|Country of origin||Italy|
|Source of milk||Sheep|
Of the four main varieties of Pecorino, all of which have Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status under European Union law, Pecorino Romano is probably the best known outside Italy, especially in the United States, which has been an important export market for the cheese since the 19th century. Most Pecorino Romano is produced on the island of Sardinia, though its production is also allowed in Lazio and in the Tuscan Province of Grosseto.
The other four mature PDO cheeses are the Pecorino Sardo from Sardinia; Pecorino Toscano, whose production was already attested by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History; Pecorino Siciliano (or Picurinu Sicilianu in Sicilian) from Sicily and Pecorino of Filiano from Basilicata.
All come in a variety of styles depending on how long they have been aged. The more matured cheeses, referred to as stagionato ("seasoned" or "aged" ), are harder but still crumbly in texture and have decidedly buttery and nutty flavours. The other two types semi-stagionato and fresco have a softer texture and milder cream and milk tastes.
In Southern Italy, it is traditional to add black peppercorns or red chilli flakes to Pecorino, producing what is called Pecorino Pepato (literally, "peppered Pecorino"). Today many other additions are made, for example walnuts or rucola or tiny pieces of white or black truffle. In Sardinia, the larvae of the cheese fly are intentionally introduced into Pecorino Sardo to produce a local delicacy called casu marzu.
A good Pecorino Stagionato is often the finish of a meal, served with pears and walnuts or drizzled with strong chestnut honey. Pecorino is also often used to finish pasta dishes, and used to be the natural choice for most Italian regions from Umbria down to Sicily, rather than the more expensive Parmigiano-Reggiano. It is still preferred today for the pasta dishes of Rome and Lazio, for example Pasta dressed with sugo all'amatriciana, Pasta Cacio e pepe, and Pasta alla Gricia.
- pecorino, n. OED Online. December 2013. Oxford University Press. Accessed 7 January 2014.
- Export statistics from the producers’ consortium
- Pecorino Toscano Consortium for the Protection of Tuscan Pecorino (in Italian)
- Guide to PDO and PGI products: Pecorino of Filiano
- Media related to Pecorino at Wikimedia Commons