Lower urinary tract symptoms

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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of medical symptoms, that affect approximately 40% of older men.[1] LUTS is a recent term for what used to be known as prostatism.[2]

Symptoms and signs[edit]

Symptoms can be categorised into:

Filling or irritative symptoms[edit]

Voiding or obstructive symptoms[edit]

  • Poor stream
  • Hesitancy
  • Terminal dribbling
  • Incomplete voiding
  • Overflow incontinence (occurs in chronic retention)

As the symptoms are common and non-specific, LUTS is not necessarily a reason to suspect prostate cancer.[2] Large studies of patients have also failed to show any correlation between lower urinary tract symptoms and a specific diagnosis.[3]

Causes[edit]

Diagnosis[edit]

The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) can be used to gauge the symptoms, along with physician examination. Other primary and secondary tests are often carried out, such as a PSA (Prostate-specific antigen) test,[4] urinalysis, ultrasound, urinary flow studies, imaging, temporary prostatic stent placement, prostate biopsy and/or cystoscopy.

Placement of a temporary prostatic stent as a differential diagnosis test can help identify whether LUTS symptoms are directly related to obstruction of the prostate or to other factors worth investigation.

ICD 9 CM[edit]

  • 600.00 Hypertrophy (benign) of prostate w/o urinary obstruction and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)
  • 600.01 Hypertrophy (benign) of prostate with urinary obstruction and other LUTS
  • 600.20 Benign localized hyperplasia of prostate w/o urinary obstruction and other LUTS
  • 600.21 Benign localized hyperplasia of prostate with urinary obstruction and other LUTS
  • 600.90 Hyperplasia of prostate, unspecified, w/o urinary obstruction and other LUTS
  • 600.91 Hyperplasia of prostate, unspecified, with urinary obstruction and other LUTS

Treatment[edit]

A number of techniques to destroy part or all of the prostate have been developed. First line of treatment is medical, which includes alpha-1 blockade and antiandrogens. If the medical treatment fails, surgical techniques are done. Techniques include:

Other treatments include lifestyle advice. Although surgical treatment is generally reserved for men who have failed or are unable to tolerate drug treatment, or for those who have developed complications

Epidemiology[edit]

  • Prevalence increases with age. The prevalence of nocturia in older men is about 78%. Older men have a higher incidence of LUTS than older women.[6]
  • Once symptoms arise, their progress is variable and unpredictable with about one third of patients improving, one third remaining stable and one third deteriorating.
  • It is estimated that the lifetime risk of developing microscopic prostate cancer is about 30%, developing clinical disease 10%, and dying from prostate cancer 3%.

References[edit]

  1. ^ RoehrbornCG and McConnell JD: Etiology, pathophusiology, epidemiology, and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Campell's Urology. WB Saunders Co 2002; chapt 38, p1309.
  2. ^ a b Abrams P (April 1994). "New words for old: lower urinary tract symptoms for "prostatism"". BMJ 308 (6934): 929–30. doi:10.1136/bmj.308.6934.929. PMC 2539789. PMID 8173393. 
  3. ^ Clinical Knowledge Summary; Urological cancer — suspected
  4. ^ The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: Q & A — National Cancer Institute
  5. ^ Fitzpatrick JM. Non-surgical treatment of BPH. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1992.
  6. ^ Boyle P, Robertson C, Mazzetta C, et al. (September 2003). "The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women in four centres. The UrEpik study". BJU Int. 92 (4): 409–14. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.2003.04369.x. PMID 12930430. 
  7. ^ Enlarged prostate gland —treatment, symptoms and cause