Nigerian general election, 2007

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The Nigerian general elections of 2007 were held on 14 April and 21 April 2007.[1] Governorship and state assembly elections were held on 14 April, while the presidential and national assembly elections were held a week later on 21 April. Umaru Yar'Adua won the highly controversial election for the ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP) and was sworn in on 29 May. Election observers from the European Union described the elections as "the worst they had ever seen anywhere in the world", with "rampant vote rigging, violence, theft of ballot boxes and intimidation." [2]

Background[edit]

On May 16, 2006 the Nigerian Senate voted to block a constitutional amendment which would have allowed its president to serve more than two terms in office.[3] President Olusegun Obasanjo thus could not pursue a third term. Additionally he was unsupported by Atiku Abubakar, his vice-president. Presidential candidates were announced in late December 2006, and 50,000 assault rifles were ordered to help the military maintain order during the election.[4] Umaru Yar'Adua contested the election for the ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP), and the opposition All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) chose Muhammadu Buhari.[5] Atiku Abubakar, the current Vice-President, announced on 25 November 2006 that he would contest the election,[6] and he subsequently became the presidential candidate of the Action Congress in December.[7]

States and governors[edit]

The PDP controls 28 of the 36 states, but the largest city, Lagos, has been in the hands of the Alliance for the Democracy (AD) since 1999.

State Population (Estimated in 2005) Governor Election Date Party
Abia State 4,222,476 Orji Uzor Kalu 29 May 1999 PPA (Elected on the Platform of the PDP)
Adamawa State 3,737,223 Boni Haruna 29 May 1999 PDP
Akwa Ibom State 4,805,451 Victor Attah 29 May 1999 PDP
Anambra State 7,821,858 Peter Obi 17 March 2006 APGA
Bauchi State 4,706,909 Adamu Mu'azu 29 May 1999 PDP
Bayelsa State 1,998,349 Goodluck Jonathan 9 December 2005 PDP
Benue State 5,181,642 George Akume 29 May 1999 PDP
Borno State 4,588,668 Ali Modu Sheriff 29 May 2003 ANPP
Cross River State 3,104,446 Donald Duke 29 May 1999 PDP
Delta State 4,710,214 James Ibori 29 May 1999 PDP
Ebonyi State 4,339,136 Sam Egwu 29 May 1999 PDP
Ẹdo State 3,497,502 Lucky Igbinedion 29 May 1999 PDP
Ekiti State 2,737,186 Segun Oni May 2007 PDP
Enụgụ State 5,590,513 Chimaroke Nnamani 29 May 1999 PDP
Gombe State 2,448,236 Mohammed Danjuma Goje 29 May 2003 PDP
Imo State 4,000,000 Achike Udenwa 29 May 1999 PDP
Jigawa State 4,988,888 Saminu Turaki 29 May 1999 ANPP
Kaduna State 4,849,075 Ahmed Makarfi 29 May 1999 PDP
Kano State 10,077,751 Ibrahim Shekarau 29 May 2003 ANPP
Katsina State 6,483,429 Umaru Yar'Adua 29 May 1999 PDP
Kebbi State 3,630,931 Adamu Aliero 29 May 1999 ANPP
Kogi State 3,595,789 Ibrahim Idris 29 May 2003 PDP
Kwara State 2,591,555 Bukola Saraki 29 May 2003 PDP
Lagos State 10,601,345 Bola Tinubu 29 May 1999 AC
Nasarawa State 2,040,097 Abdullahi Adamu 29 May 1999 PDP
Niger State 4,082,558 Abdulkadir Kure 29 May 1999 PDP
Ogun State 4,054,272 Gbenga Daniel 29 May 2003 PDP
Ondo State 4,011,407 Olusegun Mimiko 14 April 2007 LP
Ọsun State 4,137,627 Olagunsoye Oyinlola 29 May 2003 PDP
Ọyọ State 6,617,720 Rasidi Adewolu Ladoja 7 December 2006 PDP
Plateau State 3,553,440 Michael Botmang 13 November 2006 PDP
Rivers State 5,689,087 Peter Odili 29 May 1999 PDP
Sokoto State 4,244,399 Attahiru Bafarawa 29 May 1999 ANPP
Taraba State 2,688,944 Jolly Nyame 29 May 1999 PDP
Yobe State 2,532,395 Bukar Ibrahim 29 May 1999 ANPP
Zamfara State 3,602,356 Ahmed Sani Yerima 29 May 1999 ANPP

Abubakar eligibility[edit]

The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) declared Abubakar ineligible to run due to fraud charges. A High Court had ruled that the commission could not disqualify candidates, but INEC claimed that the constitution barred candidates from running if indicted. Another superior court, the Court of Appeal, ruled in favour of the Electoral Commission by saying that it has powers to disqualify candidates. Abubakar attempted to get on the ballot via court challenge. In a case that came before the apex court, the court ruled that INEC has no constitutional powers to disqualify any candidates for the election, clearing the way for Abubakar to run. The Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial body, confirmed this ruling and reaffirmed Abubakar's candidacy.[8]

Adebayo Adefarati, the candidate of the small Alliance for Democracy, died shortly before the election on 29 March 2007. This raised the possibility of the election being delayed, as the law provides for a delay under the circumstances if requested by the party that had nominated the candidate; however, a spokesman for INEC said that the election would not be delayed.[9] He said that the party could nominate a replacement candidate.[10]

Attacks[edit]

Nigerian military killed at least 25 suspected Islamic militants 18 April, while battling extremists who attacked a police station on 17 April in Kano, days before the election.[11] Shortly before voting began on 21 April, there was an alleged attempt in Bayelsa State to kill Goodluck Jonathan, who is the PDP vice-presidential candidate and the governor of the state, as well as a failed attempt to destroy INEC headquarters in Abuja with a truck bomb.[12]

Nigeria has never yet managed a peaceful handover from one democratically elected president at the end of his constitutional term to the next.[13] The most recent failed election was the 1993 election of M. K. O. Abiola, which was annulled by Ibrahim Babangida, the military dictator ruling at the time. General Sani Abacha eventually seized power, and when Abiola tried to claim his presidency, he was imprisoned until his questionable death in 1998.[14] After the death of Chief M.K.O Abiola

Gubernatorial and State House of Assembly results[edit]

The ruling PDP won 26 of the 32 states, according to INEC, including Kaduna State and Katsina State, where the results were contested by the local population; the election will have to be rerun in Imo State and Enugu State due to complications.[15] By the last count, Obasanjo's PDP party had won 29 of 33 states so far declared, with Human Rights Watch describing the vote-rigging as "shameless".[16]

Presidential election vote and results[edit]

Umaru Yar'Adua, the declared winner of the presidential election

Following the gubernatorial and state assembly elections on 14 April, 18 parties, including those of Abubakar and Buhari, demanded on 17 April that the presidential election be postponed, that INEC be disbanded, and that the earlier elections be annulled; otherwise, they said that they would consider boycotting the presidential election.[17] On 19 April, however, both Buhari's ANPP and Abubakar's Action Congress said that they would not boycott the election.[18]

The 60 million presidential election ballot papers were kept in South Africa to prevent tampering.[19] However, last-minute changes to add Abubakar to the list caused problems in distribution of ballots as papers did not arrive from South Africa until Friday evening.[20] The reprinted papers were not serially numbered as was intended.[21]

Results[edit]

Number of votes per candidate

Official figures on voter turnout were not released but the turnout was estimated at 57.5 percent of 61.5 million registered voters.[22]

The first results to be released, from Rivers State, showed a large majority for Yar'Adua.[23][24] On April 23, Yar'Adua was declared the winner by INEC, which said that he had received 70% of the vote[25] (24,638,063 votes).[26] Buhari was said to be in second place with 18% of the vote[25] (6,605,299 votes),[26] while Abubakar was placed third with about 7%[25] (2,637,848 votes).[26] Both Buhari and Abubakar rejected the results. The opposition candidates believe the election was rigged in Yar'Adua's favor.[25]

Outgoing president Olusegun Obasanjo stated in a televised address that the election "could not be described as perfect".[25][27]

Results, announced by Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) Chairman Prof. Maurice Iwu, were:[28]

e • d Summary of the 1 April 2007 Nigerian presidential election results
Candidates – Parties Parties Votes %
Umaru Yar'Adua Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) 24,638,063 69.82
Muhammadu Buhari All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) 6,605,299 18.72
Atiku Abubakar Action Congress (AC) 2,637,848 7.47
Orji Uzor Kalu Progressive Peoples Alliance 608,803 1.73
Attahiru Bafarawa Democratic Peoples Party (DPP) 289,324 0.82
Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu All Progressives Grand Alliance 155,947 0.44
Pere Ajuwa Alliance for Democracy (AD) 89,241 0.25
Chris Okotie Fresh Democratic Party 74,049 0.21
Patrick Utomi African Democratic Congress (ADC) 50,849 0.14
Ambrose Owuru Hope Democratic Party 28,519 0.08
Emmanuel Okereke African Liberation Party (ALP) 22,677 0.06
Lawrence Adedoyin African Political System (APS) 22,409 0.06
Habu Fari National Democratic Party 21,934 0.06
Maxi Okwu Citizens Popular Party (CPP) 14,027 0.04
Bartholomew Nnaji Better Nigeria Party 11,705 0.03
Emmanuel Obayuwana National Conscience Party 8,229 0.02
Olapade Agoro National Action Council 5,752 0.02
Mojisola Obasanjo Nigerian Masses Movement 4,309 0.01

The results did not disclose the total votes scored in the states or the percentages of the scores by the presidential candidates.

Yar'Adua was inaugurated on 29 May 2007.[29]

Reactions[edit]

Ikimi and Amusu, the representatives of the AC and the ANPP at the INEC Collation Centre in Abuja, denounced the results announced by the INEC Chairman. According to Ikimi, "In states like Edo, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo, Akwa Ibom etc., we know that the elections did not start even as late as 5 pm. The results collated showed that over 80 percent of the votes being counted in favour of the PDP and they are totally flawed. In most of the states, only the Resident Electoral Commissioners and the PDP Agents signed the results. We have been here since yesterday (Sunday) to observe this collation and we only collated eleven states and the INEC Chairman just rushed down to declare the results and declare Umoru Yar’Adua as the winner."[28]

According to Ikimi, "The result sheets we viewed so far was not signed by any of our agents at the state level. They were only signed by Resident Electoral Commissioners and only the PDP agents."[28]

Also, Admiral Lanre Amusu who represented the ANPP at the INEC collation centre concurred what Chief Tom Ikimi said. "I am in total agreement with what Chief Ikimi has just said. Only results from 13 states and they were collated and signed by the Resident Electoral Commissioners in the States and the PDP Agents. Our agents did not sign these results."[28]

The national chairman of the Democratic Peoples Alliance (DPA), Chief Olu Falae, with leaders of the African Democratic Congress (ADC), the Action Congress (AC), All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP), National Advance Party (NAP) and the National Democratic Party (NDP), has called for the setting up of an Interim National Government to conduct credible elections in the country. Falae explained that the country needed an ING to guard against the emergence of the military on the political scene.[30]

The Atiku Abubakar Campaign Organisation claimed that the INEC deliberately left 70 percent of the ballot papers in a warehouse in Johannesburg, South Africa. They claimed that the contractors could have freighted the entire 200-ton consignment into the country three days before the election (Thursday) but the INEC told them to bring only 30 percent of the ballot papers.[31]

Nigeria's Nobel laureate Wole Soyinka said the West should deny entry visas to election commissioner Maurice Iwu for his "complicity in the fraudulent elections." He said he has heard of the financial prudence and moral uprightness of Yar'Adua. "I wish he [Yar'Adua] would carry his decency even further by publicly renouncing this poisoned chalice to say: 'I'm not a receiver of stolen goods'." [32]

Observers[edit]

Following the presidential election, groups monitoring the election gave it a dismal assessment. Chief European Union observer Max van den Berg reported that the handling of the polls had "fallen far short" of basic international standards, and that "the process cannot be considered to be credible",[33] citing "poor election organisation, lack of transparency, significant evidence of fraud, voter disenfranchisement, violence and bias."[27] They described the election as "the worst they had ever seen anywhere in the world", with "rampant vote rigging, violence, theft of ballot boxes and intimidation".[2] One group of observers said that at one polling station in Yenagoa, in the oil-rich south, where 500 people were registered to vote, more than 2,000 votes were counted.[24]

Felix Alaba Job, head of the Catholic Bishops Conference, cited massive fraud and disorganisation, including result sheets being passed around to politicians who simply filled in numbers as they chose while bribed returning electoral officers looked away.[34]

International reaction[edit]

A spokesman for the United States Department of State said it was "deeply troubled" by election polls, calling them "flawed", and said it hoped the political parties would resolve any differences over the election through peaceful, constitutional means.[25]

"Nigeria has once again failed to rise to the occasion.... Size isn't enough.... It is a failed giant," said prominent Ghanaian economist Nii Moi Thompson. He compared its elections to those of Liberia in 2005, saying, "Even Liberia, which is coming out of war, had more credible elections than Nigeria."[35]

"There is the saying: 'How goes Nigeria, so goes the rest of Africa'. To have this widespread abuse of the democratic initiative certainly doesn't do Africa any good," said Scott Baker, a professor at Champlain College in the US city of Burlington, Vermont. "How can Nigeria sit at the meetings of the African Union African Peer Review Mechanism or ECOWAS and talk about other people's elections?" he asked.[35]

Legal challenge[edit]

In July 2008, the Labour Party governorship candidate in Ondo State, Dr Olusegun Mimiko was declared the lawful winner of the election by the Election Petition Tribunal thereby nullifying the election of PDP candidate, Dr Olusegun Agagu.[36]

Buhari and Abubakar filed petitions to have the results of the presidential election invalidated due to alleged fraud, but on February 26, 2008 a court rejected the petitions. Buhari and Abubakar said that they would appeal to the Supreme Court.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ola Awoniyi: "Nigeria sets date for elections", Mail & Guardian. 29 August 2006.
  2. ^ a b Nigerian election pushed back a week, CNN, 2011-04-03
  3. ^ "Nigerian Senate Blocks Bid for 3rd Presidential Term", Washington Post . 16 May 2006.
  4. ^ "Nigeria party picks its candidate", BBC News. 17 December 2006.
  5. ^ "The candidates to be Nigeria's leader", BBC News. 22 December 2006.
  6. ^ "Nigeria VP to run for president", BBC News, 25 November 2006.
  7. ^ "Nigerian president withdraws VP's jet in feud", Reuters (IOL), 21 December 2006.
  8. ^ "Nigerian court rules in favour of VP Abubakar", Reuters, 16 April 2007
  9. ^ "Nigerian presidential candidate from small party dies", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 29 March 2007.
  10. ^ "Nigeria death fails to halt poll", BBC News, 29 March 2007.
  11. ^ Salisu Rabiu: "Nigeria's military says troops kill 25 suspected Islamic militants days before election", newspress.com.
  12. ^ "Attacks seek to derail Nigeria poll", Al Jazeera, 21 April 2007.
  13. ^ "Nigeria's dangerous elections", The Economist. 21 October 2006.
  14. ^ Chido Nwangwu: "M.K.O Abiola's sudden death draws anger, disbelief", USAfricaonline.com.
  15. ^ Barry Moody, "Nigeria court clears way for late presidential bid", Reuters (Alertnet.org), 16 April 2007.
  16. ^ "How to steal yet another election", The Economist, 19 April 2007.
  17. ^ "Vote boycott threat in Nigeria", Al Jazeera, 18 April 2007.
  18. ^ "Nigeria poll boycott threat fades", Al Jazeera, 19 April 2007.
  19. ^ "Nigerians tense on eve of polls", BBC News, 20 April 2007.
  20. ^ "Slow start for Nigerian elections", BBC News, 21 April 2007.
  21. ^ Sufuyan Ojeifo, "'Why Ballot Papers Were Not Serially Numbered'" This Day (Nigeria), 22 April 2007.
  22. ^ "Nigeria's president-elect pleads for peace", AFP, 24 April 2007.
  23. ^ "Monitors, opposition reject Nigeria poll", Reuters (IOL), 23 April 2007.
  24. ^ a b "Calls to cancel Nigeria poll result", Al Jazeera, 22 April 2007.
  25. ^ a b c d e f "Huge win for Nigeria's Yar'Adua", BBC News, April 23, 2007.
  26. ^ a b c "Yar'Adua wins Nigeria elections", Al Jazeera, 23 April 2007.
  27. ^ a b Tom Ashby, "Yar'Adua wins Nigeria poll 'charade'", Reuters (IOL), 24 April 2007.
  28. ^ a b c d Sufuyan Ojeifo, "INEC: Yar’Adua is the President-elect", This Day (Nigeria), 22 April 2007.
  29. ^ "Nigerian president sworn in", Al Jazeera, 29 May 2007.
  30. ^ Yinka Oladoyinbo, Akure and Taiwo Adisa, "Falae, 6 other opposition leaders want ING proclaimed", Nigerian Tribune, 25 April 2007.
  31. ^ Andy Ekugo, "INEC Abandoned Ballot Papers in S/Africa -Atiku", This Day (Nigeria), 26 April 2007.
  32. ^ "Soyinka urges new Nigeria polls", BBC News, 27 April 2007.
  33. ^ "Nigeria election 'worst ever seen'", SMH News, 24 April 2007.
  34. ^ "Nigeria's church speaks out", AFP (IOL), 25 April 2007.
  35. ^ a b Pascal Fletcher, "Polls show Africa's 'giant' has clay feet", Reuters (IOL), 24 April 2007.
  36. ^ "Olusegun Mimiko declared Ondo State's new executive governor". Naija Wire. 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  37. ^ "Court rules Nigeria poll was valid", Al Jazeera, February 26, 2008.

External links[edit]