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Murder of Meredith Kercher

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Murder of Meredith Kercher
Meredith-Kercher.jpg
Meredith Kercher in 2007
Born Meredith Susanna Cara Kercher
(1985-12-28)28 December 1985
Southwark, London, England
Died 1 November 2007(2007-11-01) (aged 21)
Via della Pergola 7, Perugia, Umbria, Italy
Cause of death Knife wounds leading to blood loss and suffocation
Burial 14 December 2007
Mitcham Road Cemetery, Croydon, London
Prosecutors Giuliano Mignini
Manuela Comodi
Giancarlo Costagliola
Giovanni Galati (General Prosecutor of Perugia)
Arrested Rudy Guede
Convicted of sexual assault, murder Rudy Guede
(29 October 2008)

Meredith Susanna Cara Kercher (28 December 1985 – 1 November 2007) was a British student on exchange from the University of Leeds who was murdered in Perugia, Italy, on 1 November 2007. Kercher, aged 21, was found dead on the floor of her bedroom. By the time Rudy Guede's bloodstained fingerprints at the scene were identified, police had charged American Amanda Knox and her boyfriend, Raffaele Sollecito with the murder on the basis of disputed statements made by Knox. All three were charged with acting together to kill Kercher. Guede was tried separately at a fast-track procedure; in October 2008 he was found guilty of sexual assault and murder, and is currently serving a 16-year sentence.

The subsequent prosecutions of Knox and Sollecito received international publicity, and in America forensic experts were critical of the evidence for initial guilty verdicts. Knox and Sollecito were released after almost four years following their acquittal at a second-level trial in which judges said there was a "material non-existence" of evidence, and that an association of Sollecito and Knox with Guede to commit the murder was "far from probable".[1][2][3] Some observers criticised the media for not describing the case accurately and dispassionately, believing it could influence the court case.[4] In March 2015, Knox and Sollecito were definitively exonerated by Italy's highest court, the Court of Cassation.[5][6][7][8][9]

Meredith Kercher[edit]

photograph
Kercher arrived in Perugia in August 2007.
External images
Via della Pergola 7, courtesy of the BBC.

Background[edit]

Meredith Susanna Cara Kercher (born 28 December 1985 in Southwark, South London, and known to her friends as "Mez") lived in Coulsdon, South London. She had two older brothers and an older sister. Her father is a freelance journalist, and her mother a housewife. Kercher attended the Old Palace School in Croydon. She was enthusiastic about the language and culture of Italy, and after a school exchange trip she returned, aged 15, to spend her summer vacation with a family in Sessa Aurunca. Kercher, who was petite, surprised her father by taking up karate when she was 17 years old.[10]

She won a place at the University of Leeds studying European politics and Italian, which she could speak almost fluently; working as a barmaid, tour guide and in promotions to support herself, she made a cameo appearance in the music video for Kristian Leontiou's song "Some Say" in 2004.[10][11] Her ambition was to work for the European Union or as a journalist, possibly while living in Italy. After some research, she chose the University of Perugia for her Italian study year, taking a course in modern history, political theories and history of cinema. Fellow students described Kercher as caring, intelligent, witty, and popular.[11][12]

Via della Pergola 7[edit]

Perugia, a well-known cultural and artistic centre, is a city of 150,000. More than a quarter of the population are students, many from abroad, giving it a vibrant social scene. In Perugia, Kercher shared a four-bedroom ground-floor flat in a house at Via della Pergola 7 (43°06′53″N 12°23′29″E / 43.1148°N 12.3914°E / 43.1148; 12.3914 (Via della Pergola 7, Perugia)Coordinates: 43°06′53″N 12°23′29″E / 43.1148°N 12.3914°E / 43.1148; 12.3914 (Via della Pergola 7, Perugia)). Her flatmates were two Italian women in their late twenties, and 20-year-old University of Washington student Amanda Knox who was attending the University for Foreigners in Perugia on an exchange year. Kercher and Knox moved in on 10 and 20 September 2007, respectively, meeting each other for the first time.[13] Kercher called her mother at least once a day on a mobile phone she kept with her at all times; her other mobile was registered to an Italian flatmate.[14] Kercher's English women friends saw relatively little of Knox, as she preferred to mix with Italians.[15]

The walk-out semi-basement of the house was rented by four young Italian men with whom both Kercher and Knox were friendly. Returning home at 2 am one night in mid October, Knox, Kercher, and some of the other basement residents met Rudy Guede, who attached himself to the group. He was invited into the basement and talked about Knox with the Italians. Knox and then Kercher came down to join them. At 4:30 am Kercher left, saying she was going to bed, and Knox followed her out.[16][17]

Three weeks before her death Kercher went with Knox to the EuroChocolate festival. On 25 October, Kercher and Knox went to a concert where Knox met Raffaele Sollecito, a 23-year-old computer science graduate at the University of Perugia. She began spending nights at his flat, a 5-minute walk from Via della Pergola 7, and returning for clothes every second day.[18][19]

Last sighting[edit]

1 November was a public holiday. Kercher's Italian flatmates were out of town, as were the occupants of the downstairs flat.[20][21] That evening, Kercher had dinner with three other English women at one of their homes. She parted company with a friend at around 8:45 pm, about 500 yards (460 m) from Via della Pergola 7.[22]

Alarm raised[edit]

By Knox's account, having spent the night with Sollecito, she arrived at Via della Pergola 7 on the morning of 2 November, finding the front door open and drops of blood in the bathroom she shared with Kercher; Kercher's bedroom door was locked which Knox took as indicating that Kercher was sleeping. After showering, Knox found faeces in one of the toilets. Knox went back to Sollecito's and returned with him to Via della Pergola 7. Noticing a broken window in one of the Italian flatmates' bedrooms and alarmed that Kercher did not answer her door, Sollecito unsuccessfully tried to break it down. The Polizia Postale arrived, having traced two mobile phones found in a garden near to Via della Pergola 7. Immediately afterwards, Sollecito called his sister, a lieutenant in the carabinieri for advice. She told him to call the 112 emergency number, which he did.[23][24]

Discovery of the body[edit]

One of the Italian flatmates arrived with her friends after receiving a phone call from Knox. Dempsey writes that in rummaging around, looking for anything that might be missing, she inadvertently disturbed the crime scene.[25] On discovering that the two phones Kercher always carried with her had been found in a nearby garden, an Italian flatmate became alarmed and requested that the police force open the door to Kercher's bedroom, but they declined. Instead, a male friend of the Italian flatmate broke down the door at around 1:15 pm, the body of Kercher was found inside lying on the floor, covered by a duvet.[26]

Autopsy[edit]

Pathologist Luca Lalli from Perugia's forensic science institute performed the autopsy on the body of Kercher. Her injuries consisted of 16 bruises, and seven cuts. These included several bruises and a couple of insubstantial cuts on the palm of her hand. Bruises on her nose, nostrils, mouth, and underneath her jaw were compatible with a hand being clamped over her mouth and nose.[27] Lalli's autopsy report was reviewed by three pathologists from Perugia's forensic science institute, they interpreted injuries, including some to the genital region, as indicating an attempt to immobilize Kercher during sexual violence.[28]

Interment[edit]

A funeral was held on 14 December 2007 at Croydon Parish Church, with more than 300 people in attendance, followed by a private burial at Croydon's Mitcham Road Cemetery.[29] The degree that Kercher would have received in 2009 was awarded posthumously by the University of Leeds.[30]

Meredith Kercher scholarship fund[edit]

Five years after the murder, the city of Perugia and its University for Foreigners in co-operation with the Italian embassy in London instituted a scholarship fund to honour the memory of Meredith Kercher.[31][32] John Kercher stated in an interview that all profits from his book Meredith would be going to a charitable foundation in Meredith Kercher's name.[33]

Italian criminal procedure[edit]

photograph
A panorama of Perugia, the city where Kercher, Knox and Sollecito were students

Individuals accused of any crime are considered innocent until proven guilty, although the defendant may be held in detention. Unless the accused opts for a fast-track trial, murder cases are heard by a Corte d'Assise. A guilty verdict is not regarded as a definitive conviction until the accused has exhausted the appeals process, irrespective of the number of times the defendant has been put on trial.[34][35]

Italian trials can last many months, and have long gaps between hearings (the first trial of Knox and Sollecito was heard two days a week, three weeks a month).[36] If found guilty a defendant is absolutely guaranteed what is in effect a retrial, where all evidence and witnesses can be re-examined.[37] A verdict can be overturned by the Italian supreme court or Corte di Cassazione, which considers written briefs. If the Corte di Cassazione overturns a verdict, it explains what legal principles were violated by the lower court, which must abide by the ruling when re-trying the case. If the Corte di Cassazione upholds a guilty verdict of the appeal trial, the conviction becomes definitive, the appeals process is exhausted, and any sentence is served.[35][37][38]

Rudy Guede [edit]

Mug shot of Rudy Hermann Guede taken by police some time before his arrest for the murder of Meredith Kercher
Rudy Guede

Rudy Hermann Guede (born 26 December 1986, Abidjan, Ivory Coast) was 20 years old at the time of the murder.[39] He had lived in Perugia since the age of five.[40] In Italy, Guede was raised with the help of his school teachers, a local priest and others.[41] Guede's father returned to Ivory Coast in 2004. Guede, then aged 15, was adopted by a wealthy Perugia family.[40][42] He played basketball for the Perugia youth team in the 2004–2005 season.[43] Guede said he met a couple of the Italian men from the basement of Via della Pergola 7 while spending evenings at the basketball court in the Piazza Grimana at this time. In mid-2007 the family asked him to leave their home.[42][44][45]

According to Nina Burleigh, the young men who lived in the downstairs flat at Via della Pergola 7 were unable to recall how Guede had met them, but did recall how, after his first visit to their home, they had found him later in the bathroom, sitting asleep on the unflushed toilet, which was full of faeces.[46] Guede allegedly committed break-ins, including one of a lawyer's office through a second-story window, and another during which he burgled a flat and brandished a jackknife when confronted.[47] On 27 October, days before Kercher's murder, Guede was arrested in Milan after breaking into a nursery school; he was reportedly found by police with an 11-inch knife.[48][49]

Guede went to a friend's house at about 11:30 p.m. on 1 November, the night of the murder. He later went to a nightclub where he stayed until 4:30 a.m. On the following night, 2 November, Guede went to the same nightclub with three American female students he had met in a bar.[50]

Trial[edit]

After his fingerprints were found at the crime scene, Guede was extradited from Germany where he had fled a few days after the murder; he had said on the internet that he knew he was a suspect and wanted to clear his name.[51][52] Guede opted for a fast-track trial, held in closed session with no reporters present. He told the court that he had gone to Via della Pergola 7 on a date arranged with Kercher after meeting her the previous evening. Two neighbours of Guede, foreign female students who were with him at a nightclub on that evening, told police the only girl they saw him talking to had long blonde hair.[53][54] He said Kercher had let him in the cottage around 9 pm.[55] Sollecito's lawyers said a glass fragment from the window found beside a shoe-print of Guede's at the scene of the crime was proof that he had broken in.[56][57]

Guede said that he and Kercher had kissed and touched, but did not have sex. He then developed stomach pains and crossed to the large bathroom on the other side of the apartment. Guede said he heard Kercher scream while he was in the bathroom, on emerging, he had found a shadowy figure, holding a knife, standing over Kercher, who lay bleeding on the floor. Guede said the man fled while saying in perfect Italian, "Trovato negro, trovato colpevole; andiamo" ("Found black man, found culprit; let's go").[54][55][57][58]

The court found that his version of events did not match the forensic evidence, and that he could not explain why one of his palm prints, stained with Kercher's blood, had been found on the pillow of the single bed, under the disrobed body.[57][59] Guede said he had left Kercher fully dressed.[60] He was found guilty in October 2008 of murder and sexual assault, and sentenced to 30 years' imprisonment.[61] Micheli acquitted Guede of theft, suggesting that there had been no break-in.[62]

Appeal[edit]

Guede had originally said Knox had not been at the scene of the crime, but changed his story to say she had been in the apartment at the time of the murder. He said he had heard her arguing with Kercher, then glancing out of a window had seen Knox's silhouette leave the house.[63][64][65]

Three weeks after Knox and Sollecito were convicted, Guede had his prison term cut from thirty to twenty-four years before the automatic one-third reduction given for the fast-track trial, resulting in sixteen years. A lawyer representing the Kercher family protested at a "drastic reduction" in the sentence.[66] Guede currently qualifies for day release from prison.[67][68][69]

Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito[edit]

Main article: Amanda Knox
Timeline
2007

Late Aug: Meredith Kercher arrives in Perugia.

10 Sep: Kercher moves into Via della Pergola 7,
renting a room from two Italian flatmates.

20 Sep: Amanda Knox rents the fourth bedroom.

Mid Oct: Rudy Guede meets Kercher and Knox.

25 Oct: Knox starts dating Raffaele Sollecito.

1 Nov: Kercher murdered in her bedroom.

2–6 Nov. Knox and Sollecito questioned by police
without lawyers.

6 Nov: Knox implicates herself and Patrick Lumumba.
Knox, Sollecito, and Lumumba arrested.

19 Nov: Fingerprints at crime scene identified
as Guede's; DNA later identified as his.

20 Nov: Guede arrested in Germany; Lumumba
released.


2008

1 Apr: Supreme Court of Italy upholds detention
of Knox, Sollecito, Guede.

29 Oct: Guede sentenced to 30 years. Knox and
Sollecito charged with murder, sexual assault.


2009

16 Jan: Trial of Knox and Sollecito begins.

18 Nov: Guede's appeal begins.

21 Nov: Prosecution requests life for Knox, Sollecito,
and nine months' solitary confinement for Knox.

4 Dec: Knox sentenced to 26 years, Sollecito 25.

22 Dec: Guede's sentence reduced to 16 years on appeal.


2010

May: Guede files second appeal.

24 Nov: Knox, Sollecito appeal opens.

16 Dec: Italy's Court of Cassation upholds Guede's conviction.


2011

29 Jun: Independent experts say forensic evidence
against Knox, Sollecito is flawed.

3 Oct: Second level trial finds Knox and Sollecito not guilty.


2013

26 Mar: Verdict set aside. Case to be reheard.


2014

30 Jan: Second level reheard.


2015

27 Mar: 2014 Italian Supreme court definitively exonerates Knox and Sollecito.



Sources

In outlining the case for colleagues hours after the discovery of the body, Perugia Flying Squad Detective Superintendent Monica Napoleoni told them the murderer was definitely not a burglar and apparent signs of a break-in were staged as a deliberate deception,.[70][71][72][73] Knox was the only occupant of the house who had been near it on the night of the murder.[74][75][76] At her trial Knox said that she had been crying and trembling as she sat with Sollecito in a car outside the house, he then gave her his jacket and they left the car.[77]

At around 3 pm police requested the flatmates and their friends to attend the police station for further enquiries. One of the first to be questioned, she said she had spent the night of 1 November with Sollecito at his flat.[78] Over the next four days Knox was repeatedly interviewed although officially she was a witness and not given a lawyer. She was arrested and charged with murder after spending all night in the police station. At her trial Knox's account of what had happened during her interrogation differed from that of the police. She testified that she had spent hours maintaining her original story, that she had been with Sollecito at his flat all night and had no knowledge of the murder, but a group of police[79] would not believe her.[80][81][82] Knox said "I wasn't just stressed and pressurised; I was manipulated";[83] she testified to being told by the interpreter, "probably I didn't remember well because I was traumatised. So I should try to remember something else."[84] Knox stated, "they said they were convinced that I was protecting someone. They were saying 'Who is it? Who is it?' They were saying: 'Here's the message on your telephone, you wanted to meet up with him, you are a stupid liar." Knox also said that a policewoman "was saying 'Come on, come on, remember' and then – slap – she hit me. Then 'come on, come on' and – slap – another one".[82] Knox said she had requested a lawyer but was told it would make things worse for her, and that she would go to jail for 30 years; she also said she was not allowed access to food, water, or the bathroom.[85][86] Ficarra and policewoman Lorena Zugarini testified that during the interview Knox was given access to food, water, hot drinks and the lavatory. They further said Knox was asked about a lawyer but did not have one, was not hit at any time[87][88] and interviewed "firmly but politely".[89] Napoleoni testified that Knox was not beaten, threatened or insulted.[90]

Statement and arrest[edit]

Napoleoni was backed by several other detectives in arguing for the arrests of Knox, Sollecito, and Lumumba. However her immediate superior, Chief Superintendent Marco Chiacchiera, thought arrests would be premature, advocating close surveillance of the suspects as the best way to further the investigation. Knox had been interviewed as a witness and what she had said could not be used to prosecute her.[91] Public Prosecutor Giuliano Mignini placed Knox officially under investigation and at 5:45 a.m. took a statement from her. According to Follain, Mignini began by telling Knox that anything she said in the statement could be used in evidence against her and that she was entitled to a lawyer. The statement had details changed from what she had previously said; for example, she now said she had met Lumumba at 9 p.m., not 8:30. She also added that she had heard Kercher scream, though later in the same statement said she could not remember whether she had heard this. The taking of the statement ended when Knox broke down in tears.[92] After being formally arrested, Knox was told to remove her clothes for a forensic check. Doctors obtained samples of her DNA, saliva, urine, hair and pubic hair.[93] According to Knox, she was also subjected to a manual gynecological examination.[94]

Hearing: Guede substituted for Lumumba[edit]

On 8 November Knox appeared along with Sollecito and Lumumba before judge Claudia Matteini, and during an hour-long adjournment Knox met her lawyers for the first time. Matteini ordered Knox, Sollecito and Lumumba to be detained for a year. On 19 November the Rome forensic police matched fingerprints found in Kercher's bedroom to Rudy Guede. On 20 November Guede was arrested in Germany and Lumumba was released. The prosecution charged Guede for the murder, but retained the allegations against Knox and Sollecito that originally related to acting in concert with Lumumba.[95]

Pre-trial publicity[edit]

Knox became the subject of intense media attention.[96] Shortly before her trial she began legal action against Fiorenza Sarzanini, the author of a best-selling book about her which had been published in Italy. The book included accounts of events as imagined or invented by Sarzanini, witness transcripts not in the public domain and selected excerpts from Knox's private journals which Sarzanini had somehow obtained. Lawyers for Knox said that the book had "reported in a prurient manner, aimed solely at arousing the morbid imagination of readers".[97][98][99]

According to US legal commentator Kendal Coffey, "In this country we would say, with this kind of media exposure, you could not get a fair trial".[100] In the US there was a pretrial publicity campaign supporting Knox and attacking Italian investigators, but her lawyer thought it counter-productive.[101][102][103]

Knox and Sollecito trials[edit]

Knox and Sollecito were held in prison. They both pleaded not guilty, the trial began on 16 January 2009 before Judge Giancarlo Massei, Deputy Judge Beatrice Cristiani, and six lay judges at the Corte d'Assise of Perugia.[104] The charges were that Knox and Sollecito (along with Guede) had murdered Kercher in her bedroom.[28] According to the prosecution's reconstruction, Knox had attacked Kercher in her bedroom, repeatedly banged her head against a wall, forcefully held her face and tried to strangle her. Miginini suggested Knox had taunted Kercher and may have said 'You acted the goody-goody so much, now we are going to show you. Now you're going to be forced to have sex!'[105] Guede, Knox and Sollecito had removed Kercher's jeans, and held her on her hands and knees while Guede had sexually abused her. Knox had cut Kercher with a knife before inflicting the fatal stab wound; then stole two mobile phones and money to fake a burglary.[106] On 5 December 2009 Knox, along with Sollecito, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 26 years imprisonment.[107][108][109]

The appeal (or second grade) trial began November 2010 and was presided over by Judges Claudio Pratillo Hellmann and Massimo Zanetti. A court-ordered review of the contested DNA evidence by independent experts noted numerous basic errors in the gathering and analysis of the evidence, and concluded that no evidential trace of Kercher's DNA had been found on the alleged murder weapon.[110][111] Although the review confirmed the DNA fragments on the bra clasp included some from Sollecito, an expert testified the context strongly suggested contamination.[112][113][114][115]

On 3 October 2011, Knox and Sollecito were acquitted. A ruling that there was insufficient proof, similar to the verdict of not proven was available to the court, but they acquitted Knox and Sollecito completely.[116] The conviction of Knox on a charge of slander was upheld and the original one-year sentence was increased to three years and eleven days imprisonment.[117][118][119]

In their official report on the court's decision to overturn the convictions, the appeal trial judges wrote that the verdict of guilty at the original trial "was not corroborated by any objective element of evidence". Describing the police interviews of Knox as of "obsessive duration", the judges said that the statements she made incriminating herself and Lumumba during interrogation were evidence of her confusion while under "great psychological pressure".[120] The judges further noted that a tramp who testified to seeing Sollecito and Knox in the Piazza Grimana on the night of the murder was a heroin addict, that Massei, the judge at the 2009 trial, used the word "probably" 39 times in his report, and that there was no evidence of any phone calls or texts between Knox or Sollecito and Guede.[121][122][123][124]

New trial[edit]

Following a successful prosecution request, there was a rehearing of Knox and Sollecito's second-level trial. The only new evidence came from the court ordering analysis of previously unexamined sample of the blade of the kitchen knife of Sollecito's,[clarification needed] which the prosecution had alleged was the murder weapon.[125][126] When the unexamined sample was tested by court-appointed experts for the new appeal trial, no DNA belonging to Kercher was found. Despite the negative result for the prosecution case, the court returned verdicts of guilty against the defendants, who both appealed.[127][128][129]

Exoneration[edit]

On 27 March 2015, Italy's highest court, the Court of Cassation, made a rare judgment of exoneration by ruling that Knox and Sollecito were innocent, thereby definitely ending the case.[5][6][6][7][8] Rather than merely declaring that there were errors in the earlier court cases or that there was not enough evidence to convict, the court ruled that Knox and Sollecito had not committed the murder and were innocent of the charges.[7][9]

After this verdict was announced, Knox, who had been in the United States continuously since 2011, said in a statement: "The knowledge of my innocence has given me strength in the darkest times of this ordeal."[130][131]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Squires, Nick. "Amanda Knox freed: tears of joy as four-year nightmare is over", The Daily Telegraph, 4 October 2011: "A jury decided that Amanda Knox, who has spent almost four years in jail, was the victim of a miscarriage of justice following a chaotic Italian police investigation."
  2. ^ Squires, Nick. "Amanda Knox freed: tears of joy as four-year nightmare is over", The Daily Telegraph, 4 October 2011: "A jury decided that Amanda Knox, who has spent almost four years in jail, was the victim of a miscarriage of justice following a chaotic Italian police investigation."
  3. ^ "Appeal Court Denies Existence of Proof – Amanda and Raffaele Not Guilty". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Elizabeth Vargas and Michael S. James A Tale of Two Cultures: Amanda Knox Case Reveals a Stark Divide, ABC World News with Diane Sawyer, 6 December 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Amanda Knox verdict overturned by Italy's supreme court.". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c "Italian high court overturns Amanda Knox murder conviction". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c Stephanie Kirchgaessner. "Meredith Kercher murder: Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito acquitted". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "Amanda Knox murder conviction overturned". CTVNews. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "The Amanda Knox verdict: Innocente". The Economist. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Kercher, John (2012). Meredith: Our Daughter's Murder and the Heartbreaking Quest for the Truth p.41-60
  11. ^ a b Kercher, John (2012). Meredith: Our Daughter's Murder and the Heartbreaking Quest for the Truth p.78
  12. ^ "Profile: Meredith Kercher". BBC News. 4 December 2009. 
  13. ^ Murphy, Dennis. "Deadly exchange", NBC News, 21 December 2007.
  14. ^ Follain p. 25-47
  15. ^ Follain p.35
  16. ^ Follain p.39 ("Meredith joined them she took just one pull on the joint; she was no habitual smoker")
  17. ^ Wise, Ann. "'They Had No Reason Not to Get Along'", ABC News, 7 February 2009.
  18. ^ Follain p.41-43
  19. ^ Follain 46-47
  20. ^ Dempsey 2010, p. 3.
  21. ^ Dempsey 2010, p. 41.
  22. ^ Dempsey 2010, pp. 48–49.
  23. ^ Burleigh 2011, pp. 172–174.
  24. ^ Follain pp. 70–71.
  25. ^ Dempsey 2010, pp. 61–62.
  26. ^ Follain.p 72
  27. ^ Follain pp. 116–118
  28. ^ a b Follain p.296
  29. ^ Gemma Wheatley (14 December 2007). "Meredith laid to rest". Croydon Guardian. 
  30. ^ Barry, Colleen. "Family of victim in Knox case remembers slain daughter", Associated Press, 30 September 2011.
  31. ^ Squires, Nick Meredith Kercher scholarship set up at Perugia University, The Telegraph, 19 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  32. ^ Perugia dedicates scholarship to Meredith Kercher, ANSA, 18 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  33. ^ "Death in Perugia: John Kercher is no closer to knowing who killed his daughter Meredith". The Australian. Retrieved 13 November 2012.  (login required)
  34. ^ Wall Street Journal, 30 January 2014 Italy Court Finds Amanda Knox Guilty of Murder of U.K. Student in Retrial
  35. ^ a b Pisani, Mario; et al.; Manuale di procedura penale. Bologna, Monduzzi Editore, 2006. ISBN 88-323-6109-4.
  36. ^ Folain p269
  37. ^ a b Povoledo, Elisabetta: "Amanda Knox Freed After Appeal in Italian Court", The New York Times, 3 October 2011.
  38. ^ Cappelletti 1967, p. 113.
  39. ^ "Rudy, il barone con la passione del basket" (in Italian). Quotidiano.net. 20 November 2007. 
  40. ^ a b Burleigh 2011, pp. 90–91.
  41. ^ Burleigh 2011, pp. 92–93.
  42. ^ a b Burleigh 2011, pp. 95–96.
  43. ^ Owen, Richard. "Rudy Guede: engaging drifter who boasted ‘I will drink your blood’", The Times, 28 October 2008.
  44. ^ Follain p.179
  45. ^ Burleigh 2011, p. 97.
  46. ^ Burleigh 2011, pp. 84–85.
  47. ^ Dempsey, pp. 299, 327.
  48. ^ Squires, Nick. "Meredith Kercher murder: Rudy Guede profile", The Daily Telegraph, 29 October 2008.
  49. ^ Follain p.
  50. ^ Follain pp. 204–205
  51. ^ Moore, Malcolm (20 November 2007). "Fourth Meredith suspect arrested in Germany". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  52. ^ Pisa, Nick (6 December 2007). "Meredith Kercher suspect extradited to Italy". The Telegraph (London). 
  53. ^ Follain p.206
  54. ^ a b Owen, Richard. "Rudy Guede guilty of Meredith Kercher murder, Amanda Knox faces trial", The Times, 29 October 2008.
  55. ^ a b Moore, Malcolm. "Meredith whispered killer's name, suspect says", The Daily Telegraph, 24 November 2007.
  56. ^ Pisa, Nick (25 October 2008). "Meredith murder suspect Rudy Guede is an 'easy target' for accusations, say his lawyers". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  57. ^ a b c Judgment, Trial of Rudy Hermann Guede, Dr Paolo Micheli, Court of Perugia, judgement of 28 October 2008 – 26 January 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2011 (Google translation, Italian to English).
  58. ^ "Rudy: Meredith l'ha uccisa Raffaele", La Stampa (Italian), 27 March 2008.
  59. ^ Diritto, procedura, e pratica penale Tribunale di Perugia: Ufficio del G.I.P.: Dott. Paolo Micheli: Sentenza del 28 October 2008 – 26 January 2009 (Italian): (English trans): Guede "confirmed then to have touched more or less everywhere in the room, even with his hands stained with blood, without however explaining why one of his [palm-]prints were found on the pillow under the corpse, when he remembered the regular pillow on the bed, where they also found the jacket and purse/handbag that the girl [Kercher] had put down on re-entering the house. The bed was, according to his description, covered with a red or beige duvet (but he had insisted far more on the former colour): the pillow was outside of the quilt." Earlier in his judgement, the judge noted that (Italian): "Soltanto in seguito, attraverso la comparazione in Banca Dati di un'impronta palmare impressa nel sangue e rinvenuta sulla federa del cuscino che si trovava sotto il corpo della vittima, si accertava invece la presenza sul luogo del delitto del 21enne G. R. H., nativo della Costa d'Avorio ..." (English): "Only later, through the comparison in the database of a palm-print imprinted in the blood of the victim and found on the pillowcase of the pillow where the body of the victim was found, it confirmed instead the presence at the scene of the crime of the 21-year-old G[uede] R.H., native of the Ivory Coast, ...".
  60. ^ Dempsey 2010, p. 175.
  61. ^ Burleigh 2011, pp. xxvi–xxvii.
  62. ^ Follain p. 397.
  63. ^ Squires, Nick. "Amanda Knox trial: Rudy Guede profile", The Daily Telegraph, 5 December 2009.
  64. ^ "Meredith Kercher killer Rudy Guede has sentence reduced", BBC News, 22 December 2009.
  65. ^ Follain p. 338
  66. ^ Follain, p. 370.
  67. ^ NY Daily News 29 November 2013
  68. ^ Diane Sawyer, ABC News 30 April 2013
  69. ^ Sky News, 4 February 2014,http://news.sky.com/story/1206494/sollecito-slams-kercher-killers-release-plan
  70. ^ Follain p. 83-84
  71. ^ Dempsey 2010, pp. 62, 76–77; for Napoleoni, see Burleigh 2011, p. 165. for Battistelli see Follain p. 67.
  72. ^ Follain p. 75–76.
  73. ^ Burleigh 2011, pp. 151–152.
  74. ^ Follain p.123
  75. ^ Burleigh 2011, p. 36.
  76. ^ Follain p.76
  77. ^ Follain p.321
  78. ^ Dempsey 2010, p. 47.
  79. ^ Time World, 29 September 2009 The Tough Women of the Amanda Knox Case
  80. ^ Follain pp. 216–217
  81. ^ Vogt, Andrea (11 June 2009). "A confident Amanda Knox defends herself, says she wasn't there during slaying". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  82. ^ a b Telegraph, 13 June 2009,Amanda Knox warned by police that she would spend 30 years in prison
  83. ^ Guardian, 4 October 2011,Amanda Knox: police under fire over botched investigation
  84. ^ Guardian, Friday 13 March 2009, Knox clashes with interpreter over Meredith 'confession'
  85. ^ Dempsey 2010, pp. 147–148.
  86. ^ Hooper, John. "Was there a plot to kill Meredith?", The Guardian, 5 February 2009.
    • Dempsey 2010, pp. 147–148.
  87. ^ Dempsey 2010, p. 145.
  88. ^ Vogt, Andrea (28 February 2009). "Knox, ex-boyfriend refute police testimony". Seattle P-I. 
  89. ^ Squires, Nick. "Amanda Knox 'hit in the head' during Meredith Kercher murder interrogation", The Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2009.
    • For slander, see Dempsey 2010, p. 265.
  90. ^ Follain p.281
  91. ^ Follain pp. 134–136
  92. ^ Follain p. 133–138.
  93. ^ Follain p. 143
  94. ^ CNN, 2 May 2013 What Amanda Knox can and can't tell us
  95. ^ Follain p. 174
  96. ^ Radar Magazine October/November 2008.
  97. ^ Squires, Nick (14 January 2009). "Amanda Knox launches 11th hour bid to stall Meredith Kercher murder trial". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  98. ^ Wise, Ann (22 March 2010). "Amanda Knox: Italian Civil Court Awards Knox $55,000 in Damages For Violation of Privacy". ABC News. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  99. ^ Pisa, Nick. "Knox Wins £36k Damages Over Sex Claims". BSkyB. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  100. ^ "NEWS INTERVIEW – HLN Prime News – transcript". Kendallcoffey.com. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  101. ^ Joyce, Julian (12 February 2009). "Battle beyond the Kercher trial". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  102. ^ Media, Crime, and Criminal Justice: Images, Realities, and Policies, 2011, R.Surette, p. 124.
  103. ^ Follain p. 243–245 and 182–183.
  104. ^ "Timeline: Amanda Knox Trial". CBS News. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  105. ^ Follain p344
  106. ^ Follain p342-344
  107. ^ "Amanda Knox guilty of Meredith Kercher murder". BBC News. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  108. ^ Dempsey 2010, pp. 311–312.
  109. ^ Follain p. 366.
  110. ^ Follain p. 404
  111. ^ Kington, Tom. "Amanda Knox DNA appeal sparks legal battle by forensic experts", The Observer, 24 July 2011.
  112. ^ Follain p. 404-406
  113. ^ "DNA experts highlight problems with Amanda Knox case", Associated Press, 25 July 2011.
  114. ^ Guardian, 29 June 2011, Amanda Knox prosecution evidence unreliable, appeal court hears
  115. ^ Follain p. 408.
  116. ^ Guardian, 4 October 2011, Amanda Knox: police under fire over botched investigation
  117. ^ Polvoledo, Elisabetta."Amanda Knox Freed After Appeal in Italian Court", The New York Times, 3 October 2011.
  118. ^ "Amanda Knox Acquitted, Leaves Prison". ABC News. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  119. ^ Follain, p. 366 & p. 428.
  120. ^ "Amanda Knox 'Satisfied' With Italian Court Ruling". ABC News. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  121. ^ Kington, Tom (15 December 2011). "Amanda Knox trial was flawed at every turn, says appeal judge". The Guardian (London). 
  122. ^ CNN, 30 July 201, Police forensics under scrutiny in Amanda Knox appeal
  123. ^ "Amanda Knox: 'Doubts raised' over DNA evidence", BBC News, 29 June 2011.
  124. ^ 15 December 2011, Colleen Barry, Associated Press
  125. ^ NY Daily News.com, 2 November 2013, Amanda Knox trial: New forensic tests find no traces of Meredith Kercher's DNA on knife
  126. ^ BBC news Europe 31 January 2014, Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito guilty of Kercher Italy murder
  127. ^ Guardian, 31 January 2014, Why did Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito have their convictions upheld?
  128. ^ MSN news 11/6/13 Knox's knife DNA casts doubt on murder weapon
  129. ^ BBC 31 January 2014 Kercher trial: How does DNA contamination occur?
  130. ^ Ralph Ellis, Hada Messia, CNN (27 March 2015). "Amanda Knox murder conviction overturned - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  131. ^ Kim Hjelmgaard and John Bacon (28 March 2015). "Italy's top court overturns Amanda Knox conviction - USA Today". USA Today. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 

References[edit]

Books
  • Knox, Amanda (30 April 2013). Waiting to Be Heard: A Memoir. Harper. ISBN 978-00-622-1720-2. 
  • Sollecito, Raffaele (18 September 2012). Honor Bound: My Journey to Hell and Back with Amanda Knox. Gallery Books. ISBN 978-14-516-9598-4. 
  • Kercher, John (2012). Meredith: Our Daughter's Murder and the Heartbreaking Quest for the Truth. ISBN 9781444742794. 
  • Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie (2013). "Fourth chapter: Math error number 4: double experiments. The case of Meredith Kercher: the test that wasn't done". Math on trial. How numbers get used and abused in the courtroom. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03292-1. 
  • Follain, John (2011). Death in Perugia: The Definitive Account of the Meredith Kercher Case from her Murder to the Acquittal of Raffaele Sollecito and Amanda Knox. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9781848942073. 
  • Burleigh, Nina (2011). The Fatal Gift of Beauty: The Trials of Amanda Knox. Broadway. ISBN 9780307588593. 
  • Dempsey, Candace (2010). Murder in Italy. Berkley Books. ISBN 9781101187111. 
  • Spezi, Mario; Preston, Douglas (2013). Der Engel mit den Eisaugen [Angel with Ice Eyes] (in German). Germany: Knaur. 
  • The Italian Legal System: An Introduction. Stanford University Press. 1967. ISBN 9780804702850. 
Judicial reports

External links[edit]