- This article concerns ontogeny in biology. Not to be confused with the philosophical concept ontology, or the medical terms oncology or odontology.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form. Yet, the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
Ontogeny pertains to the developmental history of an organism within its own lifetime, as distinct from phylogeny, which refers to the evolutionary history of a species. In practice, writers on evolution often speak of species as "developing" traits or characteristics. This can be misleading. While developmental (i.e., ontogenetic) processes can influence subsequent evolutionary (e.g., phylogenetic) processes (see evolutionary developmental biology), individual organisms develop (ontogeny), while species evolve (phylogeny).
Ontogeny, embryology and developmental biology are closely related studies and the terms are sometimes used interchangably. Recently (2003), the term ontogeny has been used in cell biology to describe the development of various cell types within an organism.
Ontogeny is a useful field of study in many disciplines, including but not limited to developmental biology, developmental psychology, developmental cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychobiology.
The word ontogeny comes from the Greek ὄντος, ontos, present participle singular of εἶναι, "to be"; and from the suffix -geny, which expresses the concept of "mode of production".
Nature and nurture
A seminal paper named ontogeny as one of the four primary questions of biology, along with Huxley's three others: causation, survival value and evolution. Tinbergen emphasized that the change of behavioral machinery during development was distinct from the change in behavior during development. "We can conclude that the thrush itself, i.e. its behavioral machinery, has changed only if the behavior change occurred while the environment was held constant...When we turn from description to causal analysis, and ask in what way the observed change in behavior machinery has been brought about, the natural first step is to try and distinguish between environmental influences and those within the animal...In ontogeny the conclusion that a certain change is internally controlled (is "innate") is reached by elimination. " (p. 424) Tinbergen was concerned that the elimination of environmental factors is difficult to establish, and the use of the word "innate" often misleading.
- Recapitulation theory, the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
- Ontogeny (psychoanalysis)
- Phylogeny (psychoanalysis)
- Apoptosis - Cell death in specific locations due to inherited genetic instructions.
Notes and references
- Gould, S.J. (1977). Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
- Thiery, Jean Paul (1 December 2003). "Epithelial–mesenchymal transitions in development and pathologies". Current Opinion in Cell Biology 15 (6): 740–746. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2003.10.006. PMID 14644200.
- See -geny in the Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, 1989; online version March 2011, accessed 9 May 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1898.
- Niko Tinbergen (1963). "On aims and methods of ethology". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie (renamed Ethology in 1986) 20: 410–433. See page 411.
- Media related to Morphogenesis at Wikimedia Commons
- The dictionary definition of ontogeny at Wiktionary