Pholidosauridae

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Pholidosaurids
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic - Late Cretaceous, 167.7–89.3Ma
Pholidosaurus.jpg
Pholidosaurus meyeri fossil at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Crocodylomorpha
Clade: Neosuchia
Suborder: Tethysuchia
Family: Pholidosauridae
Zittel and Eastman, 1902

Pholidosauridae is an extinct family of aquatic neosuchian mesoeucrocodylian crocodylomorphs. Fossils have been found in Europe (Denmark, England, France, Germany, Spain and Sweden), Africa (Algeria, Niger, Mali, Morocco and Tunisia), North America (Canada and the United States) and South America (Brazil and Uruguay). The pholidosaurids first appeared in the fossil record during the Bathonian stage of the Middle Jurassic and went extinct during the Late Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous.[1]

Sarcosuchus, informally known as "SuperCroc" is one of the best known pholidosaurs. It is believed to have attained lengths of up to 12 meters and weighed up to 8 tonnes. One genus, Suchosaurus, once thought to be a pholidosaur,[2] has since been shown to be a spinosaurid theropod dinosaur.[3]

Phylogeny[edit]

Pholidosauridae is usually considered to be most closely related to the Dyrosauridae. However, the relationship between these families isn't fully understood. Pholidosauridae might be monophyletic,[1] paraphyletic[4] or even a polyphyletic[5] in relation to Dyrosauridae. For example, Fortier, Perea & Schultz (2011) found the family to be monophyletic, and include to main lineages: the ElosuchusMeridiosaurus lineage and the Pholidosaurus lineage. The cladogram below shows their phylogenetic analysis, which is based on an expanded version of Pol and Gasparini (2009) analysis.[1]

Neosuchia
Atoposauridae

Alligatorium



Theriosuchus pusillus






Goniopholididae




Bernissartia fagesii



Eusuchia






Thalattosuchia



Pholidosauridae


Pholidosaurus purbeckensis




Sarcosuchus imperator



Terminonaris robusta






Oceanosuchus boecensis




Elosuchus cherifiensis



Meridiosaurus vallisparadisi





Dyrosauridae

Sokotosuchus ianwilsoni




Dyrosaurus phosphaticus



Hyposaurus rogersii



Rhabdognathus








de Andrade et al. (2011) recovered a paraphyletic traditional Pholidosauridae. In their analysis the "Elosuchus lineage" was found to be basal to the "Pholidosaurus lineage"+Dyrosauridae. They used the name Elosuchidae for the Elosuchus lineage and restricted Pholidosauridae to its type genus. The following cladogram simplified after their analysis.[4]

Neosuchia
Atoposauridae

Theriosuchus pusillus



Theriosuchus guimarotae






Rugosuchus




Bernissartia



Eusuchia






Stolokrosuchus




Goniopholididae




Thalattosuchia


Tethysuchia
Elosuchidae


Sarcosuchus hartti



Sarcosuchus imperator





Vectisuchus



Elosuchus





Pholidosauridae

Pholidosaurus schaumburgensis


Dyrosauridae

Congosaurus



Guarinisuchus




Dyrosaurus maghribensis



Dyrosaurus phosphaticus











References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Daniel Fortier, Daniel Perea and Cesar Schultz (2011). "Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Meridiosaurus vallisparadisi, a pholidosaurid from the Late Jurassic of Uruguay". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (s1): S66–S108. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00709.x. 
  2. ^ Carroll, R.L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. WH Freeman and Company, New York ISBN 0-7167-1822-7
  3. ^ Buffetaut, E. (2007). "The spinosaurid dinosaur Baryonyx (Saurischia, Theropoda) in the Early Cretaceous of Portugal." Geological Magazine, 144(6): 1021-1025.
  4. ^ a b Marco Brandalise de Andrade, Richard Edmonds, Michael J. Benton and Remmert Schouten (2011). "A new Berriasian species of Goniopholis (Mesoeucrocodylia, Neosuchia) from England, and a review of the genus". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (s1): S66–S108. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00709.x. 
  5. ^ Bronzati, M.; Montefeltro, F. C.; Langer, M. C. (2012). "A species-level supertree of Crocodyliformes". Historical Biology: 1. doi:10.1080/08912963.2012.662680.  edit

External links[edit]