|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2014)|
|This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (April 2014)|
|Native name||Empresa Pública de Hidrocarburos del Ecuador|
|Type||Government-owned (Empresa Pública)|
|Industry||Oil and gas|
|Predecessor(s)||Corporación Estatal Petrolera Ecuatoriana|
|Founded||Quito, Ecuador (September 26, 1989 )|
refined oil products
Petroecuador is a state-owned enterprise, founded on September 26, 1989. It is the successor to Corporación Estatal Petrolera Ecuatoriana (CEPE) which was formed in 1972.
Petroecuador is engaged in the exploration, production, storage, refining of crude oil and retailing petroleum products. It operates through subsidiaries, such as Petroproduccion (exploration and production), Petroindustrial (refining), and Petrocomercial (transportation and marketing of refined products). The company operates several oil fields, including Shushufindi, Sacha, Auca, Lago Agrio, and Libertador. It also operates the Trans-Ecuadorian oil pipeline network, Sistema de Oleoducto Transecuatoriano (SOTE), built in 1972 for Texaco-Gulf.
Petroecuador owns three petroleum refineries in Ecuador:
- Esmeraldas Refinery, 110,000 barrels per day (17,000 m3/d) (start-up 1978)
- La Libertad Refinery, 45,000 barrels per day (7,200 m3/d)
- Shushufindi Refinery, 20,000 barrels per day (3,200 m3/d)
The company's marketing network includes 148 Petrocomercial service stations.
Petroecuador has been the subject of controversy over the impact of exploration and pipeline operations on the environment and Huaorani and Cofan indigenous peoples within the Amazon basin in Ecuador's Oriente (eastern) region. In 1964 oil drilling operations began to take place in previously roadless rainforest, carried out by a joint venture between Petroecuador and Texaco.[dubious ]
Advocacy groups such as Amazon Watch and ChevronToxico have attempted to document the oil spills, ecological damage and human impacts of these operations. Prof. Judith Kimerling of CUNY School of Law in 1991 published a book Amazon Crude (ISBN 0960935851) which details many of these problems.[clarification needed]
Petroecuador has been the sole owner and operator of the oil facilities since 1990. In 2000–2008, the company was responsible for 1,415 oil spills. Petroecuador has also failed to clean up sites that were its responsibility under the joint venture. Comparable national companies like Petrobras, Petro-Canada, Statoil and Qatar Petroleum have much higher environmental standards.
Between the years 1964 and 1992 the Texaco Corporation and years later Petroecuador carried on intensive oil operations in the northeastern region of the Ecuadorian Amazon. These operations affected indigenous and non-indigenous local livelihoods in the area by impairing the ecological functions and biodiversity of thousands of acres of land. Today the effects of these operations have been investigated and through the dumping crude in open pits, burying oil extraction byproducts, and burning unwanted oil without proper treatment, cancer rates amongst indigenous and non-indigenous residence has increased dramatically with in a ten year time period. As oil weathers, contamination occurs as aromatic compounds are released and invade surrounding aquifers.
- Santacruz, Silvia (2009-07-21). "Toxic Revenge". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Ecuadorian Farce". Latin Business Chronicle. 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Sawyer, Suzana. “Crude Chronicles.” Durham and London: Duke University Press,2004. 1-294.
- Dematteis L. Photo Essay: Crude Reflections from the Amazon. Yes! Magazine [serial on the Internet]. 2011 May 4 [cited 2012 January 5]; Available from: http://www.yesmagazine.org/planet/photo-essay-crude-reflections-from-the-amazon-1
- O’Reilly K, Thorsen W. Impact of Crude Oil Weathering on the Calculated Effective Solubility of Aromatic Compounds: Evaluation of Soils from Ecuadorian Oil Fields, Soil and Sediment Contamination 2010; 19 (4): 391-404.