It is an herbaceous, short-lived perennial plant, variable in size, growing to 20–80 cm tall. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate (with three leaflets), each leaflet 15–30 mm long and 8–15 mm broad, green with a characteristic pale crescent in the outer half of the leaf; the petiole is 1–4 cm long, with two basal stipules. The flowers are dark pink with a paler base, 12–15 mm long, produced in a dense inflorescence.
Red clover is subject to bacterial as well as fungal diseases. Other problems include parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and viruses.
It is widely grown as a fodder crop, valued for its nitrogen fixation, which increases soil fertility. For these reasons it is used as a green manure crop. Several cultivar groups have been selected for agricultural use, mostly derived from var. sativum. It has become naturalised in many temperate areas, including the Americas and Australasia as an escape from cultivation.
Red clover contains isoflavones (estrogen-like compounds) which can mimic the effect of endogenous estrogen. The use of red clover to relieve menopausal symptoms has been shown to be sometimes ineffective, but safe. The isoflavones (like irilone and pratensein) from red clover have been used to treat the symptoms of menopause. A large, well-controlled study of high-isoflavone red clover extract supplements showed a modest reduction of hot flashes with Promensil, but not Rimostil, compared to placebo.
Traditionally, red clover has been administered to help restore irregular menses and to balance the acid-alkaline level of the vagina to promote conception.
Warnings and contraindications 
Due to its activity on estrogen receptors, it is contraindicated in people with a history of breast cancer, endometriosis, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, uterine fibroids, or other estrogen-sensitive conditions, but others have suggested the high isoflavone content counteracts this, and even provides benefits in these conditions.
See also 
- Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, et al. (2009). "Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial". Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 16 (6): 1156–66. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b. PMC 2783540. PMID 19609225.
- "Red Clover Flowers Herbal Information". Indigo-herbs.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, Wallace R, Blackwell T, Cummings SR (2003). "Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: a randomized controlled trial". Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (2): 207–214. PMID 12851275.
- "Natural Remedies That Can Help Increase Your Chances of Getting Pregnant". Babyhopes.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Quit Tea Ingredients Herbs Best Stop Smoking Method | Quit Tea Natural Stop Smoking Aid". Quittea.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Purdue Horticulture: ''T. pratense''". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "Red Clover Tea". SupplementSOS.com. Retrieved 2013-03-09.
- USA (2012-05-24). "Influence of marketed herbal menopause pre... [Menopause. 2004 May-Jun] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Roberts DW et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct:70(10);1003-5
- USA (2012-05-24). "Herbal medication: potential for adverse i... [J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "red clover (Trifolium pratense) Cautions - Epocrates Online". Online.epocrates.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- Other National Symbols - Embassy of Denmark India
|Wikiversity has bloom time data for Trifolium pratense on the Bloom Clock|
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