Mahinthrathirat

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Somdet Phra Mahinthrathirat (Thai: สมเด็จพระมหินทราธิราช) (1539–1569) was the King of Ayutthaya kingdom in 1568 and again from 1568 to 1569. Mahinthrathirat was the last monarch of the Suphannabhum dynasty as the kingdom fell to the Burmese in 1569. Mahinthrathirat was known for his efforts to counter Burmese and Phitsanulok power by seeking alliance with Setthathirath of Lan Xang.

A prince far from the throne[edit]

Prince Mahinthrathirat was a son of Maha Chakkrapat and Queen Sri Suriyothai. Mahinthrathirat had an elder brother Prince Ramesuan the Uparaja - then heir to the throne. In 1548, Tabinshweti marched the Burmese armies to invade Ayutthaya. Mahinthrathirat joined his family to battle the Burmese. However, his mother Queen Sri Suriyothai was killed in battle.

Bayinnaung, brother-in-law of Tabinshweti, led the Burmese to invade Siam again in 1563. Bayinnuang laid the siege on Ayutthaya in 1564 and only retreated in exchange for Prince Ramesuan as a captive to Burma. Mahinthrathirat, therefore, was appointed the new Uparaja unprepared. Maha Chakkrapat then decided to abdicated and became a monk in 1568. Mahinthrathirat was then crowned as the king of Ayutthaya in the pressure of the invading Burmese.

Wars with Bayinnaung[edit]

Maha Thammarachathirat, the King of Phitsanulok and Maha Chakkrapat's handful noble, had allied himself with Bayinnuang in 1563. Mahinthathirat then feared that Bayinnuang, with supports from Maha Thammarachathirat, would be able to take Ayutthaya. He then sought alliances with Setthathirat of Lan Xang and planned a joint-attack on Phitsanulok. Mahinthrathirat was also intended to marry his younger sister, Thepkasatri, to Settathirat.

However, Maha Thammarachathirat then informed Bayinnuang about the arranged marriage and alliances. Bayinnaung then kidnapped Thepkasatri on her way to Vientiane. Rufusing to became Bayinnaung's concubine, Thepkasatri committed suicide.

Mahinthrathirat, upon the crisis, urged his father Maha Chakkrapat to return to the court to fight the Burmese. While Maha Thammarachathirat was away to Pegu, Maha Chakkrapat was crowned again and Mahinthrathirat made himself titular King of Phitsanulok. Mahinthrathirat tried to capture Phitsanulok in the joint expedition with Setthathirat but without success.

Fall of Ayutthaya[edit]

Bayinnaung then led the Burmese armies in mass to Ayutthaya with supports from Maha Thammarachathirat. The Burmese then laid siege on Ayutthaya. Maha Chakkrapat fell ill and died. Mahinthrathirat assumed the throne again. In spite of several months of efforts, Ayutthaya stood still. Bayinnuang then bribed Phraya Chakri - a Siamese general who had been captured during the War of White Elephant in 1564 - to be a spy. Mahinthrathirat embraced the returned general with trust. He appointed Phraya Chakri the commander of Siamese armies. Phraya Chakri then placed the less-trained troops in the front. The Burmese then easily defeated the Siamese and eventually took the city in 1569.

Bayinnuand installed Maha Thammarachathirat as the King of Ayutthaya tributary to Pegu. Mahinthrathirat along with his family and the nobility were captured to Pegu. Mahinthrathirat died in the same year on the way to Pegu. Some sources said he insulted Bayinnuang and was then drowned, thus spelling the end to Suphannabhum dynasty.

Preceded by
Maha Chakkraphat
Kings of Ayutthaya
(First Reign)

1568
Succeeded by
Maha Chakkraphat
Preceded by
Maha Chakkraphat
Kings of Ayutthaya
(Second Reign)

1568–1569
Succeeded by
Maha Thammaracha Thirat