "Rocking Carol", a lullaby collected in the early 20th century by a Miss Jacubickova as "Hajej, nynjej" and given English words by Percy Dearmer for The Oxford Book of Carols in 1928. It appealed to the Austrian von Trapp singers, who first brought the song to wider prominence when they recorded the "Carol of the Drum" in 1955, shortly before they retired: their version was credited solely to Davis and published by Belwin-Mills. In 1957 it was recorded, with a slightly altered arrangement, by the Jack Halloran Singers for their album Christmas Is A-Comin' on Dot Records. Dot's Henry Onorati introduced the song to his friend Harry Simeone and the following year, when 20th Century Fox Records contracted him to make a Christmas album, Simeone, making further small changes to the Halloran arrangement and retitling it "The Little Drummer Boy", recorded it with the Harry Simeone Chorale on the album Sing We Now of Christmas. Simeone and Onorati claimed joint composition credits with Davis.
The album and the song were an enormous success, the single scoring on the U.S. music charts from 1958 to 1962. In 1963 the album was reissued under the title The Little Drummer Boy: A Christmas Festival, capitalizing on the single's popularity. The following year the album was released in stereo. In 1988, The Little Drummer Boy: A Christmas Festival was released on CD by Casablanca Records, and subsequently, on Island Records. Harry Simeone, who in 1964 had signed with Kapp Records, recorded a new version of "The Little Drummer Boy" in 1965 for his album O' Bambino - The Little Drummer Boy. Simeone recorded the song a third and final time in 1981, for an album (again titled The Little Drummer Boy) on the budget Holiday Records label.
The story depicted in the song is somewhat similar to a 12th century legend retold by Anatole France as Le Jongleur de Notre Dame (French: Our Lady's Juggler), which was adapted into an opera in 1902 by Jules Massenet. In the French legend, however, a juggler juggles before the statue of the Virgin Mary, and the statue, according to which version of the legend one reads, either smiles at him or throws him a rose (or both, as in the 1984 television film, The Juggler of Notre Dame.)
Other versions 
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)|
The popularity of the "The Little Drummer Boy" can be seen by the number of cover versions: a total of over 220 versions in seven languages are known, in all kinds of music genres:
- The Trapp Family Singers, whose life story provided some inspiration for Rodgers and Hammerstein in their musical The Sound of Music, recorded a song titled "Carol of the Drum" (identified on the Decca record jacket as a "Czech carol") prior to their 1955 retirement. This song resembles "The Little Drummer Boy" in music and lyrics, except for replacing the lamb with an ass in the line "The ox and lamb kept time." This difference in lyrics may seem odd until one realizes that an ox and donkey are depicted in paintings of the Nativity going all the way back to ancient icons of the event. They recall the biblical prophecies of Isaiah, specifically Isaiah 1:3: "The ox knows its owner, and the donkey its master's crib."
- 1957: The Jack Halloran Singers included "Carol of the Drum" on their Christmas album, Christmas Is A-Comin'. The album was reissued two years later as The Little Drummer Boy to capitalize on the success of the 1958 version by the Harry Simeone Chorale.
- 1958: The popular Harry Simeone Chorale recording rose to number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, despite its late issue date in November. Simeone would re-record the song in 1965 and again in 1981.
- 1962: The Ray Conniff Singers recorded a version of the song as part of a medley with "Jolly Old St. Nicholas," which was released on their album We Wish You a Merry Christmas. In 1967, the "Little Drummer Boy" portion of the medley was released as a single, paired with Conniff's 1959 recording of "White Christmas."
- 1962: Bing Crosby released a solo version of the song on his Warner Bros. Christmas album, I Wish You a Merry Christmas (which has since been repackaged for CD by both Capitol Records and RCA Records).
- 1963: Johnny Cash released a version of the song on his Christmas album, The Christmas Spirit. This version was previously a US chart single during the Christmas season of 1959.
- 1963: Johnny Mathis released a version of the song on his second Christmas album, Sounds of Christmas. Mathis would re-record the tune in 1969 for his next Christmas album, Give Me Your Love for Christmas.
- 1963: Andy Williams released a version of the song on his first Christmas album, The Andy Williams Christmas Album.
- 1964: Marlene Dietrich recorded a German version of the song (titled "Der Trommelmann").
- 1964: Jo Stafford released a version of the song on her Christmas album, The Joyful Season.
- 1965: The Supremes recorded the song for their Christmas album, Merry Christmas.
- 1965: The Vince Guaraldi Trio released a jazz piano arrangement of the song, titled "My Little Drum," on their soundtrack album, A Charlie Brown Christmas.
- 1965: Anita Kerr and the Living Voices released a version of the song on their Christmas album, The Little Drummer Boy.
- 1965: Nana Mouskouri recorded a French version of the song (titled "L'enfant au tambour").
- 1966: Henry Mancini recorded a version of the song for his Christmas album, A Merry Mancini Christmas.
- 1966: The Crusaders released their version of the song as a single. It was also included on their November 1966 debut album, which is regarded as one of the first Christian rock albums.
- 1967: Stevie Wonder released a version of the song on his Christmas album, Someday at Christmas.
- 1967: A version of the song by Lou Rawls was both released as a Capitol single and included on his Christmas album, Merry Christmas! Ho! Ho! Ho!.
- 1968: Living Strings & LIving Voices recorded the song for their album White Christmas.
- 1968: The song was adapted into an animated television special by Rankin/Bass.The Vienna Boys Choir sang the title song in this version, which was narrated by Greer Garson, with Jose Ferrer providing the voice of Ben Haramed, the evil caravan driver. The special was followed by a sequel in 1976.
- 1969: Jimi Hendrix recorded a cover of the song, which was later included on his 1999 holiday EP, Merry Christmas & Happy New Year.
- 1970 - The Jackson 5 recorded a cover of the song, released on their Christmas Album
- 1970: The Brady Bunch released a version of the song on their Christmas album, Christmas with The Brady Bunch.
- 1972: The song was featured on the television special, Christmas at the White House. The song was reportedly the favorite Christmas carol of President Richard Nixon.
- 1977: One of the more popular versions of the song was recorded for Bing Crosby's final holiday television special (Bing Crosby's Merrie Olde Christmas) as a medley titled "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy", which was a duet by the unusual pairing of Crosby and David Bowie.
- 1979: Emmylou Harris included a cover of the song on her album, Light of the Stable.
- 1981: Anne Murray has a version on her album, Christmas Wishes.
- 1981: A cover of the song by Joan Jett and the Blackhearts concluded their studio album I Love Rock 'n' Roll when it was released in December. However, after the holiday season passed, the track was replaced by another song.
- 1981: A version of the song by the German band Boney M. was released both on their 1981 Christmas album, Christmas Album, and as a single (which peaked at no. 20 on the German pop singles chart). It was the last song to feature dancer Bobby Farrell.
- 1981: Rosemary Clooney released a version of the song on her Christmas album, Christmas with Rosemary Clooney.
- 1984: An Italian version was recorded by I Cavalieri del Re, an Italian band that specialized in cartoon songs.
- 1985: The Canadian Brass released an instrumental version of the song or their Christmas album, A Canadian Brass Christmas.
- 1987: Bob Seger and the Silver Bullet Band released a version of the song on the Special Olympics Christmas charity album A Very Special Christmas, though their version very noticeably excludes all names or religious references. This version was later used[clarification needed] by Johnny Cash and Neil Young on Ben Keith's 1994 album, Seven Gates.
- 1988: Mannheim Steamroller included a version of the song on their second Christmas album, A Fresh Aire Christmas.
- 1988: The Christian rock band White Heart released a version of the song on Christmas, a 1988 Christmas album by artists who recorded for Sparrow Records.
- 1988: Grace Jones performed an except from the song on the children's television program, Pee-Wee's Playhouse.
- 1989: New Kids on the Block (with lead vocals by Danny Wood) recorded the song for their Christmas album, Merry, Merry Christmas.
- 1990: Robert Wendel arranged an instrumental adaptation in the style of Ravel's Boléro which was recorded by Erich Kunzel and the Cincinnati Pops on the 2006 Telarc Christmas album, Christmas Time Is Here.
- 1991: Take 6 released a version of the song on their Christmas album, He Is Christmas.
- 1991: The British band The Yobs released a parody version of the song titled "Rub-a-Dum-Dum."
- 1991: Jazz guitarist Tuck Andress recorded an instrumental version of the song for his album, Hymns, Carols and Songs about Snow.
- 1991: Al Bano & Romina Power released an Italian version of the song titled "Il Piccolo Tamburino."
- 1992: The ABBA "parody" band Björn Again covered the song for their single release, "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town"/"Little Drummer Boy" (©1992 M & G).
- 1992: The Vocal Majority released the David Wright arrangement of the song on their album Alleluia.
- 1993: An episode of the television show Animaniacs has the Warners travelling to the birthplace of Jesus, where for lack of other gifts they perform the song.
- 1994: Kenny G recorded an acoustic version of the song for his first Christmas album, Miracles: The Holiday Album.
- 1994: RuPaul released a version of the song as a single on Tommy Boy Records which bubbled under the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart at number 113.
- 1994: The Dandy Warhols recorded the first of two versions of the song, which was released by Tim/Kerr Records.
- 1994: The UCLA Chamber Singers covered the song with Alvin Seville on drums for the album, A Very Merry Chipmunk.
- 1995: Jars of Clay recorded the song for their EP, Drummer Boy. They recorded the song a second time for their 1997 full-length Christmas album, Christmas Songs.
- 1996: Apocalyptica covered the song and released it as a single.
- 1997: The Dandy Warhols recorded the second of two versions of the song, which was released by Capitol Records.
- 1997: The Toasters covered the song on the Moon Ska Records Christmas compilation album, Christma-Ska.
- 1998: Alicia Keys released a modified version of the song titled "Little Drummer Girl" on the Christmas album, Jermaine Dupri Presents Twelve Soulful Nights Of Christmas.
- 1998: German punk band Die Toten Hosen released a version of the song on their album, Wir warten auf's Christkind under their pseudonym Die Roten Rosen (other Christmas songs were included on this album).
- 1998: Chicago released a version of the song on their first Christmas album, Chicago XXV.
- 1999: Minnesota band Low published their EP Christmas, a collection of assorted Christmas songs including a version of "The Little Drummer Boy."
- 1999: The West Wing's first Christmas episode, "In Excelsis Deo," featured a boys choir singing the song over a funeral service. The episode went on to win multiple Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series for Aaron Sorkin and Rick Cleveland and Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series by Richard Schiff.
- 1999: Swedish artist Carola Häggkvist recorded the song in a duet with Blues for her Christmas album, Jul i Betlehem.
- 1999: Ringo Starr released a version of the song on his twelfth studio album, I Wanna Be Santa Claus
- 2000: Yolanda Adams released a version of the song on her seventh studio album and first Christmas album, Christmas with Yolanda Adams.
- 2000: The Wiggles released a version of the song on their Christmas album, Yule Be Wiggling.
- 2000: Charlotte Church released a version of the song on her third album, Dream a Dream.
- 2001: Destiny's Child released a version of the song on their Christmas album, 8 Days of Christmas.
- 2001: Westlife performed the song live with singer Dolores O'Riordan of The Cranberries in front of Pope John Paul II.
- 2002: A parody version by Bob Rivers titled "The Little Hooters Girl" was included on his Christmas album, White Trash Christmas.
- 2002: Jordan Rudess of Dream Theater covered the song as part of his solo piano Christmas album, Christmas Sky.
- 2002: Bright Eyes covered the song for their holiday album, A Christmas Album.
- 2003: The Echoing Green on their EP Fall Awake.
- 2003: Whitney Houston and her daughter recorded a cover of the song for Houston's Christmas album, One Wish: The Holiday Album.
- 2003: The Blind Boys of Alabama released a version of the song (with vocals by Michel Franti) on their album, Go Tell it On the Mountain.
- 2003: King Diamond's album The Puppet Master contained an extract from "The Little Drummer Boy" in their song, "Christmas."
- 2003: moe (band) included the song on their "Seasons Greetings from moe." CD.
- 2003: Pavlo released an instrumental version of the song on his album, Frostbite.
- 2004: Vanessa Williams released a cover of the song on her second Christmas album, Silver & Gold.
- 2004: Jessica Simpson released a version of the song featuring her sister Ashlee Simpson on her Christmas album, ReJoyce: The Christmas Album.
- 2004: Art Paul Schlosser released a version of the song titled "Kazoo Boy" on his album, The ABCs of Art Paul Schlosser World. Schlosser's version uses a kazoo instead of a drum on the "rum pum pum pum" parts.
- 2004: The McDades released a version of the song with Terry McDade on their album "Noel" featuring an intro with an Indian Ghazal improvisation
- 2004: Decomposure covered the song, which was released on the Unschooled Records Christmas compilation album, A Very Unschooled Christmas. It was also re-released on Decomposure's own compilation album, Songs from Old Headphones.
- 2005: Boyz II Men released their rendition of the song on their second Christmas album, Winter/Reflections.
- 2005: Bryan Duncan and the NehoSoul Band recorded the song on their Christmas album, A NehoSoul Christmas.
- 2005: Dwight Schrute briefly performed the song in the pilot episode of The Office. In 2006, Angela performs the song as karaoke in Episode 39.
- 2006: Gladys Knight and the Saints Unified Voices choir released a version of the song on their Grammy Award-winning Christmas album, A Christmas Celebration.
- 2006: Sufjan Stevens released a cover of the song on his EP, Joy: Songs for Christmas - Vol. IV, which is part of his box set, Songs for Christmas.
- 2006: Christopher Lee released a version of the song on his album, Revelation.
- 2006: Alfio recorded a version of the song in English and the Sicilian dialect of Italian for the Christmas edition of his debut album, Tranquillita.
- 2006: Celtic Woman performed a version of the song on their Christmas show in a duet with Orla Fallon and Chloë Agnew.
- 2007: Josh Groban released a version of the song (featuring guitarist Andy McKee and Gigi Hadid on background vocal) on his holiday album, "Noël".
- 2007: Jan Rot performed a Dutch version of the song on An + Jan's Christmas album, Vrolijk Kerstfeest.
- 2008: Faith Hill released a version of the song on her Christmas album, Joy to the World.
- 2008: The Almost released a version of the song on their acoustic EP, No Gift to Bring, with an accompanying music video
- 2008: Terry Wogan and Aled Jones recorded a cover of the 1977 David Bowie/Bing Crosby duet, "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy." After a brief campaign amongst listeners of BBC Radio 2 instigated by Chris Evans to get the song released in support of the Children In Need charity, it was released as a single on 8 December 2008, reaching #3 in the UK Top 40 singles chart.
- 2008: Doug Pinnick, George Lynch, Billy Sheehan and Simon Phillips released a version of the song on the 2008 Christmas compilation album, We Wish you a Metal Xmas and a Headbanging New Year.
- 2008: Chris Leslie (of Fairport Convention), Julie Matthews, David Hughes and Chris While recorded a version under the title "The Carol Of The Drum."
- 2008: Raphael performed a version of the song with the Spanish title "El tamborilero" ("The drummer").
- 2008: Kokia released a cover of the song as a part of a medley on her Christmas album, Christmas Gift.
- 2008: South African singer Lianie May released her version of the song on her album Kersfees met Lianie.
- 2009: Bob Dylan released a version of the song on his holiday album, Christmas in the Heart.
- 2009: Sean Kingston released his version of the on the various artists Christmas album, A Very Special Christmas Vol.7.
- 2009: Lukas Rossi released his cover of the song and made it available for download on his web page.
- 2009: Hans-Peter Lindstrøm released a 40-minute electronic version available as a limited CD and download.
- 2009: Heavy Blinkers featuring Jenn Grant released an alternative look at the song titled "Silence Your Drum." This version is told from the perspective of Joseph and Mary, who would rather hear some lute than the barum-pah-pum-pum of the drum.
- 2009: Scott Aukerman and Jimmy Pardo parodied the 1977 David Bowie/Bing Crosby duet version "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy" on the 2009 Christmas album, Comedy Death-Ray, to raise money for the Los Angeles Food Bank.
- 2010: Mariah Carey released a version of the song on her thirteenth studio album and second Christmas album, Merry Christmas II You.
- 2010: Pink Martini released a version of the song on their Christmas album, Joy to the World.
- 2010: The Black Eyed Peas performed a mashup of the song with their single "The Time (Dirty Bit)" on The Oprah Winfrey Show.
- 2010: Metalcore band August Burns Red released a cover of the song.
- 2010: Collegehumor created a cover of the song with actors Jason Segel and Jack Black.
- 2010: The Priests released a version of the 1977 David Bowie/Bing Crosby duet "Little Drummer Boy/Peace on Earth" on their Christmas album, Noel, as well as a collaboration with Shane MacGowan.
- 2011: Justin Bieber collaborated with Busta Rhymes on a version of the song for his Christmas album, Under the Mistletoe.
- 2011: The Glee cast released a version of the song for their second Christmas album, Glee: The Music, The Christmas Album Volume 2.
- 2011: New York a cappella group Duwende released a video version of the song.
- 2011: VeggieTales released an animated film titled The Little Drummer Boy.
- 2011: Joe McElderry included a version of the song on his third studio album, Classic Christmas.
- 2011: Jamaican artist Shaggy covered the song for his single "Jamaican Drummer Boy".
- 2012: Richard Marx recorded the song and filmed a promotional music video for his holiday album, Christmas Spirit. The song returned him to the Billboard's Adult Contemporary chart's Top 10 for the first time since 1997(fifteen years).
- 2012: Christopher Lee released the single "A Heavy Metal Christmas," which included a cover of the song.
- 2012: Phish performed covers and teases of the song during their New Years Run at Madison Square Garden.
Covers in other languages 
- In Spanish speaking countries it is a common carol recorded under the name "El niño del tambor" (The boy of the drum).
- Boughton, Harrison Charles (1977). Katherine K. Davis: life and work. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Thesis, University of Missouri, reprint by University Microfilms.
- "albums". Singers.com. 1998-03-12. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- Leigh, Spencer (2005-03-05). "Harry Simeone: Populariser of 'The Little Drummer Boy'". The Independent. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- Lee Hartsfeld (2006-12-05). "Music You (Possibly) Won't Hear Anyplace Else: Carol of the Little Drummer Boy". Musicyouwont.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Image of original mansucript in Wellesley College Library". Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- Cummings, Robert. "Allmusic biography". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Scan of published sheet music". Photos1.blogger.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "The Little Drummer Boy by The Harry Simeone Chorale Songfacts". Songfacts.com. 1977-09-11. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "The Little Drummer Boy: Adolphe Adam, Katherine K. Davis, Christmas Traditional, Harry Simeone Chorale: Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Bing Crosby & David Bowie - The Little Drummer Boy / Peace On Earth". YouTube. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town/Little Drummer Boy | Björn Again Album | Yahoo! Music". New.music.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- TV.com. "Animaniacs: Little Drummer Warners - Season 1, Episode 246". TV.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Muziek | Myspace Music". Imeem.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Bandaged: The Album"
- Peter Vidani. "Comedy Death-Ray Xmas". Cdrxmas.tumblr.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Duwende - Little Drummer Boy (A Cappella)". YouTube. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- The Little Drummer Boy at Keyframe - the Animation Resource
- The Little Drummer Boy at the Internet Movie Database