Leucanthemum vulgare

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Leucanthemum vulgare
Leucanthemum vulgare 'Filigran' Flower 2200px.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Leucanthemum
Species: L. vulgare
Binomial name
Leucanthemum vulgare
Lam.
Synonyms[1]
  • Bellis major Garsault nom. inval.
  • Chamaemelum leucanthemum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
  • Chrysanthemum dentatum Gilib. nom. inval.
  • Chrysanthemum ircutianum Turcz.
  • Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Pers.
  • Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Vest
  • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.
  • Chrysanthemum montanum Willd. nom. illeg.
  • Chrysanthemum praecox (M.Bieb.) DC.
  • Chrysanthemum pratense Salisb.
  • Chrysanthemum sylvestre Willd.
  • Chrysanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Gaterau
  • Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau
  • Leucanthemum eliasii (Sennen & Pau) Sennen & Pau
  • Leucanthemum lanceolatum DC.
  • Leucanthemum leucanthemum (L.) Rydb. nom. illeg.
  • Leucanthemum praecox (Horvatić) Villard
  • Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Desr.
  • Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Scop.
  • Pontia heterophylla (Willd.) Bubani
  • Pontia vulgaris Bubani
  • Pyrethrum leucanthemum (L.) Franch.
  • Tanacetum leucanthemum (L.) Sch.Bip.

Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy[2] or oxeye daisy, is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia and an introduced plant to North America, Australia and New Zealand. It is one of a number of Asteraceae family plants to be called a "daisy", and has the vernacular names common daisy, dog daisy, moon daisy and oxe-eye daisy.

Leucanthemum vulgare is a typical grassland perennial wildflower, growing in a variety of plant communities including meadows and fields, under scrub and open-canopy forests, and in disturbed areas.[3]

Leucanthemum is from the Ancient Greek λευκός (leukós, "white") and ἄνθος (ánthos, "flower").

Description[edit]

L. vulgare plant after flowering, showing the foliage.
Capitulum of L. vulgare from below, showing the involucral bracts.

Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herb one to three feet high by 1 foot (0.30 m) wide.[4] The stem is mostly unbranched and sprouts laterally from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock.[3]

The leaves are dark green on both sides. The basal and middle leaves are petiolate, obovate to spoon-shaped, and serrate to dentate. The upper leaves are shorter, sessile, and borne along the stem.

Leucanthemum vulgare blooms from late spring to autumn. The small flower head, not larger than 5 centimetres (2.0 in), consists of about 20 white ray florets that surround a yellow disc, growing on the end of 1 to 3 ft (30 to 91 cm) tall stems. The plant produces an abundant number of flat seeds, without pappus, that remain viable in the soil for 2 to 3 years. It also spreads vegetatively by rhizomes.[3]

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

The unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers.[5]

Cultivation[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes. It thrives in a wide range of conditions and can grow in sun to partial shade, and prefers damp soils. There are cultivars, such as 'May Queen' which begins blooming in early spring.

Invasive species[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare became an introduced species via gardens into natural areas in parts of the Canada,[2] United States, Australia, and New Zealand, where it is now a common weed.[6] In some habitats it is an invasive species forming dense colonies displacing native plants and modifying existing communities, and is classified as a noxious weed.[7][8][9]

It is difficult to control or eradicate, since a new plant can regenerate from rhizome fragments[7] and is a problem in pastures where beef and dairy cattle graze, as usually they will not eat it, thus enabling it to spread.[10]

Ox-eye daisy is a host for several viral diseases affecting crops.[3]

Allergies[edit]

Allergies to daises do occur, usually causing contact dermatitis.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b T. Dickinson, D. Metsger, J. Bull & R. Dickinson (2004). ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. p. 175. 
  3. ^ a b c d Cirrus.image – Leucanthemum vulgare. Accessed 4.8.2011
  4. ^ Leucanthemum vulgare. 2013. Encyclopedia of Life. eds. Michael Frankis, Valter Jacinto & C. Michael Hogan
  5. ^ Ox-eye daisy capers, Daisy Capers at WildFoods.ca. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
  6. ^ Invasive.org: Ox-eye daisy. Accessed 4.8.2011
  7. ^ a b Cirrus.image – Ecological Impacts: Leucanthemum vulgare. accessed 4.8.2011
  8. ^ USDA – Noxious Weed Information: & U.S. Weed Information: Leucanthemum vulgare. Accessed 4.8.2011
  9. ^ Jepson Manual treatment: common escaped flora in California. Accessed 4.8.2011
  10. ^ Massey University, New Zealand: weed database. Accessed 21.1.2013
  11. ^ Lynette A. Gordon (1999). "Compositae dermatitis". Australasian Journal of Dermatology 40 (3): 123–130. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0960.1999.00341.x. PMID 10439521. 

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]