Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the central regions of the Perseus galaxy cluster. Image is 284 arcsec across. RA 03h 19m 47.60s Dec +41° 30' 37.00" in Perseus. Observation dates: 13 pointings between August 8, 2002 and October 20, 2004. Color code: Energy (Red 0.3-1.2 keV, Green 1.2-2 keV, Blue 2-7 keV). Instrument: ACIS.
Credit: NASA/CXC/IoA/A.Fabian et al.
|Observation data (Epoch J2000)|
|Right ascension||03hh 18m|
|Brightest member||NGC 1275|
|Number of galaxies||190|
|Redshift||0.01790 (5 366 km/s)|
|73.6 Mpc (240.05 Mly) h−1
|X-ray flux||9.1×10−11 erg s-1 cm-2 (2—10 keV)|
|Abell 426, NGC 1275 Cluster, LGG 88|
The Perseus Cluster (Abell 426) is a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Perseus. It has a recession speed of 5,366 km/s and a diameter of 863′. It is one of the most massive objects in the universe, containing thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of multimillion degree gas.
X-radiation from the cluster 
The detection of X-ray emission from Per XR-1 occurred during an Aerobee rocket flight on March 1, 1970, the source may be associated with NGC 1275 (Per A, 3C 84), and was reported in 1971. If the source is NGC 1275, Lx ~4 x 1045 ergs/s. More detailed observations from Uhuru confirmed the earlier detection and associated the source with the Perseus cluster. Per X-1 is the galaxy cluster at 4U 0316+41 designated the Perseus Cluster, Abell 426, and NGC 1275.
The galaxy cluster is the brightest cluster in the sky when observed in the X-ray band.
The cluster contains the radio source 3C 84 that is currently blowing bubbles of relativistic plasma into the core of the cluster. These are seen as holes in an X-ray image of the cluster, as they push away the X-ray emitting gas. They are known as radio bubbles, because they appear as emitters of radio waves due to the relativistic particles in the bubble. The galaxy NGC 1275 is located at the centre of the cluster, where the X-ray emission is brightest.
In 2003, astronomers detected the deepest note ever detected by mankind in the cosmos, a B♭, after 53 hours of Chandra observations. No human will actually hear the note, because its time period between oscillations is 9.6 million years, which is 57 octaves below the keys in the middle of a piano. The radio waves appear to be generated by the inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma by the central active galactic nucleus in NGC 1275. They are visible as ripples in the X-ray band using Chandra X-ray Observatory, as the X-ray brightness of the intracluster medium that fills the cluster is strongly dependent on the density of the plasma.
See also 
- "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Perseus Cluster. Retrieved 2006-11-28.
- Abell, George O.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.; Olowin, Ronald P. (May 1989). "A catalog of rich clusters of galaxies" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 70 (May 1989): 1–138. Bibcode:1989ApJS...70....1A. doi:10.1086/191333. ISSN 0067-0049. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Fritz G, Davidsen A, Meekins JF, Friedman H (Mar 1971). "Discovery of an X-ray source in Perseus". Ap J. 164 (3): L81–5. Bibcode:1971ApJ...164L..81F. doi:10.1086/180697.
- Forman, et al. (1972). Missing or empty
- Edge AC, Stewart GC, Fabian AC (1992). "Properties of cooling flows in a flux limited sample of clusters of galaxies". MNRAS 258: 177. Bibcode:1992MNRAS.258..177E.
- Fabian A.C., et al., A Deep Chandra observation of the Perseus cluster: shocks and ripples, 2003, MNRAS, 344, L43
- The galaxy cluster Abell 426 (Perseus). A catalogue of 660 galaxy positions, isophotal magnitudes and morphological types, Brunzendorf, J.; Meusinger, H., Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement, v.139, p. 141-161, 1999.
- Space.com article about "Sound of a Black Hole." in the Perseus Cluster
- The Perseus Cluster on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky Map, Articles and images
- Astronomy picture of the day (APOD) talking about sound waves in Perseus, earlier APOD
- Much better version of Perseus Cluster posted on Apod on July-12-2011
- Fabian, A.C., et al. A deep Chandra observation of the Perseus cluster: shocks and ripples. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Vol. 344 (2003): L43 (arXiv:astro-ph/0306036v2).