List of mammals of New England

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New England states are indicated in red.

There are 7 orders, 17 families, 40 genera, and 60 species represented among the Mammals of New England. If extirpated, coastal, introduced, and accidental species are included these numbers increase to 8 orders, 26 families, 67 genera, and 105 species. The region includes the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

The makeup and distribution of the mammals in New England are largely the result of the Last Glacial Maximum when the Laurentide ice sheet covered virtually the entire region. Recolonization of the area appears to have occurred from one or a few southern glacial refugia. This is in contrast to the multiple glacial refugia present throughout the American West (Stone and Cook, 2000). As a consequence of both the recent uninhabitability and the few sources of recolonization, species diversity for some taxa in parts of New England are lower than in similar areas in other parts of North America. Chipmunks and ground squirrels are exemplars of this situation. New England has one species of each, but numerous locations west of the Rocky Mountains host several species (Hall, 1981).

Habitat varies throughout the region. Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, in the north of the region, have a humid continental short summer climate, with cooler summers and long, cold winters. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, in the south, have a humid continental long summer climate, with hot summers and cold winters. The average rainfall for most of the region is from 1,000 to 1,500 mm (40 to 60 in) a year, although the northern parts of Vermont and Maine see slightly less, from 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 40 in). Snowfall can often exceed 2,500 mm (100 in) annually (New England Climate Initiative, 2006). Most mammals in this region exhibit specializations for dealing with the sometimes harsh winter conditions.

A comprehensive listing of all species found in the region follows.

Contents

Opossums, order Didelphimorphia[edit]

Virginia opossum

Opossums, family Didelphidae[edit]

Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana[edit]

  • Distribution: Southern Maine, Southern Vermont, Southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island

Insectivores, order Soricomorpha[edit]

Masked shrew

Shrews, family Soricidae[edit]

Masked shrew, Sorex cinereus[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Sorex cinereus cinereus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Long-tailed shrew, Sorex dispar[edit]

  • Distribution: Northwestern Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, all but northeastern Vermont, western Massachusetts, and western Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Sorex dispar dispar according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Smoky shrew, Sorex fumeus[edit]

Smoky shrew
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Sorex fumeus umbrosus (all but southernmost Maine, northernmost New Hampshire, and northern Vermont) and Sorex fumeus fumeus (southernmost Maine, central and southern New Hampshire, southern Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize S. f. umbrosus as a valid subspecies and consider all New England Sorex fumeus to be S. f. fumeus. Hutterer (2005), however, recognizes S. f. umbrosus as a valid subspecies.

Pygmy shrew, Sorex hoyi[edit]

  • Distribution: All but the southern tip of Maine, central and northern New Hampshire, and all but southeastern Vermont, extreme Western Massachusetts.
  • Subspecies: Sorex hoyi thompsoni according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

American water shrew, Sorex palustris[edit]

American water shrew.
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Sorex palustris gloveralleni (easternmost Maine) and Sorex palustris albibarbis (all but easternmost Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that both S. p. gloveralleni and S. p. albibarbis are not valid subspecies and all New England forms belong to the subspecies Sorex palustris palustris. Hutterer (2005), however, treats S. p. gloveralleni and S. p. albibarbis as valid subspecies.

Northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda[edit]

Northern short-tailed shrew
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Blarina brevicauda angusta (northern Maine), Blarina brevicauda pallida (north-central Maine), Blarina brevicauda hooperi (northern Green Mountains, Vermont), Blarina brevicauda talpoides (southern and central Maine, New Hampshire, most of Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island), Blarina brevicauda compacta (Nantucket Island), and Blarina brevicauda aloga (Martha's Vineyard) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that B. b. angusta, B. b. pallida, B. b. hooperi, and B. b. talpoides are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Blarina brevicauda brevicauda. Hutterer (2005), however, recognizes all of these as valid subspecies.

North American least shrew, Cryptosis parva[edit]

  • Distribution: Southern Connecticut.

Moles, family Talpidae[edit]

Hairy-tailed mole, Parascalops breweri[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, northern and western Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Eastern mole, Scalopus aquaticus[edit]

  • Distribution: Central and southern Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Scalopus aquaticus aquaticus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata[edit]

Star-nosed mole
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Condylura cristata cristata according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Bats, order Chiroptera[edit]

Vesper bats, family Vespertilionidae[edit]

Eastern small-footed bat, Myotis leibii[edit]

  • Distribution: Central Maine, central New Hampshire, central Vermont, western Massachusetts.
  • Status: Endangered in New Hampshire; Threatened in Vermont (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

Little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus[edit]

Little brown bat
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Myotis lucifugus lucifugus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis[edit]

Indiana bat
  • Distribution: Southeastern and central New Hampshire, southern and central Vermont, western and central Massachusetts, all but southern Connecticut, northeastern Rhode Island.
  • Status: Federally Endangered (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

Silver-haired bat, Lasionycteris noctivagans[edit]

  • Distribution (summer): Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northern and central Massachusetts.
  • Distribution (winter): southeastern Connecticut.

Eastern pipistrelle, Perimyotis subflavus[edit]

Eastern pipistrelle
  • Distribution southern New Hampshire, all but northeastern Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Perimyotis subflavus subflavus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Eptesicus fuscus fuscus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Eastern red bat, Lasiurus borealis[edit]

  • Distribution (summer): Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Lasiurus borealis borealis according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus[edit]

Hoary Bat
  • Distribution (summer, predominantly females): northern Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts.
  • Subspecies: Lasiurus cinereus cinereus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Lagomorphs, order Lagomorpha[edit]

Eastern cottontail

Rabbits and hares, family Leporidae[edit]

Eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus[edit]

  • Distribution: southern tip of Maine, southern New Hampshire, all but northeastern Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus (southern New Hampshire, southeastern Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) and Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi (central and western Vermont) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that both S. f. mallurus and S. f. mearnsi are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Sylvilagus floridanus floridanus. Hoffman and Smith (2005), however, recognize both S. f. mallurus and S. f. mearnsi as valid subspecies.

New England cottontail, Sylvilagus transitionalis[edit]

  • Distribution:(Now) Southeast Maine, Southwest and Cape cod Massachusetts, Central New Hampshire, Western and eastern Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus[edit]

Snowshoe hare.
  • Distribution: all but the southern tip of Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, Vermont, most of Massachusetts, northern Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Lepus americanus struthopus (northern Maine) and Lepus americanus virginianus (central Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, Vermont, and northeastern Massachusetts) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that both L. a. struthopus and L. a. virginianus are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Lepus americanus americanus. Hoffman and Smith (2005), however, recognize both L. a. struthopus and L. a. virginianus as valid subspecies.

European hare, Lepus europaeus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution (persistence of population is in dispute): southwesternmost corner of Massachusetts and central and western Connecticut.

Black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.

European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (introduced, feral)[edit]

Rodents, order Rodentia[edit]

Eastern chipmunk

Squirrels, chipmunks, and marmots, family Sciuridae[edit]

Eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Tamias striatus lysteri (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, most of Massachusetts, northeastern Connecticut, and northern Rhode Island) and Tamias striatus fisheri (extreme southern Massachusetts, southern and central Connecticut, southern Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that both T. s. lysteri and T. s. fisheri are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Tamias striatus striatus. Thorrington and Hoffman (2005), however, recognize both T. s. lysteri and T. s. fisheri as valid subspecies.

Woodchuck, Marmota monax[edit]

Woodchuck
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Marmota monax canadensis (northern Maine, northern Vermont), Marmota monax rufescens (extreme western Maine, northern and southwestern New Hampshire, north central and southern Vermont, western Massachusetts, and southwestern Connecticut)), and Marmota monax preblorum (central and southern Maine, central and southeastern New Hampshire, west central Vermont, eastern Massachusetts, northwestern Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that M. m. canadensis and M. m. rufescens, and M. m. preblorum are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Marmota monax monax. Thorrington and Hoffman (2005), however, recognize M. m. canadensis and M. m. rufescens, but not M. m. preblorum, as valid subspecies.

Eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis[edit]

Eastern gray squirrel
  • Distribution: central and southern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Sciurus carolinensis pennsylvanicus according to Hall (1981) and Thorrington and Hoffman (2005). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize S. c. pennsylvanicus as distinct from Sciurus carolinensis.

Fox squirrel, Sciurus niger (Extirpated?/Vagrant)[edit]

  • Distribution: Formerly Western Connecticut. May be Vagrant in Western Vermont and Western Massachusetts.


American red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus[edit]

American red squirrel
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Tamiasciurus hudsonicus gymnicus (Maine, all but southeasternmost New Hampshire, central and western Vermont) and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus loquax (western Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) argue that both T. h. gymnicus and T. h. loquax are not valid subspecies and should be synonymized with Tamiasciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus. Thorrington and Hoffman (2005), however, recognize both T. h. gymnicus and T. h. loquax as valid subspecies.

Northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus[edit]

Northern flying squirrel.
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, western and central Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Glaucomys sabrinus macrotis according to Hall (1981) and Thorrington and Hoffman (2005). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize G. s. macrotis as distinct from Glaucomys sabrinus sabrinus.

Southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans[edit]

Southern flying squirrel.
  • Distribution: southern Maine, all but northernmost New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Glaucomys volans volans according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Beavers, family Castoridae[edit]

American beaver

American beaver, Castor canadensis[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Neither Helgen (2005) not Whitaker and Hall (1998) recognize any named subspecies of Castor canadensis. Hall (1981) considers all New England forms to be Castor canadensis acadicus.

Jumping mice, family Dipodidae[edit]

Meadow jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Zapus hudsonius acadicus (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and northern and central Massachusetts) and Zapus hudsonius americanus (southern Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) treat all New England forms as Zapus hudsonius hudsonius.

Woodland jumping mouse, Napaeozapus insignis[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, all but southwestern New Hampshire, Vermont, western Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Napaeozapus insignis insignis according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
White-footed mouse

New World rats and mice, voles, lemmings, and muskrats, family Cricetidae[edit]

White-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus[edit]

  • Distribution: southern and central Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island), Peromyscus leucopus ammodytes (Monomoy Island), and Peromyscus leucopus fusus (Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard) according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Allegheny woodrat, Neotoma magister (extirpated)[edit]

  • Distribution (before extirpation): western Connecticut, and southwest Massachusetts.

Deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus[edit]

Deer mouse
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, northern Connecticut, and northern Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Peromyscus maniculatus abietorum (northern Maine), Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis (southern and eastern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, northern Connecticut, and northern Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) treat all New England forms of Peromyscus maniculatus as Peromyscus maniculatus maniculatus.

Southern red-backed vole, Myodes gapperi[edit]

Southern red-backed vole
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, northern Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Myodes gapperi ochraceous (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island) and Myodes gapperi gapperi (northern Connecticut, western Massachusetts) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) treat all New England forms of Myodes gapperi as Myodes gapperi gapperi.

Rock vole, Microtus chrotorrhinus[edit]

  • Distribution: northern Maine, northern New Hampshire, northern Vermont.
  • Subspecies: Microtus chrotorrhinus chrotorrhinusaccording to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Beach vole, Microtus breweri[edit]

Meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus[edit]

Meadow vole
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) Microtus pennsylvanicus shattucki (Tumble Down Dick Island and Isleboro Island, Maine) Microtus pennsylvanicus provectus (Block Island, Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Woodland vole, Microtus pinetorum[edit]

  • Distribution: southernmost Maine, southern New Hampshire, southern Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) recognizes all New England Microtus pinetorum as Microtus pinetorum pinetorum.

Muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus[edit]

Muskrat
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Ondatra zibethicus zibethicus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Northern bog lemming, Synaptomys borealis[edit]

  • Distribution: northern and eastern Maine, northern New Hampshire, and extreme northeastern Vermont.
  • Subspecies: Synaptomys borealis sphagnicola according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
  • Status: Threatened in Maine (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

Southern bog lemming, Synaptomys cooperi[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Synaptomys cooperi cooperi according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Old World rats and mice, family Muridae (introduced)[edit]

Brown rat, Rattus norvegicus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Black rat, Rattus rattus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: extreme southern Maine, southeastern New Hampshire, eastern Massachusetts, all but northwestern Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

House mouse, Mus musculus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Porcupines, family Erethizontidae[edit]

North American porcupine

North American porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, western and central Massachusetts, and northeastern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Erethizon dorsatum dorsatum according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Primates[edit]

Human, Homo sapiens[edit]

Carnivores, order Carnivora[edit]

Dogs, family Canidae[edit]

Coyote, Canis latrans[edit]

Coyote
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Canis latrans thamnos according to Hall (1981). Wozencraft (2005) also recognizes C. l. thanos as a valid subspecies. Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) recognize all New England Canis latrans as Canis latrans latrans.

Gray wolf Canis lupus (extirpated)[edit]

  • Distribution (before extirpation): Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies (before extirpation): Canis lupus lycaon according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
  • Status: Federally Endangered (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

Domestic dog, Canis familiaris (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: Domestic Dogs can become feral or semi-feral throughout New England.

Red fox, Vulpes vulpes[edit]

Red fox
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Vulpes vulpes rubricosa (northern Maine) and Vulpes vulpes fulva (southern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize V. v. rubricosa as valid and recognize all New England Vulpes vulpes as V. v. fulva. Wozencraft (2005), however, does recognize V. v. rubricosa as a valid subspecies.

Gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus[edit]

Gray fox
  • Distribution: southern Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, all but extreme southeastern Massachusetts, all but southeastern Connecticut, and northern Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Urocyon cinereoargenteus borealis (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and central Massachusetts) and Urocyon cinereoargenteus cinereoargenteus (all but southeastern Connecticut, eastern Massachusetts, and northern Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize U. c. borealis as valid and recognize all New England Urocyon cinereoargenteus as U. c. cinereoargenteus. Wozencraft (2005), however, does recognize U. c. borealis as a valid subspecies.

Bears, family Ursidae[edit]

American black bear, Ursus americanus[edit]

Black bear
  • Distribution: northern and central Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, all but northwestern Vermont, western and central Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Ursus americanus americanus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Seals, family Phocidae (coastal)[edit]

Harbor seal, Phoca vitulina (coastal)[edit]

  • Subspecies: Phoca vitulina concolor according to Hall (1981) and Folkens (2002).

Gray seal, Halichoerus grypus (coastal)[edit]

Bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus (extremely rare coastal vagrant)[edit]

Ringed seal, Pusa hispida (uncommon coastal vagrant)[edit]

Harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus (occasional coastal vagrant)[edit]

  • Subspecies: Pagophilus groenlandicus groenlandicus according to Hall (1981) and Folkens (2002).

Hooded seal, Cystophora cristata (uncommon coastal vagrant)[edit]

Walrus, family Odobenidae[edit]

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus (extremely rare coastal vagrant, no recent records)[edit]

Raccoons, family Procyonidae[edit]

Common raccoon, Procyon lotor[edit]

Raccoon
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Procyon lotor lotor according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Weasels, minks, martens, fishers, and otters, family Mustelidae[edit]

American marten, Martes americana[edit]

Pine marten
  • Distribution: northern Maine, northern New Hampshire, and northeast Vermont. Originally distributed throughout Maine, most of New Hampshire, most of Vermont, Central and western Massachusetts, and northern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Martes americana americana according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
  • Status: Endangered in Vermont; Threatened in New Hampshire.

Wolverine, Gulo gulo (Extirpated)[edit]

Wolverine
  • Distribution (before extirpation): Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and western Massachusetts. *Subspecies: Gulo gulo according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Fisher, Martes pennanti[edit]

Fisher
  • Distribution: Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire, all but southwestern Vermont, most of Massachusetts, and northern Connecticut. Originally distributed throughout Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut.
  • Subspecies: Martes pennanti pennanti according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Short-tailed weasel, Mustela erminea[edit]

Short-tailed weasel
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Mustela erminea cicognanii according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Long-tailed weasel, Mustela frenata[edit]

Long-tailed weasel
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Mustela frenata occisor (all but western Maine) and Mustela frenata noveboracensis (western Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize both M. f. occisor and M. f. noveboracensis as valid and recognize all New England Mustela frenata as Mustela frenata frenata. Wozencraft (2005), however, does recognize both M. f. occisor and M. f. noveboracensis as valid subspecies.

American mink Neovison vison[edit]

Mink
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Neovison vison vison (Maine, all but southernmost New Hampshire, and all but southernmost Vermont) and Neovison vison mink (southernmost New Hampshire, southernmost Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island) according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize N. v. mink as valid and recognize all New England Neovison vison as N. v. vison. Wozencraft (2005), however, does recognize N. v. mink as a valid subspecies.

Sea mink Neovison macrodon (extinct)[edit]

  • Distribution (historic): eastern Massachusetts, extreme south eastern New Hampshire, and eastern Maine

River otter, Lontra canadensis[edit]

River otter
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, northern Connecticut, and northern Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Lontra canadensis canadensis according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Skunks, family Mephitidae[edit]

Striped skunk

Striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis[edit]

  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Mephitis mephitis nigra according to Hall (1981). Wozencraft (2005) also recognizes M. m. nigra as a valid subspecies. Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) recognize all New England Mephitis mephitis as Mephitis mephitis mephitis.

Cats, family Felidae[edit]

Domestic cat, Felis catus (introduced)[edit]

  • Distribution: Domestic Cats can become feral or semi-feral throughout New England.

Mountain lion, Felis concolor[edit]

  • Distribution (before extirpation): Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies (before extirpation): Felis concolor couguar according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
  • Status: Federally Endangered (Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis[edit]

Canada lynx
  • Distribution: northern Maine, northern New Hampshire, and northern Vermont. Originally distributed throughout New England.
  • Subspecies: Lynx canadensis canadensis according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).
  • Status: Endangered in New Hampshire and Vermont (Whitaker and Hamilton, 1998).

Bobcat, Lynx rufus[edit]

Bobcat
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northern Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut. Originally distributed throughout New England.
  • Subspecies: Lynx rufus gigas (all but southernmost Maine, northern New Hampshire, and northern Vermont) and Lynx rufus rufus (southernmost Maine, southern New Hampshire, southern Vermont, northern Massachusetts, and northwestern Connecticut according to Hall (1981). Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) do not recognize L. r. gigas as valid and recognize all New England Lynx rufus as L. r. rufus. Wozencraft (2005), however, does recognize L. r. gigas as a valid subspecies.
  • Status: Threatened in Rhode Island.

Even-toed ungulates and whales, order Cetartiodactyla[edit]

Deer and moose, family Cervidae[edit]

Fallow deer, Dama dama (introduced)[edit]

American elk, Cervus elaphus (extirpated)[edit]

  • Distribution (before extirpation): southern Vermont, western Massachusetts,northwestern Connecticut but sometimes in Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies (before extirpation): Cervus elaphus canadensis according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus[edit]

White-tailed deer
  • Distribution: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Odocoileus virginianus borealis according to Hall (1981). Grubb (2005) also recognizes O. v. borealis as a valid subspecies. Whitaker and Hamilton (1998) recognize all New England Odocoileus virginianus as Odocoileus virginianus virginianus.

Moose Alces americanus[edit]

Moose
  • Distribution: Maine, all but southeastern New Hampshire, Vermont, northernmost Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
  • Subspecies: Alces americanus americanus according to Hall (1981) and Whitaker and Hamilton (1998).

Right whales, family Balaenidae (coastal)[edit]

North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis (coastal, pelagic)[citation needed][edit]

Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus (coastal, pelagic) Occasionally seen in winter[edit]

Rorquals, family Balaenopteridae (coastal)[edit]

Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (coastal)[edit]

Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (coastal)[edit]

Sei whale, Balaeonoptera borealis (coastal)[edit]

Fin whale, Balaeonoptera physalus (coastal)[edit]

Blue whale, Balaeonoptera musculus (coastal)[edit]

Sperm whales, family Physeteridae (pelagic)[edit]

Sperm whale, Sphincter macrocephalus (pelagic)[citation needed][edit]

Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps (coastal)[edit]

Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima (coastal)[edit]

Beaked whales, family Ziphiidae (pelagic)[citation needed][edit]

Northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus (pelagic)[edit]

Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris (pelagic)[edit]

True's beaked whale, Mesoplodon mirus (pelagic)[edit]

Gervais' beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus (pelagic)[edit]

Sowerby's beaked whale, Mesoplodon bidens (pelagic)[edit]

Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris (pelagic)[edit]

Beluga and Narwhal, family Monodontidae (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Beluga, Delphinapterus leucus (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Dolphins, family Delphinidae (coastal)[edit]

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (coastal)[edit]

Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (pelagic vagrant)[edit]

Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (coastal)[edit]

Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus (coastal)[edit]

Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (pelagic)[edit]

White-beaked dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris (coastal)[edit]

Killer whale, Orcinus orca (coastal, pelagic)[edit]

Long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (coastal)[edit]

Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus (coastal)[edit]

Porpoises, family Phocoenidae (coastal)[edit]

Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (coastal)[edit]

Manatees, order Sirenia (coastal vagrant)[edit]

Manatees, family Trichechidae (coastal vagrant)[edit]

West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus (coastal vagrant)[edit]

  • Subspecies: Trichechus manatus latirostris according to Folkens (2002).

References[edit]

  • Folkens, Pieter. 2002. Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.
  • Grubb, Peter. 2005. Order Artiodactyla. Pp. 637–722 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Hall, E. Raymond. 1981. The Mammals of North America. 2 volumes. Ronald Press.
  • Helgen, Kristofer M. 2005. Family Castoridae. Pp. 842–843 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Hoffman, Robert S. and Andrew T. Smith. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. Pp. 185–211 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Hutterer, Rainer. 2005. Order Soricomorpha. Pp. 220–311 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • New England Climate Initiative. Available at: [1] (Accessed 26 July 2006).
  • Stone, K. D. and J. A. Cook. 2000. Phylogeography of black bears (Ursus americanus) of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78:1218-1223.
  • Thorrington, Richard W. Jr. and Robert S. Hoffman. 2005. Family Sciuridae. Pp. 754–818 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Whitaker, John O; Hamilton, W J. 1998. Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801434750.
  • Wozencraft, W. Christopher. 2005. Order Carnivora. Pp. 532–628 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

See also[edit]