Chakri Dynasty

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Chakri Dynasty
Emblem of the House of Chakri
Country Kingdom of Thailand
Titles King of Siam (1782–1940)
King of Thailand (1940–)
Founded 1782
Founder Rama I
Current head Rama IX
Ethnicity founder Thai, Mon, Chinese
and later Persian

The Chakri Dynasty (Thai: ราชวงศ์จักรี; rtgsRatchawong Chakkri, Thai pronunciation: [râat.tɕʰa.woŋ.tɕàk.krii], Pronunciation) is the current ruling royal house of the Kingdom of Thailand, while the Head of the house is the King of Thailand. The dynasty has ruled Thailand since the founding of the Rattanakosin Era and the city of Bangkok in 1782 following the end of King Taksin of Thonburi's reign, when the capital of Siam shifted to Bangkok. The royal house was founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, an Ayutthayan military leader of Sino-Mon descent.

Prior to the founding of the dynasty, King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (also known as Rama I) held the title of Chao Pharaya Chakri for over ten years. This title was held by the greatest warlords of Ayutthaya Kingdom and was meant to reflect the prowess of the holder on the battlefield. In founding the dynasty, King Rama I himself chose "Chakri" as both the name and emblem for the dynasty. The Chakri is composed of the discus (Chakra) and the trident (Trisula, sometimes shortened to "Tri" in Thai), the celestial weapon of the god Narayana (an avatar of Vishnu) of whom the Thai sovereign is seen as an incarnation. The name Chakri thus denotes the transcending force of divine strength and stability upon the physical realm. (Cf. Chakravartin.)

The current head of the house has been King Bhumibol Adulyadej since 1946, while his heir apparent is Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn. The house's current dynastic seat is the Grand Palace in Bangkok.

Royal Family of Thailand[edit]

Photograph of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej and Mom Sangwal (later the Princess Mother).
The Chakri Mahaprasat, inside the Grand Palace in Bangkok, the dynastic seat and official residence of the dynasty.

The present royal family of Thailand is descended from Prince Mahidol Adulyadej of Songkla (1891–1929) and Srinagarindra (later Princess Mother) (1900–95) forming the House of Mahidol (ราชสกุลมหิดล) (a cadet branch of the dynasty). The Prince was a son of King Chulalongkorn and his wife Queen Savang Vadhana. The Prince was also the half-brother of both King Vajiravudh and King Prajadhipok. After the death of King Ananda Mahidol (Prince Mahidol's elder son), the present monarch, King Bhumibol Adulyadej (the Prince's younger son) ascended the throne in 1946. In 1949 the King married his first cousin once removed, Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (a daughter of Mom Chao Nakkhatra Mangkala Kitiyakara, a grandson of King Chulalongkorn).

Members[edit]

This is a list of current members of the royal family:

Other Members[edit]

Other non-official members[edit]

  • HSH Prince Juthavachara Mahidol (the Crown Prince's first son, birth by his ex-wife)
  • HSH Prince Vacharaesorn Mahidol (the Crown Prince's second son, birth by his ex-wife)
  • HSH Prince Chakriwat Mahidol (the Crown Prince's third son, birth by his ex-wife)
  • HSH Prince Vatchrawee Mahidol (the Crown Prince's fourth son, birth by his ex-wife)

Recently deceased members[edit]

History[edit]

Monarchs[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Start of reign End of reign Death Consorts Issue
Rama I Phrabat Somdet Phra Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
(Rama I)
20 March 1737
Ayutthaya, Ayutthaya,
Ayutthaya, Ayutthaya
6 April 1782
(crowned at the Dusit Maha Prasat Hall, Grand Palace on 10 June 1782)
7 September 1809
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 72
Queen Amarindra
and 31 other consorts
42 progeny
(17 sons and 25 daughters)
Rama II Phrabat Somdet Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
(Rama II)
24 February 1767
Amphawa, Samut Songkhram, Ayutthaya
7 September 1809
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall)
21 July 1824
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 57
Queen Srisuriyendra
Princess Consort Sri Sulalai
and 51 other consorts
73 progeny
(38 sons and 35 daughters)
Rama III Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramintharamaha
Jessadabodindra
Phra Nangklao Chao Yu Hua
(Rama III)
31 March 1788
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
21 July 1824
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall)
2 April 1851
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 63
42 consorts 51 progeny
(22 sons and 29 daughters)
Rama IV Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramentharamaha
Mongkut
Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua
(Rama IV)
18 October 1804
Thonburi Palace, Bangkok Yai, Thonburi, Siam
2 April 1851
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall on 6 April 1851)
1 October 1868
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 63
Queen Somanas Vadhanavadi
Queen Debsirindra
Princess Pannarai
and 58 other consorts
82 progeny
(39 sons and 43 daughters)
Rama V Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramintharamaha
Chulalongkorn
Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua
(Rama V)
20 September 1853
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
1 October 1868
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall on 11 November 1868 (1st time) and 16 November 1873 (2nd time))
23 October 1910
Dusit Palace, Dusit District,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 57
Queen Sunandha Kumariratana
Queen Sukumalmarsri
Queen Savang Vadhana
Queen Saovabha Bongsri
and 88 other consorts
77 progeny
(32 sons and 44 daughters)
Rama VI Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramentharamaha
Vajiravudh
Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua
(Rama VI)
1 January 1881
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
23 October 1910
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall on 11 November 1911)
25 November 1925
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 44
Princess Consort Indrasakdi Sachi
Consort Sucharit Suda
Princess Consort Laksamilawan
Princess Consort Suvadhana
Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda
Rama VII Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramintharamaha
Prajadhipok
Phra Pok Klao Chao Yu Hua
(Rama VII)
8 November 1893
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
25 November 1925
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall on 25 February 1926)
2 March 1935 30 May 1941
Wentworth, Virginia Water, Surrey, United Kingdom
aged 47
Queen Rambhai Barni (None)
Rama VIII Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramentharamaha
Ananda Mahidol
(Rama VIII)
20 September 1925
Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Weimar Republic
2 March 1935
(never crowned),
Reign under Regency from 1935 to 1946
9 June 1946
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Thailand
aged 20
(None) (None)
Rama IX Phrabat Somdet Phra Poramintharamaha
Bhumibol Adulyadej
(Rama IX)
5 December 1927
Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
9 June 1946
(crowned at the Phaisan Thaksin Hall on 5 May 1950)
(Incumbent)
(age: 87 years, 169 days)
Queen Sirikit Ubolratana Rajakanya
Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn
Princess Sirindhorn
Princess Chulabhorn Walailak

Timeline[edit]

Front Palaces[edit]

Main article: Front Palace

The Maha Uparat (มหาอุปราช) or the Krom Phrarajawang Bavorn Sathan Mongkol (Vice or Second King of Siam) (กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) was an office that was bestowed on the highest ranking prince, frequently the monarch's younger brother or son. Until 1885 every Chakri monarch had appointed a prince to this office. The Uprarat and his miniature court would reside at the Front Palace (วังหน้า) (a palace complex to the north of the Grand Palace, now the site of the National Museum). By tradition the Uparat was designated the heir to the throne, however only Prince Isarasundhorn was able to ascend the throne as King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai. The office was extremely prestigious and carried with it almost equal status to the king, this can be seen in Prince Chutamani (younger brother of King Mongkut), who was elevated to King Pinklao in 1851 (he carried with him the styles and titles of a King). The office was abolished by King Chulalongkorn when his Uparat and cousin Prince Bovorn Vichaicharn died. He then declared his oldest son the Crown Prince of Siam, but not Uparat.[1]

Portrait Name Birth Start of reign
(Date of appointment)
End of reign Issue Monarch
(Relationship to the king)
Maha Sura Singhanat Somdet Phra Bawonratchao
Maha Sura Singhanat
1 November 1744
Ayutthaya
1782 3 November 1803
Bangkok, Siam
aged 59
43 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama I
(Younger brother)
Rama II Somdet Phra Lookya Ther
Chaofa Krommaluang Isarasundhorn
24 February 1767
Amphawa, Samut Songkhram Province
1806 7 September 1809
(Ascended the throne as King Rama II)
73 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama I
(Oldest son)
House of Chakri Somdet Phra Bawonratchao
Maha Senanurak
29 March 1773 7 September 1809 16 July 1817
Bangkok, Siam
aged 45
40 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama II
(Younger brother)
House of Chakri Somdet Phra Bawonratchao
Sakdiphonlasep
21 October 1785 21 July 1824 1 May 1832
Bangkok, Siam
aged 46
20 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama III
(Great uncle, son of Rama I)
Pinklao Phrabat Somdet Phra
Pinklao Chaoyuhua
4 September 1808
Thonburi Palace, Bangkok Yai, Thonburi, Siam
25 May 1851
(Received a royal coronation at the Front Palace)
7 January 1866
Thonburi Palace, Bangkok Yai, Thonburi, Siam
aged 57
58 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama IV
(Younger brother)
Wichaichan Krom Phra Ratchawang
Bowon Wichaichan
6 April 1838
Thonburi Palace, Bangkok Yai, Thonburi, Siam
2 October 1868
(Appointed by the Ascension Council on behalf of King Rama V)
28 August 1885
Front Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 47
(Title abolished after death)
28 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama V
(Cousin, son of Pinklao)

Rear Palace[edit]

Krom Phrarajawang Boworn Sathan Phimuk (กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานพิมุข) or the Rear Palace, was another office inherited from the Kingdom of Ayutthaya. However since the founding of the dynasty there has only been one rear palace. Prince Anurak Devesh was the nephew of King Buddha Yodfa Chualoke (his mother Princess Thepsuthavadi was the king's elder sister) was appointed to the office in 1785.

Portrait Name Birth Appointment Death Issue Monarch
(Relationship to the king)
Anurak Devesh Chaofa Krom Phra
Anurak Devesh
Krom Phra Rajawang Boworn Sathan Phimuk
28 March 1746 1785 20 December 1806
Bangkok, Siam
aged 60
(Title discontinued)
35 sons and daughters with various consorts King Rama I
(Nephew, son of Princess Sister Thepsuthavadi)

Crown Princes[edit]

The Crown Prince of Thailand or Sayam Makutrajakuman (สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร) is the designated and heir apparent to the throne and headship of the dynasty. The title was created in 1886 when King Chulalongkorn appointed his eldest son by Princess Consort Savang Vadhana, Prince Vajirunhis as Sayam Makutrajakuman. The title was copied directly from the Western tradition. Since then, there has only been three crown princes. The present crown prince is HRH Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn who was invested with the title in 1972. The succession is governed by the 1924 Palace Law of Succession passed by King Vajiravudh.

Portrait Name Birth Appointment Ceased to be Crown Prince Note Parents
Vajirunhis Maha Vajirunhis 27 June 1878
Inner Court, Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
14 January 1886[2] 4 January 1895 Died of typhoid fever at age 16 King Rama V and Princess Consort Savang Vadhana
Vajiravudh Maha Vajiravudh 1 January 1881
Inner Court, Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
4 January 1895[3] 23 October 1910 Ascended to the throne as King Rama VI at death of father King Rama V and Queen Saovabha Phongsri
Vajiralongkorn Maha Vajiralongkorn 28 July 1952
Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall, Dusit Palace, Dusit District,
Phra Nakhon, Thailand
28 December 1972[4] Incumbent Current heir apparent King Rama IX and Queen Sirikit

Royal consorts[edit]

Portrait Name Birth Marriage Became consort Ceased to be consort Death Issue Consort to
(Notes)
Amarindra Somdet Phra Amarindra
Boromarajini
15 March 1737
Samut Songkhram, Ayutthaya
Around 1760 6 April 1782 7 September 1809
husband died
25 May 1826
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 89
10 sons and daughters, 5 surviving King Rama I
(Mother of Rama II)
Sri Suriyendra Somdet Phra Sri Suriyendra
Boromarajini
Around 1767
Amphawa,
Samut Songkhram, Ayutthaya
21 September 1801 7 September 1809 21 July 1824
husband died
18 October 1836
Thonburi Palace, Bangkok Yai, Thonburi, Siam
aged 69
5 sons and daughters, 2 surviving King Rama II
(Mother of Rama IV)
Debsirindra Somdet Phra Debsirindra
Boromarajini
17 July 1834
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
1 April 1851 9 September 1862
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 28
3 sons and 1 daughter, 3 surviving King Rama IV
(Mother of Rama V)
Saovabha Phongsri Somdet Phra Nangchao Saovabha Phongsri
Phra Boromarajininat
(Queen Regent)
1 January 1864
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon,
Phra Nakhon, Siam
Around 1878 23 October 1910
husband died
20 October 1919
Phya Thai Palace, Ratchathewi, Phra Nakhon, Siam
aged 56
7 sons and 2 daughters, 5 surviving King Rama V
(Mother of Rama VI and Rama VII)
Indrasakdi Sachi Somdet Phra Nangchao Indrasakdi Sachi
Phra Boromarajini
10 June 1902
Phasi Charoen, Phra Nakhon, Siam
10 June 1921 1 January 1922 15 November 1925
Demoted to the rank of Princess consort
30 November 1975
Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok, Thailand
aged 73
(None) King Rama VI
Rambai Barni Somdet Phra Nangchao Rambai Barni
Phra Boromarajini
20 December 1904
Phra Nakhon, Siam
25 August 1918 25 November 1925 2 March 1935
Husband's abdication
22 May 1984
Sukhothai Palace, Dusit, Bangkok, Thailand
aged 79
(None) King Rama VII
Sirikit Somdet Phra Nangchao Sirikit
Phra Boromarajininat
(Queen Regent)
12 August 1932
Pathum Wan, Phra Nakhon, Siam
28 April 1950 - present
Husband's accession until present
(Incumbent)
(age: 82 years, 284 days)
Ubolratana Rajakanya
Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn
Princess Sirindhorn
Princess Chulabhorn Walailak
King Rama IX

Family Tree[edit]

Cadet Houses[edit]

Royal Houses[edit]

Viceregal Houses[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Terwiel, B.J. (2011). Thailand's Political History: From the 13th Century to Recent Times. Thailand: River Books. p. 39. ISBN 9749863968. 
  2. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement of the appointment of Prince Vajirunhis to the Crown Prince of Siam (Thai), Volume 3, Chapter 44, 1 March 1886, page 368
  3. ^ Royal Gazette, The Investiture of Crown Prince Maha Vajiravudh (Thai), Volume 11, Chapter 63, 20 January 1895, page 346
  4. ^ Royal Gazette, Royal Decree announcing the Investiture of Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn (Thai), Volume 89, Chapter 200 (ก), Special Edition, 28 December 1972, Page 1

External links[edit]

Royal house
Chakri Dynasty
Founding year: 1782
Preceded by
Thonburi Kingdom
Ruling Dynasty of the
Kingdom of Thailand (Siam)

6 April 1782–
Incumbent