Passive electronically scanned array
A passive electronically scanned array (PESA), also known as passive phased array contrary to its active counterpart AESA, is a phased array which has a central radiofrequency source (such as a magnetron, a klystron or a travelling wave tube), sending energy into (usually digitally controlled) phase shift modules, which then send energy into the various emitting elements in the front of the antenna. AESA devices, in contrast, have each of their elements contain its own radiofrequency source. A PESA radar is therefore simpler to construct than an AESA.
Most phased array radars in the world are PESA. Microwave Landing System uses PESA transmit-only arrays.
Radar systems generally work by connecting an antenna to a powerful radio transmitter to emit a short pulse of signal. The transmitter is then disconnected and the antenna is connected to a sensitive receiver which amplifies any echos from target objects. By measuring the time it takes for the signal to return, the radar receiver can determine the distance to the object. The receiver then sends the resulting output to a display of some sort. The transmitter elements were typically klystron tubes or magnetrons, which are suitable for amplifying or generating a narrow range of frequencies to high power levels. To scan a portion of the sky, the radar antenna must be physically moved to point in different directions.
Starting in the 1960s new solid-state devices capable of delaying the transmitter signal in a controlled way were introduced. That led to the first practical large-scale passive electronically scanned array, or simply phased array radar. PESAs took a signal from a single source, split it into hundreds of paths, selectively delayed some of them, and sent them to individual antennas. The radio signals from the separate antennas overlapped in space, and the interference patterns between the individual signals was controlled to reinforce the signal in certain directions, and mute it in all others. The delays could be easily controlled electronically, allowing the beam to be steered very quickly without moving the antenna. A PESA can scan a volume of space much quicker than a traditional mechanical system. Additionally, thanks to progress in electronics, PESAs added the ability to produce several active beams, allowing them to continue scanning the sky while at the same time focusing smaller beams on certain targets for tracking or guiding semi-active radar homing missiles. PESAs quickly became widespread on ships and large fixed emplacements in the 1960s, followed by airborne sensors as the electronics shrank.
List of PESA radars
- AN/FPQ-16 PARCS at Cavalier Air Force Station
- AN/SPQ-11 Cobra Judy
- AN/SPY-1 Aegis combat system
- AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder radars
- AN/APY-1/2 E-3 Sentry
- AN/APY-7 for Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS
- AN/APQ-164 B-1B (Northrop Grumman formerly Westinghouse ESG)
- AN/APQ-181 B-2 Spirit (initial version, now AESA)
- ELM-2026B VSHORAD
- Flap Lid and Tomb Stone for the SA-10 and SA-20 systems respectively
- Rajendra Radar
- Zaslon, first-ever electronically scanned radar in a fighter jet (MIG-31)
- N035 Irbis (see Sukhoi Su-35BM)
- RBE2 (Rafale)
- NIIP N011M Bars for SU-30MKI
- Leninets V004 (Su-34)
- OPS-12 naval radar