Sukhoi Su-30MKI

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Su-30MKI
SU-30MKI-g4sp - edit 2(clipped).jpg
An Indian Air Force Su-30MKI
Role Multirole Air superiority fighter
National origin Russia / India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (under licence from Sukhoi)
Design group Sukhoi Design Bureau
First flight IAF Su-30: 1 July 1997
Su-30MKI: 2000
Introduction 27 September 2002
Status In service
Primary user Indian Air Force
Produced Su-30MKI: 2000–present
Number built 194 as of March 2013[1]
Unit cost
INR4 billion (US$66 million)[2]
Developed from Sukhoi Su-30
Variants Sukhoi Su-30MKM

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI[3] (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a supermaneuverable air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter.

Development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets.[4] The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was accepted into the Indian Air Force in 2002,[5] while the first indigenously assembled Su-30MKI entered service with the IAF in 2004.[6] Additional MKIs have been ordered to increase the total to 272. The IAF had 194 Su-30MKIs in service as of March 2013.[1] The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond.[7]

The aircraft is tailor-made for Indian specifications and integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as French and Israeli subsystems.[8] It has abilities similar to the Sukhoi Su-35 with which it shares many features and components.[9][10]

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Su-30MKI was jointly designed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).[11] The MKI's airframe evolved from that of the Sukhoi Su-27 while most of the avionics were developed by India.[12] The Su-30MKI is reputed to be more advanced than the basic Su-30MK and the Chinese Su-30MKK/MK2. "The Indian Air Force's Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a generation ahead of Su-30MKK/MK2 fighters given to China."[13] Russia's Defense Ministry was impressed enough with the performance envelope of the variant to have ordered 30 Su-30SMs, a localized version of the Su-30MKI, for the Russian airforce.[14] It features state of the art avionics developed by Russia, India and Israel which includes display, navigation, targeting and electronic warfare systems.[15] Some avionics suites used in the aircraft were also sourced from France and South Africa.[16]

After two years of evaluation and negotiations, India signed a US$1.462 billion deal with the Sukhoi Corporation on 30 November 1996 for the delivery of 50 Su-30MKI aircraft in five batches. The first batch were eight Su-30MKs, the basic version of Su-30. The second batch were to be 10 Su-30Ks with French and Israeli avionics. The third batch were to be 10 Su-30MKIs featuring canard foreplanes. The fourth batch of 12 Su-30MKIs and final batch of 10 Su-30MKIs aircraft all were to have the AL-31FP turbofans. These 50 aircraft were made by Sukhoi in Russia.

In October 2000, a MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) was signed confirming the license production of 140+ Su-30MKIs in India and in December 2000, the deal was sealed at Russia's Irkutsk aircraft plant, with full technology transfer. The first Su-30MKIs from Nasik were to be delivered from 2004, with the staged production until 2017–18. However in November 2002, the delivery schedule was expedited with production to be completed by 2015.[17] An estimated 920 AL-31FP turbofans are to be manufactured at HAL's Koraput Division, while the mainframe and other accessories are to be manufactured at HAL's Divisions in Lucknow and Hyderabad. Final integration of the aircraft and its test flight are to be carried out at HAL's Nasik Division.[18] The MKI production was planned to be done in four phases, with increasing Indian content: Phase I, II, III and IV respectively. In phase I, HAL manufactured the aircraft from completely knocked-down kits, moving to semi knocked-down kits in phase II and III, with the phase IV featuring aircraft manufactured by HAL from raw materials. Phase IV aircraft started getting delivered in 2013.[19]

In 2007, another order of 40 Su-30MKIs was placed. In 2009, the planned fleet strength was to be 230 aircraft.[20] In 2008, Samtel HAL Display Systems (SHDS), a joint venture between Samtel Display Systems and HAL, won a contract to develop and manufacture multi-function avionics displays for the MKI.[21] A helmet mounted display, Topsight-I, based on technology from Thales and developed by SHDS will be integrated on the Su-30MKI in the next upgrade. In March 2010, it was reported that India and Russia were discussing a contract for 42 more Su-30MKIs.[22] In June 2010, it was reported that the Cabinet Committee on Security had cleared the INR150 billion (US$2.5 billion) deal and that the 42 aircraft would be in service by 2018.[23][24]

IAF Su-30MKI

By August 2010, the cost increased to $4.3 billion or $102 million each, comparable in cost to the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, but lacking in features such as stealth.[25] This increased unit cost compared to the previous unit cost of $40 million in 2007, has led to the rumours that these latest order of 42 Su-30MKIs are for the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) and these aircraft will be optimised and hardwired for nuclear weapons delivery. The SFC had previously submitted a proposal to the Indian Defence Ministry for setting up two dedicated squadrons of fighters consisting of 40 aircraft capable of delivering nuclear weapons.[26]

HAL also expects that indigenisation of the Su-30MKI program will be completed by 2010. V. Balakrishnan, general manager of the Aircraft Manufacturing Division stated that “HAL will achieve 100 per cent indigenisation of the Sukhoi aircraft – from the production of raw materials to the final plane assembly”.[27] As of January 2011, 142 Su-30MKIs had been delivered to the Indian Air Force.[28][verification needed] On 11 October 2012, the Indian Government confirmed plans to buy another 42 Su-30MKI aircraft.[29] On 24 December 2012, India ordered assembly kits for 42 Su-30MKIs by signing a deal during President Putin's visit to India.[30] This increases India's order total to 272 Su-30MKIs.[29]

Upgrades[edit]

In 2004 India inked a deal with Russia to domestically produce the Novator K-100 missile for its Su-30MKI fighters. The Novator K-100 missile is designed to shoot down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft[31] while keeping the launch platform out of range of any fighters that might be protecting the target.

Although not initially designed to carry nuclear or strategic weapons, the IAF will receive 40 upgraded Su-30MKIs capable of carrying the BrahMos cruise missile possibly by 2012.[32][33] In addition, there are also plans to integrate the nuclear-capable Nirbhay missile with the aircraft as well.[34] In May 2010, India Today reported that Russia had won a large contract to upgrade 40 Su-30MKI fighters with new radars, onboard computers, electronic warfare systems and the ability to carry the BrahMos missile. The first two prototypes with the 'Super-30' upgrade will be delivered to the Indian Air Force in 2012, after which the same upgrades will be performed on the last batch consisting of 40 production aircraft.[35] The exact value of the contract is undisclosed.[36][37]

The first test of the air-launched version of the Brahmos supersonic cruise missile, developed jointly by India and Russia, is planned to be conducted by December 2012. Two IAF Su-30MKI are be integrated with the aerial launcher by HAL. The Brahmos missiles integrated on the Su-30s will provide the capability to attack enemy formations from stand-off ranges of around 300 km.[38]

Su-30MKI taxies to the runway for take off at Aero India 2011, Yelahanka Air force base Bangalore.

India is planning to upgrade its Su-30MKI fighters with Russian Phazotron Zhuk-AE Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radars. The X-band radar can track 30 aerial targets in the track-while-scan mode and engage six targets simultaneously in attack mode. AESA technology offers improved performance and reliability compared with traditional mechanically scanned array radars.[39] Indian Defense Minister A.K Antony proposed several upgrades for the Su-30MKI to the Indian Parliament, which included fitting the fighters with Russian Phazotron Zhuk-AE AESA radars starting in 2012.[40]

During MMRCA trials the Zhuk-AE AESA radar demonstrated significant capabilities, including ground-mapping modes and the ability to detect, track and shoot at aerial targets. During demonstration flights, a MiG-35D destroyed an aerial drone with an air-to-air missile launched by an Indian pilot.[41] At the 2011 MAKS airshow, Irkut chairman Alexy Fedorov offered an upgrade package with an improved radar, and reduced radar signature to the Indian fleet to make them "Super Sukhois".[42] India has made a request for information to MBDA about integrating the Brimstone ground attack missile and the long-range Meteor air-to-air missile on their Su-30s.[43]

On 18 August 2010, Defence Minister Shri AK Antony stated the current estimated cost for the upgrade was INR109.2 billion (US$2 billion) and the aircraft are likely to be upgraded in phases beginning in 2012.[44]

An upgrade of earliest 80 Su-30MKIs involves equipping them with stand-off missiles with a range of 300 km. A request for information (ROI) has been issued for such a weapon system recently.[45]

Design[edit]

Airframe[edit]

Su-30MKI's canards and thrust-vectoring nozzles are two of the most prominent developments over the basic MK variant.[46]

The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and the brake parachute container. The fuselage head is of semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments and the avionics bay.

Cockpit and ergonomics[edit]

Flight control[edit]

Su-30MKI flying inverted

The aircraft has a fly by wire (FBW) with quadruple redundancy. Depending on the flight conditions, signals from the control stick position transmitter or the FCS may be coupled to the remote control amplifiers. These signals are combined with feedback signals fed by acceleration sensors and rate gyros. The resultant control signals are coupled to the high-speed electro-hydraulic actuators of the elevators, rudders and the canard. The output signals are compared and, if the difference is significant, the faulty channel is disconnected. FBW is based on a stall warning and barrier mechanism which prevents development of aircraft stalls through a dramatic increase in the control stick pressure. This allows a pilot to effectively control the aircraft without running the risk of reaching the limit values of angle of attack and acceleration. Although the maximum angle of attack is limited by the canards the FBW acts as an additional safety mechanism.

Phase 3 of further development of the MKI, will integrate avionic systems being developed for the Indo-Russian Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft program.[47]

General features[edit]

Nosewheel of the Su-30MKI showing that the drag brace on the Flankers is mounted externally and fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear leg.

The displays include a highly customized version of the Israeli Elbit Su 967 head-up display consisting of bi-cubic phase conjugated holographic displays and seven liquid crystal multifunction displays, six 127 mm x 127 mm and one 152 mm x 152 mm. The HUD was widely misreported to be the VEH 3000 from Thales. Variants of the same HUD have also been chosen for the IAF's Mikoyan MiG-27 and SEPECAT Jaguar upgrades, on grounds of standardization. Flight information is displayed on four LCD displays which include one for piloting and navigation, a tactical situation indicator, and two for display systems information including operating modes and overall operation status. The rear cockpit is fitted with a larger monochromatic screen display for the air-to-surface missile guidance. The Su-30MKI on-board health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) monitors almost every aircraft system and sub-system including the avionics sub-systems. It can also act as an engineering data recorder

Beginning in 2010, HUDs and Multi-Function Displays (MFD) will be provided by the Delhi-based Samtel Display Systems. These are indigenously designed and built and are not part of a joint foreign venture.[48]

Navigation[edit]

The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weather, day and night. The navigation complex includes the high accuracy SAGEM Sigma-95 integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.

Pilot ejection[edit]

The crew are provided with zero-zero K-36DM ejection seats. The rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit is provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and extra oxygen bottles. The K-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30°, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat.

Aerodynamics[edit]

Two Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvre

Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is an unstable longitudinal triplane. The canard increases the aircraft lifting ability and deflects automatically to allow high angle-of-attack (AoA) flights allowing it to perform Pugachev's Cobra. The integral aerodynamic configuration combined with thrust vectoring results in extremely capable manoeuvrability, taking off and landing characteristics. This high agility allows rapid deployment of weapons in any direction as desired by the crew. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles-of-attack and bringing it to a level flight condition.

Radar[edit]

The forward-facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated passive electronically scanned array radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar.[49] The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. N011M has a 400 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere.[50] The radar can track 15 air targets and engage 4 simultaneously.[50] These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su-30MKI can function as a mini-AWACS as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least four other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 40–50 km.[50] The Bars radar will be replaced by Zhuk-AESA in all Su-30MKI aircraft.[51][52]

Avionics[edit]

OLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.
IAF Sukhoi 30 MKI with tilted forward horizontal stabilizers (canards) at static display Aero India 2013

Laser-optical locator system[edit]

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system includes a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broad waveband sensor. Detection range is up to 90 km, whilst the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar.

LITENING targeting pod[edit]

Israeli LITENING targeting pod is used to target laser guided munitions. Litening incorporates in a single pod all the targeting features required by a modern strike fighter. The original Litening pod includes a long range FLIR, a TV camera, a flash-lamp powered laser designator, laser spot tracker for tracking target designated by other aircraft or from the ground, and an electro-optical point and inertial tracker, which enables continuous engagement of the target even when the target is partly obscured by clouds or countermeasures. The pod integrates the necessary laser rangefinder and designator required for the delivery of laser-guided bombs, cluster and general purpose bomb.[citation needed]

Electronic countermeasures[edit]

Sukhoi Su-30MKI has electronic counter-measure systems. The RWR system is of Indian design, developed by India's DRDO, called Tarang, (Wave in English). It has direction finding capability and is known to have a programmable threat library. The RWR is derived from work done on an earlier system for India's MiG-23BNs known as the Tranquil, which is now superseded by the more advanced Tarang series. Elta EL/M-8222 a self-protection jammer developed by Israel Aircraft Industries is the MKI's standard EW pod, which the Israeli Air Force uses on its F-15s. The ELTA El/M-8222 Self Protection Pod is a power-managed jammer, air-cooled system with an ESM receiver integrated into the pod. The pod contains an antenna on the forward and aft ends, which receive the hostile RF signal and after processing deliver the appropriate response.

Propulsion[edit]

Tail section of the Su-30MKI, the deflected nozzles, and the horizontal stabilizer.

The Su-30MKI is powered by the two Al-31FP turbofans, each rated at 12,500 kgf (27,550 lbf) of full afterburning thrust. These by-pass, thrust-vectoring engines push the aircraft up to mach two in horizontal flight (about 2450 km/h at ground-level) and give a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The mean time between overhaul for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a mean time between overhaul of 500 hours. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in two planes. The thrust vectoring nozzles of the MKI are mounted 32 degrees outward to longitudinal engine axis (i.e. in the horizontal plane) and can be deflected ±15 degrees in one plane. The canting allows the aircraft to produce both roll and yaw by vectoring each engine nozzle differently; this allows the aircraft to create thrust vectoring moments about all three rotational axes, pitch, yaw and roll. There is no strain-gauge engine control stick to change the engine thrust in the cockpit, rather just a conventional engine throttle control lever. The pilot controls the aircraft with help of a standard control stick. On the pilot's right there is a switch which is turned on for performing difficult manoeuvres. After the switch-over, the computer determines the level of use of aerodynamic surfaces and swiveling nozzles and their required deflection angles.[53]

Fuel system[edit]

The Su-30MKI has a range of 3,000 km with internal fuel which ensures a 3.75 hour combat mission. Also, it has an in-flight refueling (IFR) probe that retracts beside the cockpit during normal operation. The air refueling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 8,000 km at a cruise height of 11 to 13 km.[citation needed] Su-30MKIs can also use the Cobham 754 buddy refueling pods.[54][55]

Operational history[edit]

IAF Su-30MKI jet touches down at Mountain Home Air Force Base during Red Flag exercise.

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s.[56] The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral air exercises. India exercised its Su-30MKIs against the Royal Air Force's Tornado ADVs in October 2006.[57] This was the first large-scale bilateral aerial exercise with any foreign air force during which the IAF used its Su-30MKIs extensively. This exercise was also the first in 43 years with the RAF. During the exercise, the RAF Air Chief Marshal Glenn Torpy was given permission by the IAF to fly the MKI.[58]

In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such an exercise.[59][60] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars.[61] Also in the exercise were RAF Tornado F3s and a Hawk. RAF Tornado pilots were candid in their admission of the Su-30MKI's superior manoeuvring in the air, and the IAF pilots were impressed by the Typhoon's agility.[62]

India sent Su-30MKs, an earlier variant of the Su-30MKI, to take part in war games with the United States Air Force (USAF) during Cope-India 04 in 2004. The results have been widely publicized, with the Indians winning "90% of the mock combat missions" against the USAF's F-15C. However, the parameters of the exercise favored the IAF.[63][64]

In July 2008, the IAF sent 6 Su-30MKIs and 2 Il-78MKI aerial-refueling tankers, to participate in the Red Flag exercise.[65] The IAF again did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars. In October 2008, a video surfaced on the internet which featured a USAF colonel, Corkey Fornoff, criticizing Su-30MKI's performance against the F-15C, engine serviceability issues, and high friendly kill rate during the Red Flag exercise.[66][67] Several of his claims were later rebutted by the Indian side and the USAF also distanced itself from his remarks.[68][69]

In June 2010, India and France began the fourth round of their joint air exercises, "Garuda", at the Istres Air Base in France. During Garuda, the IAF and the French Air Force were engaged in various missions ranging from close combat engagement of large forces, slow mover protection, protecting and engaging high value aerial assets. This exercise marked the first time the Su-30MKI took part in a military exercise in France.[70]

The Indian Air Force first took part in the U.S. Air Force's Red Flag exercise in 2008. Participating in Red Flag costs the IAF INR 1 billion (US$17.5 million) each time. To reduce costs, the IAF decided to take part once every five years. The IAF is taking part in the Red Flag exercise in July 2013, at Nellis US Air Force Base, Nevada, U.S. For the exercise, it is dispatching 8 Su-30MKIs, 2 C-130J tactical aircraft, 2 IL-78 mid-air refueling tankers, 1 IL-76 heavy-lift aircraft, and over 150 personnel.[71]

The IAF again fielded its MKIs in the Garuda-5 exercise with France in 2014.

Operators[edit]

Indian Air Force Sukhoi Su-30MKI
 India

Indian Air Force bases with Su-30MKIs[edit]

  • Bareilly AFS: 15 Wing's 8 Eight Pursoots (since mid-2007) & 24 Hunting Hawks sqns with Su-30MKI (since late 2003, and since early 2009 four of its Su-30MKIs have been tasked with strategic reconnaissance along the Sino-Indian LAC with EL/M-2060P SAR pod)
  • Bhatinda AFS: 34 Wing – 17 SQN Golden Arrows with Su-30MKI (since June 2012)
  • Chabua AFS: 14 Wing – 102 SQN Trisonics with Su-30MKI (since 8 March 2011)
  • Halwara AFS: 34 Wing – 220 SQN Desert Tigers with Su-30MKI (since 25 September 2012)
  • Jodhpur AFS: 32 Wing – 31 SQN Lions with Su-30MKI (since 1 October 2011)
  • Pune/Lohegaon AFS: 2 Wing – 20 SQN Lightning (since 27 September 2002) and 30 SQN Rhinos with Su-30MKI (since 21 March 2005)
  • Tezpur AFS: 11 Wing – 2 SQN Winged Arrows with Su-30MKI (since 15 June 2009)

Future deployments[edit]

The above squadrons will in future be joined by:

  • Bhuj AFS: 27 Wing's 15 Flying Lancers Sqn to begin converting to Su-30MKI in December 2012 and four Su-30MKIs will be tasked with strategic reconnaissance along the India-Pakistan borders with EL/M-2060P SAR pod.
  • Sirsa AFS: 45 Wing's 21 Ankush sqn (now with MiG-21 Bisons, will convert to Su-30MKI by the year's end and four of its Su-30MKIs will be tasked with strategic reconnaissance along the India-Pakistan borders with EL/M-2060P SAR pod.
  • Kalaikunda AFS: 5 Wing's 18 Flying Bullets sqn will begin converting to Su-30MKI by June 2013.
  • Hashimara AFS: 16 Wing's 222 Tigersharks sqn will begin converting to Su-30MKI by June 2013.
  • Thanjavur AFS: The Defence minister inaugurate the new air base at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu on 27 May 2013. Deployment of a squadron of 16–18 Su-30MKIs will begin in 2017.[74]

In addition to the above, Sulur AFS will get Su-30MKI aircraft in 2016.[75]

Accidents[edit]

A Su-30MKI aircraft crashed on 30 April 2009 in the Pokhran region of Rajasthan, at Rajmathai village, around 170 km from Jaisalmer, after it took off from Pune during a routine sortie, killing one of its two pilots. Defence minister A. K. Antony, stated that the likely cause of the crash was "failure of the fly-by-wire system". The Sukhoi fleet was then grounded for around three weeks.[17] However it was found that the crash was caused by the incorrect position of critical switches behind the pilots and outside their field of view. The aircraft crashed when a critical switch was toggled disabling the Flight control system. Wing Commander PS Nara was killed in the mishap, while Wing Commander SV Munje was injured. Critical switches identified by the accident investigators were inhibited.[76]

Another Su-30MKI crashed on 30 November 2009 in Jathegaon, about 40 km from Jaisalmer after a fire warning.[17] Both aircrew ejected safely. As a result the entire fleet of Su-30MKIs was grounded while the cause of the problem was investigated. It was attributed to accidental ingestion of a foreign material in the engine intake.[77][78]

A Su-30MKI crashed around 1:30 pm on 13 December 2011; both the pilots ejected safely. The aircraft had taken off from the Lohegaon Indian Air Force Base near Pune, crashing at Wade-Bholai village, 20 kilometres from Pune. Preliminary reports said that the crash was due to a malfunction in the fly-by-wire system. Wing Commander Gurkirat Singh Sohal, the pilot of the plane was conferred with the Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry).[79]

An IAF Su-30MKI crashed at the Pokhran range during the rehearsal of the Iron Fist Exercise on 19 February 2013 at about 1920h. The aircraft was on a night flying training mission. Just after completing the mission, the aircraft's right wing exploded, both the pilots ejected safely and there was no damage to any property or life on ground. A Court of Inquiry was ordered to investigate the crash,[80][81] and later, the WSO Wing Commander Vikram Singh Chauhan was awarded the Vayusena Medal (Gallantry) for his act of exceptional courage.[82]

Specifications (Su-30MKI)[edit]

Brahmos missile under Su-30MKI maquette at MAKS-2009

Data from KNAAPO,[83] and Sukhoi[84]

General characteristics

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.35[86] (2,500 km/h or 1,550 mph[86]) at altitude; 1,350 km/h, 839 mph near ground level[83]
  • Range: 3,000 km (1,620 nmi) at altitude; (1,270 km, 690 nmi near ground level; with no external fuel tanks)
  • Endurance: 3.75 hrs (up to 10 hrs with in-flight refueling)
  • Service ceiling: 17,300 m (56,800 ft)
  • Rate of climb: >300 m/s (>45,275 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 401 kg/m² (82.3 lb/ft²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.00 (loaded weight with 56% internal fuel)
  • Maximum g-load: +9 g

Armament

  • Guns: 1 × GSh-30-1 gun (30 mm caliber, 150 rounds)

12 hardpoints: 2 × wing-tip AAM launch rails, 6 × pylons under-wing, 2 × pylon under-engine nacelle, and 2 × pylons in tandem in the "arch" between the engines. It can be increased to 14 using multiple ejector racks. It can carry up to 8 tonnes of external stores.

Air-to-air Missiles:

  • 10 × R-77 (AA-12) active radar homing medium range AAM, 100 km
  • 10 × Astra missile active radar homing medium range AAM, 80–110 km
  • 6 × R-27ER (AA-10C) semi-active radar guided, long range AAM 130 km
  • 6 × R-27ET (AA-10D) Infrared homing extended range version, long range AAM 120 km
  • 2 × R-27R (AA-10A) semi-active radar guided, medium range AAM, 80 km
  • 2 × R-27T (AA-10B) infrared homing seeker, medium range AAM, 70 km
  • 6 × R-73 (AA-11) short range AAM, 30 km
  • 3 × Novator KS-172 AAM-L 400 km, Indian/Russian air-to-air missile designed as an "AWACS killer"

Air-to-surface Missiles:

Bombs:

See also[edit]

Related development
Related lists

References[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Ajai Shukla. "HAL pegs price of Tejas fighter at Rs 162 crore". Business Standard. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  3. ^ MKI stands for Russian Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Indiski ([Cyrillic]: Модернизированный Коммерческий Индийский), or "Modernized Commercial for India".
  4. ^ "India to build Russian fighters." BBC News, 28 December 2000. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
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  9. ^ A close cousin of the Su-30MKI is the Malaysian version, the Su-30MKK.
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  12. ^ "Orders For Su-30MKI Fighters Top $5 Billions." Intell.rtaf.mi.th, 4 December 2008. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
  13. ^ "Russia should help India in developing n-triad: expert." News.in.msn.com. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
  14. ^ "Sukhoi Su-30SM An Indian Gift to Russia’s Air Force." en.ria.ru. Retrieved: 30 September 2012.
  15. ^ Malhotra, Jyoti. "Delhi tightrope on Israel red carpet." The Indian Express, 20 August 2003. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
  16. ^ "PIB Press Release." Pib.nic.in. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
  17. ^ a b c "Day after crash, IAF grounds Sukhoi fleet for checks." The Times of India, 2 December 2009.
  18. ^ "Sukhoi Su-30 MKI [Flanker." Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved: 16 December 2010.
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Citations[edit]

  • Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9. 
  • Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London: Airlife Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-84037-029-7. 

External links[edit]