|Nickname(s): Śląski Rzym
|• Mayor||Kordian Kolbiarz|
|• Total||27.5 km2 (10.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||195 m (640 ft)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+48 77|
Nysa [ˈnɨsa] (German: Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river with 47,545 inhabitants (2006 official estimate), situated in the Opole Voivodeship. It is the capital of Nysa County. It comprises the urban portion of the surrounding Gmina Nysa, a mixed urban-rural commune with a total population of 60,123 inhabitants. It is the largest city in Poland that is not located in a strictly "urban" commune.
Nysa is one of the oldest towns in Silesia. It was probably founded in the 10th century and afterwards became the capital of a principality of its name, which around 1200 became part of the Bishopric of Wrocław as the Duchy of Nysa. The town's fortifications from 1350 served to defend against the Hussites in 1424. The town and the duchy was part of Lands of the Bohemian Crown in years 1342 - 1742.
During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) it was besieged three times. The first Silesian War (1740–41, War of the Austrian Succession) ended Austrian sovereignty over Silesia and left the town in the hands of King Frederick II of Prussia, who laid the foundations of its modern fortifications. On 25 August 1769 Neisse was the site of a meeting between Frederick II and Emperor Joseph II, co-regent in the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Neisse was taken by the French in 1807. It retained its mostly Catholic character within the predominantly Protestant province of Silesia in the Kingdom of Prussia. Because of its many churches from the Gothic and Baroque periods the town was nicknamed "the Silesian Rome". From 1816-1911, the town was the seat of the Neisse District, after which it became an independent city.
After World War I, Neisse became part of the new Province of Upper Silesia. Conquered by the Red Army during World War II, the town was placed under Polish administration according to the Potsdam Agreement and renamed to the Polish Nysa. The town's German population was largely evacuated or forcibly expelled and replaced with Poles, many of whom were themselves expelled or resettled from what is now Western Ukraine (see: Kresy).
A list of the monuments of Nysa is seen on page Nysa's monuments
- NKS Nysa - men's volleyball team playing in Polish Volleyball League (Polska Liga Siatkówki, PLS), 7th place in 2003/04 season.
- KŻ Nysa - sailing club with seat on Nysa's lake.
- Konrad Emil Bloch (1912-2000), biochemist
- Marcin Bors (b. 1978), record producer
- Hans-Joachim Caesar, Reichsbank director, German bank comptroller in occupied France, 1940–44
- Piotr Gacek (b. 1978), volleyball player
- Bernhard Grzimek (1909-1987), zoologist and conservationist
- Andreas Hadik (1710-1790), Habsburg Field Marshal
- Martin Helwig (1516-1574), cartographer
- Jakub Jarosz (b. 1987), Polish volleyball player
- Ewald Christian von Kleist (1715-1759), poet and military officer
- Emanuel Oscar Menahem Deutsch (1829-1873), scholar on the Middle East
- Maria Merkert (1817-1872), founder of the Congregation of Saint Elizabeth
- Kurt von Morgen (1858–1928), Prussian explorer and officer
- Hans Guido Mutke (1921-2004), fighter pilot
- Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer) (1840-1892), physician and Ottoman governor of Equatoria
- Solomon Schindler (1842-1915), rabbi
- Roman Wójcicki (b. 1958), footballer
- Isidor Barndt
- Nicolaus Copernicus
- Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff
- Karl Rudolph Friedenthal
- Eduard von Grützner
- Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg
- Christoph Scheiner
- Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
- Wacker von Wackenfels
Twin towns — Sister cities
Nysa, Poland is twinned with:
- Lüdinghausen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Jeseník, Czech Republic
- Šumperk, Czech Republic
- Kolomyia, Ukraine
- Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
- Baltiysk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
- Taverny, France
- Marsala, Sicily, Italy
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nysa.|
- "NEISSE BUCH DER ERINNERUNG", Dr. Max Warmbrunn & Alfred Jahn, Gedruckt bei Druckhaus Nürnberg GmbH, 1966