View of the rock of Martos from the Manuel Carrasco park.
|Nickname(s): La ciudad de la Peña|
|• Alcaldesa||Custodia Martos Luque (2011) (PA)|
|• Total||259.10 km2 (100.04 sq mi)|
|Elevation||753 m (2,470 ft)|
|• Density||95/km2 (250/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Dialing code||(+34) 953 55 XX XX (+34) 953 70 XX XX|
It has a population of 24063 inhabitants, making Martos the fifth largest municipality in the province. The city is located on a western peak of the Sierra Jabalcuz mountain range. It belongs to the metropolitan Area of Jaén, of which it is considered to be the second most important city after the capital.
Its economy is based on agriculture, in particular the cultivation of the olive tree. Martos is considered to be the first producer of olive oil of the world. Also important are various industries, especially those related to the treatment of plastic.
The city has been linked to the Roman settlement of Colonia Augusta Gemella, and starting in the 8th century was ruled by the Moors under various Islamic states for over 500 years. In 1225, King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon captured the city from the Moors and incorporated it into his kingdom.
During the Middle Ages, Martos became a strategic place, and its defences were reinforced with the construction of numerous fortifications in the city.
At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, Martos underwent significant economic and urban development (reflected in the city's architecture), in large part due to the wealth derived from the industrial production of olive oil. Martos thus became one of the most prosperous cities of eastern Andalusia.
Since already it has been said, Martos possesses an agricultural immense richness thanks to the culture of the olive grove, which places the city in the summit as for production and quality of what is named a “liquid gold ".
Nevertheless in the last years, the industry has done a great act of presence in the economy of this city, especially the relative one to the plastic, the industry of the car, metallurgists, the construction of roads, etc. Among all the existing factories in the city, it is necessary to emphasize the French multinational Valeo, dedicated to the production of projectors and lighting of vehicles, on which many other factories depend.
Among the numerous festivals carried out in the city it is necessary to highlight:
- Holy week: Considered of tourist interest of Andalusia.
- San Bartolomé's festival: Principal festival. August
- San Amador: On May 5
- Virgin of the Villa: On the first Tuesday after Holy Week
- Saint Martha: On July 29
- Romería of the Virgin of the Victory: last weekend of May
- Festival of the olive: on December 8
"Martos". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 22, 2005.
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