Orders, decorations, and medals of the Independent State of Croatia

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During World War II the Independent State of Croatia awarded a number of orders, decorations and medals.

History[edit]

After the early April 1941 invasion of Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was crushed, and the so-called Independent State of Croatia was established with Ante Pavelić as the Head of State. As the Ustasha government of Yugoslavia were allies of the German Nazi government, the orders and decorations of Croatia from World War II remained secret until 1990 when Croatia became independent.

List of Medals[edit]

On 10 April 1945 the Velebit medal (Velebitska kolajna) for bravery (silver and bronze) was added to the order of Croatian decorations. It was created on 1 January 1932 in Italy, and awarded to soldiers who participated in a diversion in Lika village Buršani (7 September 1932).

By declaration of the Croatian government on 10 October 1943, small signs (ribbons) were added as decorations. Ribbons were made for military personnel and worn on uniforms.

Since 1942, decorations of Croatia have been made in the Zagreb mint, "Braća Knaus" (Brothers Knaus) (former "Griesbach & Knaus"), and in the workshop of Teodor Krivak in Varaždin (former "Sorlini").

The Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir was made from the design of air force colonel Jakob Machiedo. Colonel Machiedo's design incorporated art elements from the oldest Croatian culture heritage, the trefoil ornament.

The Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir and the Medal of Poglavnik Ante Pavelić for bravery were made by the Croatian sculptor Ivo Kerdić. The Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir and The Military Order of Iron Trefoil have the shape of the Trefoil Cross. The Trefoil Cross has become famous and is known in world literature as the "Croatian Cross".

Knighthood[edit]

Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir with Star and Oak Wreath

Knighthood in the Independent State of Croatia was conferred by the state during its existence from 1941 to 1945. The title of vitez, or knight, was awarded to recipients of certain state orders and awards.

The following awards granted the title:[1]

  1. Military Order of the Iron Trefoil 1st Class with oak leaves
  2. Military Order of the Iron Trefoil 1st Class
  3. Grand Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir with star and oak leaves
  4. Grand Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir with star and swords
  5. Grand Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir
  6. Ante Pavelić Medal for Bravery in gold
  7. Military Order of the Iron Trefoil 2nd Class with oak leaves
  8. Military Order of the Iron Trefoil 2nd Class
  9. Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir 1st Class with star and oak leaves
  10. Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir with star and swords
  11. Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir with star

Knights[edit]

The title was awarded to 26 generals:

Colonels to receive the title included:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Allen Milcic, Sebastián J. Bianchi (2008-12-17). "Croatian Military Decorations". Wehrmacht-Awards.com LLC. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  2. ^ Allen Milcic, Sebastián J. Bianchi (2008-12-18). "Independent State of Croatia". Wehrmacht-Awards.com LLC. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 

References[edit]

  • Mr. sc. Stjepan Adanić, Major General Krešimir Kašpar, prof. Boris Prister i prof. Ivan Ružić "Hrvatska odlikovanja."

External links[edit]